Abstract

A multilayer laminar-type holographic grating having an average groove density of 2400lines/mm is designed and fabricated for use with a soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph covering the 0.700.75  nm region. A varied-line-spaced groove pattern is generated by the use of an aspheric wavefront recording system, and laminar-type grooves are formed by a reactive ion-etching method. Mo/SiO2 multilayers optimized for the emission lines of Hf-M, Si-K, and W-M are deposited on one of the three designated areas on the grating surface in tandem. The measured first-order diffraction efficiencies at the respective centers of the areas are 18%–20%. The flat-field spectrograph equipped with the grating indicates a spectral linewidth of 814  eV for the emission spectra generated from electron-impact x-ray sources.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (2)

2005 (1)

P. A. Heimann, M. Koike, and H. A. Padmore, "Dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with gratings above 2 keV," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Observation of strong soft-x-ray amplification at 8.8 nm in the transient collisional-excitation scheme," Phys. Rev. A 69, 033805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Imazono, Y. Hirayama, S. Ichikura, O. Kitakami, M. Yanagihara, and M. Watanabe, "Interdiffused layers in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers studied by soft-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 4334-4337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Koike, K. Sano, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, and H. Kumata, "Performance of laminar-type holographic grating for a soft-x-ray flat field spectrograph in the 0.7-6 nm region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1156-1158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft-x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, Y. Harada, O. Yoda, M. Ishino, K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, M. Jinno, and T. Namioka, "New type of Monk-Gillieson monochromator capable of covering a 0.7-25 nm range," Proc. SPIE 4782, 300-307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Haradad, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, "Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 4146, 163-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. Ishiguro, K. Yamashita, H. Ohashi, M. Sakurai, O. Aita, M. Watanabe, K. Sano, M. Koeda, and T. Nagano, "Fabrication and characterization of reactive ion beam etched SiC gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1439-1442 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. K. Warburton, "On the diffraction properties of multilayer coated plane gratings," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 291, 278-285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

T. B. Massalski, Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams (American Society for Metals, 1986).

1984 (1)

1980 (1)

Aita, O.

E. Ishiguro, K. Yamashita, H. Ohashi, M. Sakurai, O. Aita, M. Watanabe, K. Sano, M. Koeda, and T. Nagano, "Fabrication and characterization of reactive ion beam etched SiC gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1439-1442 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Daido, H.

T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Observation of strong soft-x-ray amplification at 8.8 nm in the transient collisional-excitation scheme," Phys. Rev. A 69, 033805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

M. Koike, K. Sano, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, and H. Kumata, "Performance of laminar-type holographic grating for a soft-x-ray flat field spectrograph in the 0.7-6 nm region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1156-1158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft-x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Haradad, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, "Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 4146, 163-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

M. Ishino, P. A. Heimann, H. Sasai, M. Hatakeyama, H. Takenaka, K. Sano, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Koike, "Multilayer laminar-type diffraction gratings achieving high diffraction efficiencies in the 1-8 keV region," Appl. Opt. 45, 6741-6745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harada, T.

Harada, Y.

M. Koike, K. Sano, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, and H. Kumata, "Performance of laminar-type holographic grating for a soft-x-ray flat field spectrograph in the 0.7-6 nm region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1156-1158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft-x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, Y. Harada, O. Yoda, M. Ishino, K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, M. Jinno, and T. Namioka, "New type of Monk-Gillieson monochromator capable of covering a 0.7-25 nm range," Proc. SPIE 4782, 300-307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haradad, Y.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Haradad, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, "Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 4146, 163-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, N.

T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Observation of strong soft-x-ray amplification at 8.8 nm in the transient collisional-excitation scheme," Phys. Rev. A 69, 033805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hatakeyama, M.

Heimann, P. A.

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hirayama, Y.

T. Imazono, Y. Hirayama, S. Ichikura, O. Kitakami, M. Yanagihara, and M. Watanabe, "Interdiffused layers in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers studied by soft-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 4334-4337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ichikura, S.

T. Imazono, Y. Hirayama, S. Ichikura, O. Kitakami, M. Yanagihara, and M. Watanabe, "Interdiffused layers in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers studied by soft-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 4334-4337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Imazono, T.

T. Imazono, Y. Hirayama, S. Ichikura, O. Kitakami, M. Yanagihara, and M. Watanabe, "Interdiffused layers in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers studied by soft-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 4334-4337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Haradad, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, "Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 4146, 163-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ishiguro, E.

