Abstract

The absorption by atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas in the visible has been traditionally neglected in the retrieval of oceanic parameters from satellite measurements. Recent measurements of NO2 from spaceborne sensors show that over the Eastern United States the NO2 column amount often exceeds 1 Dobson Unit (2.69×1016molecules/cm2). Our radiative transfer sensitivity calculations show that under high NO2 conditions (1×1016molecules/cm2) the error in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance in the blue channels of the sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) and moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors is approximately 1%. This translates into approximately 10% error in water-leaving radiance for clear waters and to higher values (>20%) in the coastal areas. We have developed an atmospheric-correction algorithm that allows an accurate retrieval of normalized water-leaving radiances (nLws) in the presence of NO2 in the atmosphere. The application of the algorithm to 52 MODIS scenes over the Chesapeake Bay area show a decrease in the frequency of negative nLw estimates in the 412  nm band and an increase in the value of nLws in the same band. For the particular scene reported in this paper, the mean value of nLws in the 412   nm band increased by 17%, which is significant, because for the MODIS sensor the error in nLws attributable to the digitization error in the observed TOA reflectance over case 2 waters is 2 .5%.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Solomon, R. W. Portmann, R. W. Saders, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Madsen, B. Bartram, and E. G. Dutton, "On the role of nitrogen dioxide in the absorption of the solar radiation," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12047-12058 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Folly, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Leue, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, O. Klimm, U. Platt, and B. Jahne, "Quantitative analysis of NOx emissions from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment satellite image sequences," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5493-5505 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Jaegle, D. J. Jacob, Y. Wang, A. J. Weinheimer, B. A. Ridley, T. L. Campos, G. W. Sachse, and D. E. Hagen, "Sources and chemistry of NOx in the upper troposphere over the United States," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1705-1708 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Stohl, H. Huntrieser, A. Richter, S. Beirle, O. R. Cooper, S. Eckhardt, C. Forster, P. James, N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, and U. Platt, "Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 969-985 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Schaub, A. K. Weiss, J. W. Kaiser, A. Petritoli, A. Richter, B. Buchmann, and J. P. Burrows, "A transboundary transport episode of nitrogen dioxide as observed from GOME and its impact in the Alpine region," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 23-37 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, P. James, T. Wagner, U. Platt, and A. Stohl, "Satellite detection of a continental-scale plume of nitrogen oxides from boreal forest fires," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4579-4582 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Cede, J. Herman, A. Richter, N. Krotkov, and J. Burrows, "Measurements of nitrogen dioxide total column amounts at Goddard space flight center using a brewer spectrometer in direct sun mode," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05304 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Ahmad and R. S. Fraser, "An iterative radiative transfer code for ocean-atmosphere systems," J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 656-665 (1982).
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  10. G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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  16. E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, M. O. Wenig, J. F. Gleason, J. P. Veefkind, K. F. Boersma, and E. J. Brinksma, "Algorithm for NO2 vertical column retrieval from ozone monitoring instrument," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1245-1258 (2006).
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2006 (2)

A. Cede, J. Herman, A. Richter, N. Krotkov, and J. Burrows, "Measurements of nitrogen dioxide total column amounts at Goddard space flight center using a brewer spectrometer in direct sun mode," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05304 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, M. O. Wenig, J. F. Gleason, J. P. Veefkind, K. F. Boersma, and E. J. Brinksma, "Algorithm for NO2 vertical column retrieval from ozone monitoring instrument," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1245-1258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. Schaub, A. K. Weiss, J. W. Kaiser, A. Petritoli, A. Richter, B. Buchmann, and J. P. Burrows, "A transboundary transport episode of nitrogen dioxide as observed from GOME and its impact in the Alpine region," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 23-37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Stohl, H. Huntrieser, A. Richter, S. Beirle, O. R. Cooper, S. Eckhardt, C. Forster, P. James, N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, and U. Platt, "Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 969-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, P. James, T. Wagner, U. Platt, and A. Stohl, "Satellite detection of a continental-scale plume of nitrogen oxides from boreal forest fires," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4579-4582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Leue, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, O. Klimm, U. Platt, and B. Jahne, "Quantitative analysis of NOx emissions from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment satellite image sequences," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5493-5505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Solomon, R. W. Portmann, R. W. Saders, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Madsen, B. Bartram, and E. G. Dutton, "On the role of nitrogen dioxide in the absorption of the solar radiation," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12047-12058 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Folly, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Jaegle, D. J. Jacob, Y. Wang, A. J. Weinheimer, B. A. Ridley, T. L. Campos, G. W. Sachse, and D. E. Hagen, "Sources and chemistry of NOx in the upper troposphere over the United States," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1705-1708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

H. R. Gordon, "Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081-17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, "Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effect of the humidity variation on their optical properties," Rep. AFGL-TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysical Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1997).

