Abstract

A technique for correction of optical surfaces has recently been reported. The technique involves oscillating an optical surface back and forth behind a multiaperture mask to deposit a spatially varying dielectric layer onto the optic to create the desired surface profile. Details are reported of a modified mask design that inherently smooths the deposited layer used for these corrections. Results are also reported with regard to a recent correction that resulted in a thickness uniformity of better than λ∕2000 rms over a working aperture of 37.5 mm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Arkwright, I. Underhill, N. Pereira, and M. Gross, "Deterministic control of thin film thickness in physical vapor deposition systems using a multi-aperture mask," Opt. Express 13, 2731-2741 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Arkwright, P. Martin, A. Bendavid, and E. Preston, "Control of thickness uniformity in a filtered cathodic vapor arc system," in SVC 48th Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, New Mexico , 2005), p. 108.
  3. L. Jochum, M. Collados, V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, A. Alvarez-Herrero, M. Reina, J. Fabregat, and V. Domingo, "IMaX: a visible magnetograph for SUNRISE," Proc. SPIE 4843, 20-29 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, L, Dognin, P. Ganau, B. Lagrange, C. Michel, and M. Morgue, "VIRGO mirrors: wavefront control," Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 507-514 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Arkwright, D. Farrant, and J. Zhang, "Sub-nanometer metrology of optical wafers using an angle-scanned Fabry-Perot interferometer," Opt. Express 14, 114-119 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. I. Farrant, J. W. Arkwright, P. S. Fairman, and R. P. Netterfield, "Measuring the thickness profiles of wafers to sub-nanometer resolution using Fabry-Perot interferometry," Appl. Opt. 46, 2863-2869 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Mastercut Technologies, 22 Leda Drive, Andrews, Queensland 4220, Australia; www.mastercut.com.au.

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

J. Arkwright, I. Underhill, N. Pereira, and M. Gross, "Deterministic control of thin film thickness in physical vapor deposition systems using a multi-aperture mask," Opt. Express 13, 2731-2741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Arkwright, P. Martin, A. Bendavid, and E. Preston, "Control of thickness uniformity in a filtered cathodic vapor arc system," in SVC 48th Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, New Mexico , 2005), p. 108.

2003 (1)

L. Jochum, M. Collados, V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, A. Alvarez-Herrero, M. Reina, J. Fabregat, and V. Domingo, "IMaX: a visible magnetograph for SUNRISE," Proc. SPIE 4843, 20-29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, L, Dognin, P. Ganau, B. Lagrange, C. Michel, and M. Morgue, "VIRGO mirrors: wavefront control," Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 507-514 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez-Herrero, A.

L. Jochum, M. Collados, V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, A. Alvarez-Herrero, M. Reina, J. Fabregat, and V. Domingo, "IMaX: a visible magnetograph for SUNRISE," Proc. SPIE 4843, 20-29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arkwright, J.

Arkwright, J. W.

Bendavid, A.

J. Arkwright, P. Martin, A. Bendavid, and E. Preston, "Control of thickness uniformity in a filtered cathodic vapor arc system," in SVC 48th Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, New Mexico , 2005), p. 108.

Bonet, J. A.

L. Jochum, M. Collados, V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, A. Alvarez-Herrero, M. Reina, J. Fabregat, and V. Domingo, "IMaX: a visible magnetograph for SUNRISE," Proc. SPIE 4843, 20-29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Collados, M.

L. Jochum, M. Collados, V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, A. Alvarez-Herrero, M. Reina, J. Fabregat, and V. Domingo, "IMaX: a visible magnetograph for SUNRISE," Proc. SPIE 4843, 20-29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

del Toro Iniesta, J. C.

L. Jochum, M. Collados, V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, A. Alvarez-Herrero, M. Reina, J. Fabregat, and V. Domingo, "IMaX: a visible magnetograph for SUNRISE," Proc. SPIE 4843, 20-29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dognin, L

J. M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, L, Dognin, P. Ganau, B. Lagrange, C. Michel, and M. Morgue, "VIRGO mirrors: wavefront control," Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 507-514 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Domingo, V.

L. Jochum, M. Collados, V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, A. Alvarez-Herrero, M. Reina, J. Fabregat, and V. Domingo, "IMaX: a visible magnetograph for SUNRISE," Proc. SPIE 4843, 20-29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fabregat, J.

L. Jochum, M. Collados, V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, A. Alvarez-Herrero, M. Reina, J. Fabregat, and V. Domingo, "IMaX: a visible magnetograph for SUNRISE," Proc. SPIE 4843, 20-29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fairman, P. S.