E. Ishiguro, K. Yamashita, H. Ohashi, M. Sakurai, O. Aita, M. Watanabe, K. Sano, M. Koeda, and T. Nagano, "Fabrication and characterization of reactive ion beam etched SiC gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1439-1442 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, S.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Haradad, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, "Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 4146, 163-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ishino, M.

M. Ishino, P. A. Heimann, H. Sasai, M. Hatakeyama, H. Takenaka, K. Sano, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Koike, "Multilayer laminar-type diffraction gratings achieving high diffraction efficiencies in the 1-8 keV region," Appl. Opt. 45, 6741-6745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Koike, K. Sano, Y. Harada, O. Yoda, M. Ishino, K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, M. Jinno, and T. Namioka, "New type of Monk-Gillieson monochromator capable of covering a 0.7-25 nm range," Proc. SPIE 4782, 300-307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft-x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jinno, M.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft-x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, Y. Harada, O. Yoda, M. Ishino, K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, M. Jinno, and T. Namioka, "New type of Monk-Gillieson monochromator capable of covering a 0.7-25 nm range," Proc. SPIE 4782, 300-307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Observation of strong soft-x-ray amplification at 8.8 nm in the transient collisional-excitation scheme," Phys. Rev. A 69, 033805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, T.

T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Observation of strong soft-x-ray amplification at 8.8 nm in the transient collisional-excitation scheme," Phys. Rev. A 69, 033805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawana, M.

M. Terauchi and M. Kawana, "Soft-x-ray emission spectroscopy based on TEM-toward a total electronic structure analysis," Ultramicroscopy 106, 1069-1075 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kishimoto, M.

T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Observation of strong soft-x-ray amplification at 8.8 nm in the transient collisional-excitation scheme," Phys. Rev. A 69, 033805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kita, T.

Kitakami, O.

T. Imazono, Y. Hirayama, S. Ichikura, O. Kitakami, M. Yanagihara, and M. Watanabe, "Interdiffused layers in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers studied by soft-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 4334-4337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koeda, M.

E. Ishiguro, K. Yamashita, H. Ohashi, M. Sakurai, O. Aita, M. Watanabe, K. Sano, M. Koeda, and T. Nagano, "Fabrication and characterization of reactive ion beam etched SiC gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1439-1442 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Koike, M.

M. Ishino, P. A. Heimann, H. Sasai, M. Hatakeyama, H. Takenaka, K. Sano, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Koike, "Multilayer laminar-type diffraction gratings achieving high diffraction efficiencies in the 1-8 keV region," Appl. Opt. 45, 6741-6745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Heimann, M. Koike, and H. A. Padmore, "Dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with gratings above 2 keV," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Observation of strong soft-x-ray amplification at 8.8 nm in the transient collisional-excitation scheme," Phys. Rev. A 69, 033805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, and H. Kumata, "Performance of laminar-type holographic grating for a soft-x-ray flat field spectrograph in the 0.7-6 nm region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1156-1158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft-x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, Y. Harada, O. Yoda, M. Ishino, K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, M. Jinno, and T. Namioka, "New type of Monk-Gillieson monochromator capable of covering a 0.7-25 nm range," Proc. SPIE 4782, 300-307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Haradad, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, "Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 4146, 163-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Namioka and M. Koike, "Aspheric wavefront recording optics for holographic gratings," Appl. Opt. 34, 2180-2186 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Koike and T. Namioka, "A merit function for the design of grating instruments," Appl. Opt. 33, 2048-2056 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumata, H.

M. Koike, K. Sano, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, and H. Kumata, "Performance of laminar-type holographic grating for a soft-x-ray flat field spectrograph in the 0.7-6 nm region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1156-1158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

Massalski, T. B.

T. B. Massalski, Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams (American Society for Metals, 1986).

Miyata, N.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Haradad, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, "Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 4146, 163-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moriya, N.

M. Koike, K. Sano, Y. Harada, O. Yoda, M. Ishino, K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, M. Jinno, and T. Namioka, "New type of Monk-Gillieson monochromator capable of covering a 0.7-25 nm range," Proc. SPIE 4782, 300-307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft-x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mrowka, S.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft-x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Haradad, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, "Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 4146, 163-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, S.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Haradad, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, "Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 4146, 163-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nagano, T.

E. Ishiguro, K. Yamashita, H. Ohashi, M. Sakurai, O. Aita, M. Watanabe, K. Sano, M. Koeda, and T. Nagano, "Fabrication and characterization of reactive ion beam etched SiC gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1439-1442 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nagashima, K.

T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Observation of strong soft-x-ray amplification at 8.8 nm in the transient collisional-excitation scheme," Phys. Rev. A 69, 033805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, N.