1994 (2)

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, and C. McClain, "Prelaunch acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer," NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 22 (1994).

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. McClain, and T. Svitek, "SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization," NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 23 (1994).

1982 (1)

Z. Ahmad and R. S. Fraser, "An iterative radiative transfer code for ocean-atmosphere systems," J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 656-665 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

1954 (1)

Ahmad, Z.

Z. Ahmad and R. S. Fraser, "An iterative radiative transfer code for ocean-atmosphere systems," J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 656-665 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R. A.

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, and C. McClain, "Prelaunch acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer," NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 22 (1994).

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. McClain, and T. Svitek, "SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization," NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 23 (1994).

Barnes, W. L.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. McClain, and T. Svitek, "SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization," NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 23 (1994).

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, and C. McClain, "Prelaunch acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer," NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 22 (1994).

Bartram, B.

S. Solomon, R. W. Portmann, R. W. Saders, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Madsen, B. Bartram, and E. G. Dutton, "On the role of nitrogen dioxide in the absorption of the solar radiation," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12047-12058 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beirle, S.

A. Stohl, H. Huntrieser, A. Richter, S. Beirle, O. R. Cooper, S. Eckhardt, C. Forster, P. James, N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, and U. Platt, "Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 969-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boersma, K. F.

E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, M. O. Wenig, J. F. Gleason, J. P. Veefkind, K. F. Boersma, and E. J. Brinksma, "Algorithm for NO2 vertical column retrieval from ozone monitoring instrument," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1245-1258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brinksma, E. J.

E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, M. O. Wenig, J. F. Gleason, J. P. Veefkind, K. F. Boersma, and E. J. Brinksma, "Algorithm for NO2 vertical column retrieval from ozone monitoring instrument," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1245-1258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Buchmann, B.

D. Schaub, A. K. Weiss, J. W. Kaiser, A. Petritoli, A. Richter, B. Buchmann, and J. P. Burrows, "A transboundary transport episode of nitrogen dioxide as observed from GOME and its impact in the Alpine region," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 23-37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bucsela, E. J.

E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, M. O. Wenig, J. F. Gleason, J. P. Veefkind, K. F. Boersma, and E. J. Brinksma, "Algorithm for NO2 vertical column retrieval from ozone monitoring instrument," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1245-1258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J.

A. Cede, J. Herman, A. Richter, N. Krotkov, and J. Burrows, "Measurements of nitrogen dioxide total column amounts at Goddard space flight center using a brewer spectrometer in direct sun mode," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05304 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J. P.

D. Schaub, A. K. Weiss, J. W. Kaiser, A. Petritoli, A. Richter, B. Buchmann, and J. P. Burrows, "A transboundary transport episode of nitrogen dioxide as observed from GOME and its impact in the Alpine region," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 23-37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Stohl, H. Huntrieser, A. Richter, S. Beirle, O. R. Cooper, S. Eckhardt, C. Forster, P. James, N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, and U. Platt, "Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 969-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Campos, T. L.

L. Jaegle, D. J. Jacob, Y. Wang, A. J. Weinheimer, B. A. Ridley, T. L. Campos, G. W. Sachse, and D. E. Hagen, "Sources and chemistry of NOx in the upper troposphere over the United States," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1705-1708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Folly, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cede, A.

A. Cede, J. Herman, A. Richter, N. Krotkov, and J. Burrows, "Measurements of nitrogen dioxide total column amounts at Goddard space flight center using a brewer spectrometer in direct sun mode," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05304 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Celarier, E. A.

E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, M. O. Wenig, J. F. Gleason, J. P. Veefkind, K. F. Boersma, and E. J. Brinksma, "Algorithm for NO2 vertical column retrieval from ozone monitoring instrument," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1245-1258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Colin, R.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Folly, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, O. R.

A. Stohl, H. Huntrieser, A. Richter, S. Beirle, O. R. Cooper, S. Eckhardt, C. Forster, P. James, N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, and U. Platt, "Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 969-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coquart, B.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Folly, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

Daniel, J. S.