Farrant, D.

Farrant, D. I.

Ganau, P.

J. M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, L, Dognin, P. Ganau, B. Lagrange, C. Michel, and M. Morgue, "VIRGO mirrors: wavefront control," Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 507-514 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M.

Jochum, L.

L. Jochum, M. Collados, V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, A. Alvarez-Herrero, M. Reina, J. Fabregat, and V. Domingo, "IMaX: a visible magnetograph for SUNRISE," Proc. SPIE 4843, 20-29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lagrange, B.

J. M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, L, Dognin, P. Ganau, B. Lagrange, C. Michel, and M. Morgue, "VIRGO mirrors: wavefront control," Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 507-514 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, A.

L. Jochum, M. Collados, V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, A. Alvarez-Herrero, M. Reina, J. Fabregat, and V. Domingo, "IMaX: a visible magnetograph for SUNRISE," Proc. SPIE 4843, 20-29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mackowski, J. M.

J. M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, L, Dognin, P. Ganau, B. Lagrange, C. Michel, and M. Morgue, "VIRGO mirrors: wavefront control," Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 507-514 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P.

J. Arkwright, P. Martin, A. Bendavid, and E. Preston, "Control of thickness uniformity in a filtered cathodic vapor arc system," in SVC 48th Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, New Mexico , 2005), p. 108.

Michel, C.

J. M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, L, Dognin, P. Ganau, B. Lagrange, C. Michel, and M. Morgue, "VIRGO mirrors: wavefront control," Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 507-514 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morgue, M.

J. M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, L, Dognin, P. Ganau, B. Lagrange, C. Michel, and M. Morgue, "VIRGO mirrors: wavefront control," Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 507-514 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Netterfield, R. P.

Pereira, N.

Pillet, V. Martínez

L. Jochum, M. Collados, V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, A. Alvarez-Herrero, M. Reina, J. Fabregat, and V. Domingo, "IMaX: a visible magnetograph for SUNRISE," Proc. SPIE 4843, 20-29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pinard, L.

J. M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, L, Dognin, P. Ganau, B. Lagrange, C. Michel, and M. Morgue, "VIRGO mirrors: wavefront control," Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 507-514 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Preston, E.

J. Arkwright, P. Martin, A. Bendavid, and E. Preston, "Control of thickness uniformity in a filtered cathodic vapor arc system," in SVC 48th Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, New Mexico , 2005), p. 108.

Reina, M.

L. Jochum, M. Collados, V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, A. Alvarez-Herrero, M. Reina, J. Fabregat, and V. Domingo, "IMaX: a visible magnetograph for SUNRISE," Proc. SPIE 4843, 20-29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Underhill, I.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. M. Mackowski, L. Pinard, L, Dognin, P. Ganau, B. Lagrange, C. Michel, and M. Morgue, "VIRGO mirrors: wavefront control," Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 507-514 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Jochum, M. Collados, V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. Lopez, A. Alvarez-Herrero, M. Reina, J. Fabregat, and V. Domingo, "IMaX: a visible magnetograph for SUNRISE," Proc. SPIE 4843, 20-29 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Arkwright, P. Martin, A. Bendavid, and E. Preston, "Control of thickness uniformity in a filtered cathodic vapor arc system," in SVC 48th Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, New Mexico , 2005), p. 108.

Mastercut Technologies, 22 Leda Drive, Andrews, Queensland 4220, Australia; www.mastercut.com.au.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of the PVD chamber used for the optical corrections.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Process used to design the correction masks showing (a) the initial measured thickness profile of the wafer; (b) the inverted profile with a 20% thickness offset and the arrangement of rectangles used to define the mask (shown scaled by approximately a factor of 2 for clarity); (c) a schematic of a single rectangle from (b) (not to scale), and the resultant defined aperture; (d) a representation of the final multiaperture mask used to correct the profile shown in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Geometry of the target, mask, and substrate demonstrating the cause of the blurring of the aperture pattern.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Row-to-row smoothing of the deposited layer due to the hexagonal design of the aperture pattern.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of (a) rectangular and (b) hexagonal aperture designs showing the increased mask utilization factor possible with the hexagonal design.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Measured thickness variation of a 37.5 mm diameter, 280 μm thick lithium niobate wafer after the first corrective deposition.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Measured thickness variation of a 37.5 mm diameter, 280 μm thick lithium niobate wafer (a) before and (b) after the second corrective deposition.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Line scans across the wafer before correction and after the second correction indicating close correlation of the subnanometer features.

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