Namioka, T.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft-x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, Y. Harada, O. Yoda, M. Ishino, K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, M. Jinno, and T. Namioka, "New type of Monk-Gillieson monochromator capable of covering a 0.7-25 nm range," Proc. SPIE 4782, 300-307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Haradad, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, "Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 4146, 163-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Namioka and M. Koike, "Aspheric wavefront recording optics for holographic gratings," Appl. Opt. 34, 2180-2186 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Koike and T. Namioka, "A merit function for the design of grating instruments," Appl. Opt. 33, 2048-2056 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogiwara, T.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Haradad, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, "Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 4146, 163-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, H.

E. Ishiguro, K. Yamashita, H. Ohashi, M. Sakurai, O. Aita, M. Watanabe, K. Sano, M. Koeda, and T. Nagano, "Fabrication and characterization of reactive ion beam etched SiC gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1439-1442 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Padmore, H. A.

P. A. Heimann, M. Koike, and H. A. Padmore, "Dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with gratings above 2 keV," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, M.

E. Ishiguro, K. Yamashita, H. Ohashi, M. Sakurai, O. Aita, M. Watanabe, K. Sano, M. Koeda, and T. Nagano, "Fabrication and characterization of reactive ion beam etched SiC gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1439-1442 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sano, K.

M. Ishino, P. A. Heimann, H. Sasai, M. Hatakeyama, H. Takenaka, K. Sano, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Koike, "Multilayer laminar-type diffraction gratings achieving high diffraction efficiencies in the 1-8 keV region," Appl. Opt. 45, 6741-6745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Koike, K. Sano, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, and H. Kumata, "Performance of laminar-type holographic grating for a soft-x-ray flat field spectrograph in the 0.7-6 nm region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1156-1158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft-x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, Y. Harada, O. Yoda, M. Ishino, K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, M. Jinno, and T. Namioka, "New type of Monk-Gillieson monochromator capable of covering a 0.7-25 nm range," Proc. SPIE 4782, 300-307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Haradad, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, "Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 4146, 163-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Ishiguro, K. Yamashita, H. Ohashi, M. Sakurai, O. Aita, M. Watanabe, K. Sano, M. Koeda, and T. Nagano, "Fabrication and characterization of reactive ion beam etched SiC gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1439-1442 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sasai, H.

M. Ishino, P. A. Heimann, H. Sasai, M. Hatakeyama, H. Takenaka, K. Sano, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Koike, "Multilayer laminar-type diffraction gratings achieving high diffraction efficiencies in the 1-8 keV region," Appl. Opt. 45, 6741-6745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Koike, K. Sano, Y. Harada, O. Yoda, M. Ishino, K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, M. Jinno, and T. Namioka, "New type of Monk-Gillieson monochromator capable of covering a 0.7-25 nm range," Proc. SPIE 4782, 300-307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft-x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, A.

T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Observation of strong soft-x-ray amplification at 8.8 nm in the transient collisional-excitation scheme," Phys. Rev. A 69, 033805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE, 1994), pp. 111-114.

Takenaka, H.

M. Ishino, P. A. Heimann, H. Sasai, M. Hatakeyama, H. Takenaka, K. Sano, E. M. Gullikson, and M. Koike, "Multilayer laminar-type diffraction gratings achieving high diffraction efficiencies in the 1-8 keV region," Appl. Opt. 45, 6741-6745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft-x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

M. Koike, K. Sano, Y. Harada, O. Yoda, M. Ishino, K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, M. Jinno, and T. Namioka, "New type of Monk-Gillieson monochromator capable of covering a 0.7-25 nm range," Proc. SPIE 4782, 300-307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Observation of strong soft-x-ray amplification at 8.8 nm in the transient collisional-excitation scheme," Phys. Rev. A 69, 033805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Terauchi, M.

M. Terauchi and M. Kawana, "Soft-x-ray emission spectroscopy based on TEM-toward a total electronic structure analysis," Ultramicroscopy 106, 1069-1075 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ueno, Y.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft-x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft-x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Haradad, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, "Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 4146, 163-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Warburton, W. K.

W. K. Warburton, "On the diffraction properties of multilayer coated plane gratings," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 291, 278-285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

T. Imazono, Y. Hirayama, S. Ichikura, O. Kitakami, M. Yanagihara, and M. Watanabe, "Interdiffused layers in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers studied by soft-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 4334-4337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Ishiguro, K. Yamashita, H. Ohashi, M. Sakurai, O. Aita, M. Watanabe, K. Sano, M. Koeda, and T. Nagano, "Fabrication and characterization of reactive ion beam etched SiC gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1439-1442 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, K.