S. Solomon, R. W. Portmann, R. W. Saders, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Madsen, B. Bartram, and E. G. Dutton, "On the role of nitrogen dioxide in the absorption of the solar radiation," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12047-12058 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, E. G.

S. Solomon, R. W. Portmann, R. W. Saders, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Madsen, B. Bartram, and E. G. Dutton, "On the role of nitrogen dioxide in the absorption of the solar radiation," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12047-12058 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eckhardt, S.

A. Stohl, H. Huntrieser, A. Richter, S. Beirle, O. R. Cooper, S. Eckhardt, C. Forster, P. James, N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, and U. Platt, "Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 969-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elterman, J.

Esaias, W. E.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. McClain, and T. Svitek, "SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization," NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 23 (1994).

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, and C. McClain, "Prelaunch acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer," NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 22 (1994).

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, "Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effect of the humidity variation on their optical properties," Rep. AFGL-TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysical Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1997).

Folly, S.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Folly, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Forster, C.

A. Stohl, H. Huntrieser, A. Richter, S. Beirle, O. R. Cooper, S. Eckhardt, C. Forster, P. James, N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, and U. Platt, "Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 969-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foujols, T.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, R. S.

Z. Ahmad and R. S. Fraser, "An iterative radiative transfer code for ocean-atmosphere systems," J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 656-665 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gillotay, D.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gleason, J. F.

E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, M. O. Wenig, J. F. Gleason, J. P. Veefkind, K. F. Boersma, and E. J. Brinksma, "Algorithm for NO2 vertical column retrieval from ozone monitoring instrument," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1245-1258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, "Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081-17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, D. E.

L. Jaegle, D. J. Jacob, Y. Wang, A. J. Weinheimer, B. A. Ridley, T. L. Campos, G. W. Sachse, and D. E. Hagen, "Sources and chemistry of NOx in the upper troposphere over the United States," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1705-1708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herman, J.

A. Cede, J. Herman, A. Richter, N. Krotkov, and J. Burrows, "Measurements of nitrogen dioxide total column amounts at Goddard space flight center using a brewer spectrometer in direct sun mode," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05304 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hermans, C.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Folly, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herse, M.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. W.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. McClain, and T. Svitek, "SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization," NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 23 (1994).

Huntrieser, H.

A. Stohl, H. Huntrieser, A. Richter, S. Beirle, O. R. Cooper, S. Eckhardt, C. Forster, P. James, N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, and U. Platt, "Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 969-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, D. J.

L. Jaegle, D. J. Jacob, Y. Wang, A. J. Weinheimer, B. A. Ridley, T. L. Campos, G. W. Sachse, and D. E. Hagen, "Sources and chemistry of NOx in the upper troposphere over the United States," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1705-1708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jaegle, L.

L. Jaegle, D. J. Jacob, Y. Wang, A. J. Weinheimer, B. A. Ridley, T. L. Campos, G. W. Sachse, and D. E. Hagen, "Sources and chemistry of NOx in the upper troposphere over the United States," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1705-1708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jahne, B.

C. Leue, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, O. Klimm, U. Platt, and B. Jahne, "Quantitative analysis of NOx emissions from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment satellite image sequences," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5493-5505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

James, P.

A. Stohl, H. Huntrieser, A. Richter, S. Beirle, O. R. Cooper, S. Eckhardt, C. Forster, P. James, N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, and U. Platt, "Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 969-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, P. James, T. Wagner, U. Platt, and A. Stohl, "Satellite detection of a continental-scale plume of nitrogen oxides from boreal forest fires," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4579-4582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jenouvrier, A.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Folly, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, J. W.

D. Schaub, A. K. Weiss, J. W. Kaiser, A. Petritoli, A. Richter, B. Buchmann, and J. P. Burrows, "A transboundary transport episode of nitrogen dioxide as observed from GOME and its impact in the Alpine region," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 23-37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klimm, O.

C. Leue, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, O. Klimm, U. Platt, and B. Jahne, "Quantitative analysis of NOx emissions from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment satellite image sequences," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5493-5505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krotkov, N.

A. Cede, J. Herman, A. Richter, N. Krotkov, and J. Burrows, "Measurements of nitrogen dioxide total column amounts at Goddard space flight center using a brewer spectrometer in direct sun mode," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05304 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Labs, D.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leue, C.

C. Leue, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, O. Klimm, U. Platt, and B. Jahne, "Quantitative analysis of NOx emissions from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment satellite image sequences," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5493-5505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, D. W.

S. Solomon, R. W. Portmann, R. W. Saders, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Madsen, B. Bartram, and E. G. Dutton, "On the role of nitrogen dioxide in the absorption of the solar radiation," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12047-12058 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, H.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, and C. McClain, "Prelaunch acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer," NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 22 (1994).

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. McClain, and T. Svitek, "SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization," NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 23 (1994).

Merienne, M. F.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Folly, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Munk, W. H.

Petritoli, A.

D. Schaub, A. K. Weiss, J. W. Kaiser, A. Petritoli, A. Richter, B. Buchmann, and J. P. Burrows, "A transboundary transport episode of nitrogen dioxide as observed from GOME and its impact in the Alpine region," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 23-37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Platt, U.

A. Stohl, H. Huntrieser, A. Richter, S. Beirle, O. R. Cooper, S. Eckhardt, C. Forster, P. James, N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, and U. Platt, "Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 969-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, P. James, T. Wagner, U. Platt, and A. Stohl, "Satellite detection of a continental-scale plume of nitrogen oxides from boreal forest fires," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4579-4582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Leue, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, O. Klimm, U. Platt, and B. Jahne, "Quantitative analysis of NOx emissions from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment satellite image sequences," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5493-5505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Portmann, R. W.

S. Solomon, R. W. Portmann, R. W. Saders, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Madsen, B. Bartram, and E. G. Dutton, "On the role of nitrogen dioxide in the absorption of the solar radiation," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12047-12058 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Richter, A.

A. Cede, J. Herman, A. Richter, N. Krotkov, and J. Burrows, "Measurements of nitrogen dioxide total column amounts at Goddard space flight center using a brewer spectrometer in direct sun mode," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05304 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schaub, A. K. Weiss, J. W. Kaiser, A. Petritoli, A. Richter, B. Buchmann, and J. P. Burrows, "A transboundary transport episode of nitrogen dioxide as observed from GOME and its impact in the Alpine region," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 23-37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Stohl, H. Huntrieser, A. Richter, S. Beirle, O. R. Cooper, S. Eckhardt, C. Forster, P. James, N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, and U. Platt, "Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 969-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ridley, B. A.

L. Jaegle, D. J. Jacob, Y. Wang, A. J. Weinheimer, B. A. Ridley, T. L. Campos, G. W. Sachse, and D. E. Hagen, "Sources and chemistry of NOx in the upper troposphere over the United States," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1705-1708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sachse, G. W.

L. Jaegle, D. J. Jacob, Y. Wang, A. J. Weinheimer, B. A. Ridley, T. L. Campos, G. W. Sachse, and D. E. Hagen, "Sources and chemistry of NOx in the upper troposphere over the United States," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1705-1708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saders, R. W.

S. Solomon, R. W. Portmann, R. W. Saders, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Madsen, B. Bartram, and E. G. Dutton, "On the role of nitrogen dioxide in the absorption of the solar radiation," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12047-12058 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schaub, D.

D. Schaub, A. K. Weiss, J. W. Kaiser, A. Petritoli, A. Richter, B. Buchmann, and J. P. Burrows, "A transboundary transport episode of nitrogen dioxide as observed from GOME and its impact in the Alpine region," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 23-37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, "Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effect of the humidity variation on their optical properties," Rep. AFGL-TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysical Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1997).

Simon, P. C.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Folly, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S.

S. Solomon, R. W. Portmann, R. W. Saders, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Madsen, B. Bartram, and E. G. Dutton, "On the role of nitrogen dioxide in the absorption of the solar radiation," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12047-12058 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spichtinger, N.

A. Stohl, H. Huntrieser, A. Richter, S. Beirle, O. R. Cooper, S. Eckhardt, C. Forster, P. James, N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, and U. Platt, "Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 969-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, P. James, T. Wagner, U. Platt, and A. Stohl, "Satellite detection of a continental-scale plume of nitrogen oxides from boreal forest fires," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4579-4582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stohl, A.

A. Stohl, H. Huntrieser, A. Richter, S. Beirle, O. R. Cooper, S. Eckhardt, C. Forster, P. James, N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, and U. Platt, "Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 969-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, P. James, T. Wagner, U. Platt, and A. Stohl, "Satellite detection of a continental-scale plume of nitrogen oxides from boreal forest fires," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4579-4582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Svitek, T.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. McClain, and T. Svitek, "SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization," NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 23 (1994).