M. Koike, K. Sano, Y. Harada, O. Yoda, M. Ishino, K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, M. Jinno, and T. Namioka, "New type of Monk-Gillieson monochromator capable of covering a 0.7-25 nm range," Proc. SPIE 4782, 300-307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Ishiguro, K. Yamashita, H. Ohashi, M. Sakurai, O. Aita, M. Watanabe, K. Sano, M. Koeda, and T. Nagano, "Fabrication and characterization of reactive ion beam etched SiC gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1439-1442 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yanagihara, M.

T. Imazono, Y. Hirayama, S. Ichikura, O. Kitakami, M. Yanagihara, and M. Watanabe, "Interdiffused layers in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers studied by soft-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 4334-4337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Haradad, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, "Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 4146, 163-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoda, O.

M. Koike, K. Sano, Y. Harada, O. Yoda, M. Ishino, K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, M. Jinno, and T. Namioka, "New type of Monk-Gillieson monochromator capable of covering a 0.7-25 nm range," Proc. SPIE 4782, 300-307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft-x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Haradad, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, "Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 4146, 163-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Imazono, Y. Hirayama, S. Ichikura, O. Kitakami, M. Yanagihara, and M. Watanabe, "Interdiffused layers in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers studied by soft-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 4334-4337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

W. K. Warburton, "On the diffraction properties of multilayer coated plane gratings," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 291, 278-285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Observation of strong soft-x-ray amplification at 8.8 nm in the transient collisional-excitation scheme," Phys. Rev. A 69, 033805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Haradad, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, "Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph," Proc. SPIE 4146, 163-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, Y. Harada, O. Yoda, M. Ishino, K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, M. Jinno, and T. Namioka, "New type of Monk-Gillieson monochromator capable of covering a 0.7-25 nm range," Proc. SPIE 4782, 300-307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (4)

E. Ishiguro, K. Yamashita, H. Ohashi, M. Sakurai, O. Aita, M. Watanabe, K. Sano, M. Koeda, and T. Nagano, "Fabrication and characterization of reactive ion beam etched SiC gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1439-1442 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, "New evaluation beamline for soft-x-ray optical elements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541-1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, and H. Kumata, "Performance of laminar-type holographic grating for a soft-x-ray flat field spectrograph in the 0.7-6 nm region," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1156-1158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Heimann, M. Koike, and H. A. Padmore, "Dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with gratings above 2 keV," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

M. Terauchi and M. Kawana, "Soft-x-ray emission spectroscopy based on TEM-toward a total electronic structure analysis," Ultramicroscopy 106, 1069-1075 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

GSOLVER V4.2c, Grating Solver Development Co., Allen, Texas.

T. B. Massalski, Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams (American Society for Metals, 1986).

E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE, 1994), pp. 111-114.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the flat-field spectrograph.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the recording system composed of a combination of an aspheric wavefront and a spheric wavefront to record a VLS holographic grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spot diagrams and line profiles. For details see the text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiencies calculated for incident wavelengths (ordinate) and incident points on the grating in the y direction (abscissa) for cases (a) I, (b) II, and (c) III.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated diffraction efficiencies versus incident points in the y direction on the grating calculated for the design spectral lines for cases (a) I, (b) II, and (c) III.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured absolute efficiency for the various incident angles, α, for areas (a) A, (b) B, and (c) C.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Efficiency maxima calculated assuming the design multilayer periods (full lines) and those calculated assuming the multilayer periods measured by the x-ray diffractometer (dashed lines) as functions of the wavelengths and incidence angles as well as the measured efficiency maxima (open circles) for areas (a) A, (b) B, and (c) C. The design wavelengths and local incidence angles at the centers of the respective areas are indicated with dotted lines.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured and calculated efficiency curves for the zeroth and first diffraction orders ( m = 0 , + 1 ) . The black square symbols and solid lines show the measured and calculated diffraction efficiencies, respectively. The broken lines indicate the calculated diffraction efficiencies with Debye–Waller factors of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 nm rms.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Emission bands of Hf-M, Si-K, and W-M. The intensities of the respective spectra were normalized by the peak intensities of Hf-M α 1 , Si-K α 1 , and W-M α 1 .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Relation between the Coating Areas A, B, and C and the Multilayer Periods (MP) a

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n σ = w + Γ [ 1 2 ( n 20 w 2 + n 02 l 2 + n 30 w 3 + n 12 w l 2 ) + 1 8 ( n 40 w 4 + 2 n 22 w 2 l 2 + n 04 l 4 ) + ] ,
E = E 0   exp ( 4 π σ R   cos   α / λ ) 2 ,

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