Thuillier, G.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Folly, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Veefkind, J. P.

E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, M. O. Wenig, J. F. Gleason, J. P. Veefkind, K. F. Boersma, and E. J. Brinksma, "Algorithm for NO2 vertical column retrieval from ozone monitoring instrument," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1245-1258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, T.

A. Stohl, H. Huntrieser, A. Richter, S. Beirle, O. R. Cooper, S. Eckhardt, C. Forster, P. James, N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, and U. Platt, "Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 969-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, P. James, T. Wagner, U. Platt, and A. Stohl, "Satellite detection of a continental-scale plume of nitrogen oxides from boreal forest fires," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4579-4582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Leue, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, O. Klimm, U. Platt, and B. Jahne, "Quantitative analysis of NOx emissions from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment satellite image sequences," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5493-5505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

L. Jaegle, D. J. Jacob, Y. Wang, A. J. Weinheimer, B. A. Ridley, T. L. Campos, G. W. Sachse, and D. E. Hagen, "Sources and chemistry of NOx in the upper troposphere over the United States," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1705-1708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weinheimer, A. J.

L. Jaegle, D. J. Jacob, Y. Wang, A. J. Weinheimer, B. A. Ridley, T. L. Campos, G. W. Sachse, and D. E. Hagen, "Sources and chemistry of NOx in the upper troposphere over the United States," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1705-1708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, A. K.

D. Schaub, A. K. Weiss, J. W. Kaiser, A. Petritoli, A. Richter, B. Buchmann, and J. P. Burrows, "A transboundary transport episode of nitrogen dioxide as observed from GOME and its impact in the Alpine region," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 23-37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wenig, M.

A. Stohl, H. Huntrieser, A. Richter, S. Beirle, O. R. Cooper, S. Eckhardt, C. Forster, P. James, N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, and U. Platt, "Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 969-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Leue, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, O. Klimm, U. Platt, and B. Jahne, "Quantitative analysis of NOx emissions from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment satellite image sequences," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5493-5505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, P. James, T. Wagner, U. Platt, and A. Stohl, "Satellite detection of a continental-scale plume of nitrogen oxides from boreal forest fires," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4579-4582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wenig, M. O.

E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, M. O. Wenig, J. F. Gleason, J. P. Veefkind, K. F. Boersma, and E. J. Brinksma, "Algorithm for NO2 vertical column retrieval from ozone monitoring instrument," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1245-1258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (2)

A. Stohl, H. Huntrieser, A. Richter, S. Beirle, O. R. Cooper, S. Eckhardt, C. Forster, P. James, N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, J. P. Burrows, and U. Platt, "Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 969-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Schaub, A. K. Weiss, J. W. Kaiser, A. Petritoli, A. Richter, B. Buchmann, and J. P. Burrows, "A transboundary transport episode of nitrogen dioxide as observed from GOME and its impact in the Alpine region," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 23-37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

N. Spichtinger, M. Wenig, P. James, T. Wagner, U. Platt, and A. Stohl, "Satellite detection of a continental-scale plume of nitrogen oxides from boreal forest fires," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4579-4582 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Jaegle, D. J. Jacob, Y. Wang, A. J. Weinheimer, B. A. Ridley, T. L. Campos, G. W. Sachse, and D. E. Hagen, "Sources and chemistry of NOx in the upper troposphere over the United States," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1705-1708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, M. O. Wenig, J. F. Gleason, J. P. Veefkind, K. F. Boersma, and E. J. Brinksma, "Algorithm for NO2 vertical column retrieval from ozone monitoring instrument," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1245-1258 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

Z. Ahmad and R. S. Fraser, "An iterative radiative transfer code for ocean-atmosphere systems," J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 656-665 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

C. Leue, M. Wenig, T. Wagner, O. Klimm, U. Platt, and B. Jahne, "Quantitative analysis of NOx emissions from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment satellite image sequences," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5493-5505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Solomon, R. W. Portmann, R. W. Saders, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Madsen, B. Bartram, and E. G. Dutton, "On the role of nitrogen dioxide in the absorption of the solar radiation," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12047-12058 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Cede, J. Herman, A. Richter, N. Krotkov, and J. Burrows, "Measurements of nitrogen dioxide total column amounts at Goddard space flight center using a brewer spectrometer in direct sun mode," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05304 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, "Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081-17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Folly, M. F. Merienne, A. Jenouvrier, and B. Coquart, "Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238-1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys. (1)

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, and C. McClain, "Prelaunch acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer," NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 22 (1994).

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. McClain, and T. Svitek, "SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization," NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, Vol. 23 (1994).

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, "Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effect of the humidity variation on their optical properties," Rep. AFGL-TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysical Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1997).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three of the NO 2 profiles used in the RT simulations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances for molecular and molecular plus aerosol models of atmosphere with a rough ocean surface at the lower boundary. An aerosol optical thickness of 0.2 is used in the simulations. Simulations for θ o = 30° are represented by solid curves and for θ o = 60 ° by dashed curves. (b) Ratio of TOA reflectances in the nadir direction with and without NO 2 in the models of atmosphere as a function of NO 2 amount. Other details are the same as in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ratio of TOA reflectances with and without NO 2 for a molecular atmosphere for θ o = 60 ° .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of atmospheric correction using RT-based AMF computed for a molecular atmosphere with low (blue curve, 2.847 × 10 15 molecules / cm 2 ), average (green curve, 3.291 × 10 15 molecules / cm 2 ), and high (brown curve, 1.132 × 10 16 molecules / cm 2 ) amount of NO 2 . The AMF was computed for φ = 96 ° .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

NO 2 weighting function, ( Δ ρ top / Δ NO 2 ) , for high amount of NO 2 ( 1.132 × 10 16 molecules / cm 2 ) in the atmosphere. The results are for θ o = 30 ° .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Atmospheric correction with the RT-based AMF after correcting for NO 2 amount from 200 m to the surface. Other details are the same as in Fig. 4.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Atmospheric correction with geometric AMF after correcting for NO 2 amount from 200   m to the surface. Other details are the same as in Fig. 4.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) RGB image of a MODIS-Aqua scene from 11 April 2005 over the Northeastern coast of the United States. (b) MODIS aerosol optical thickness of 869 nm over the Northeastern coast of the United States on 11 April 2005. (c) OMI tropospheric NO 2 amount over the Northeastern coast of the United States on 11 April 2005. (d) nLw band of 412   nm , from the current operational algorithm for the MODIS scene shown in (a). (e) NLw band of 412   nm using the NO 2 correction algorithm for the MODIS scene shown in (a).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Histogram of the 412   nm band nLw with (blue curve) and without NO 2 (orange curve) correction for the MODIS scene shown in Fig. 8(a).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Rayleigh Scattering Optical Thickness (τ) and NO2 (σ) Absorption Cross Section (10−19 cm2 per Molecule) for the SeaWiFS and the MODIS-Aqua Visible and Near-IR Bands a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Polynomial Coefficients for the RT Derived AMF Using Average NO2 Distribution a

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ t ( λ , θ o , θ , φ , v ) = ρ path ( λ , θ o , θ , φ ) + t 1 t d ρ g ( λ , θ o , θ , φ , v ) + t 2 t d ρ wc ( λ , θ o , θ , φ , v ) + t 3 t d ρ wL ( λ , θ o , θ , φ , v ) ,
ρ ( λ , θ o , θ , φ , v ) = π L ( λ , θ o , θ , φ , v ) / E ( λ ) ,
τ ( λ ) = τ ( λ ) F o ( λ ) R ( λ ) / F o ( λ ) R ( λ ) ,
ρ corr = ρ obs exp [ α N ( sec θ o + sec θ ) ] ,
AMF = ln ( ρ corr / ρ obs ) / α N .
AMF = 0 3 a i ( sec θ o ) sec i θ ,
a i ( sec θ o ) = 0 5 b i j sec j θ o .
ρ t ( λ , θ o , θ , φ , v ) = ρ path ( λ , θ o , θ , φ ) + t 3 t d ρ wL ( λ , θ o , θ , φ , v ) .
ρ t exp [ α N ( sec θ o + sec θ ) ] = ρ path exp [ α N ( sec θ o + sec θ ) ] + [ t 3 exp ( α N sec θ ) ] × [ t d ρ wL exp ( α N sec θ o ) ] .
exp ( α N sec θ ) exp ( α N sec θ o ) Δ ρ obs
  = t 3 exp ( α N sec θ ) t d ρ wL exp ( α N sec θ o ) .
ρ w L = exp ( α N sec θ ) exp ( α N sec θ o ) Δ ρ obs / t 3 ,

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