Abstract

Use of a V3+:Y3Al5O12 crystal as a saturable absorber Q-switch for 1.07 and 1.35μm Nd:KGd(WO4)2 diode pumped lasers shows a considerable dependence of output characteristics on the orientation of the intracavity field polarization vector regarding V3+:Y3Al5O12 crystallographic axes. Anisotropy of nonlinear absorption of V3+ ions in a Y 3Al5O12 single crystal at wavelengths of 1.08 and 1.35μm has been experimentally studied. The experimental data are analyzed within the framework of a phenomenological model when the V3+ ions are described as three sets of linear dipoles oriented along the crystallographic axes. Ground-state and excited-state absorption cross sections at 1.08 and 1.35μm are evaluated to be σgsa=3.4×1018cm2, σesa=3.0×1019cm2 and σgsa=5.4×1018cm2, σesa=4.8×1019cm2, respectively. Saturation fluence and intensity at 1.08 and 1.35μm are estimated as 55mJ/cm2 and 1.1MW/cm2, respectively.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. P. Mikhailov, N. V. Kuleshov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, and V. A. Sandulenko, "Optical absorption and nonlinear transmission of tetrahedral V3+ (d2) in yttrium aluminum garnet," Opt. Mater. 2, 267-273 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, "V:YAG--a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. B 67, 555-558 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Agnesi, A. Guandalini, G. Reali, J. K. Jabczynski, K. Kopczynski, and Z. Mierczyk, "Diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1.34 μm Q-switched and mode locked by a V3+:YAG saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 194, 429-433 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. S. Grabctchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. A. Orlovich, A. A. Demidovich, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, H. J. Eichler, and M. B. Danailov, "Passively Q-switched 1.35 μm diode-pumped Nd:KGW laser with V:YAG saturable absorber," Opt. Mater. 16, 349-352 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. V. Podlipensky, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, H. M. Kretschmann, and G. Huber, "Passive Q-switching of 1.44 μm and 1.34 μm diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers with a V:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 76, 245-247 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. A. Zolotovskaya, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. V. Sandulenko, "Diode-pumped Yb, Er:glass laser passively Q-switched with V3+:YAG crystal," Appl. Opt. 44, 1704-1708 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Kir'yanov, P. P. Pashinin, V. A. Sandulenko, A. V. Sandulenko, and S. M. Shpuga, "Anisotropy of nonlinear absorption in YAG:V3+ crystal," Quantum Electron. 22, 1192-1194 (1995).
  8. H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Dennis, S. M. Jackobsen, and W. M. Yen, "Saturation of 1.064 μm absorption in Cr, Ca:Y3Al5O12 crystals crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958-2960 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Kir'yanov, P. P. Pashinin, and S. M. Shpuga, "Study of anisotropy of nonlinear absorption in YAG:Cr4+ crystal," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 78, 1426-1441 (1994).
  10. Yu. V. Volk, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, "Anisotropy of nonlinear absorption in Co2+:MgAl2O4 crystal," Appl. Phys. B. doi.10.1007/500340-007-2716-5 (2007).
  11. N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Kir'yanov, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, and S. M. Shpuga, "The anisotropy of nonlinear absorption induced by laser radiation in LiF:F2− crystal: the short pulse case," Laser Phys. 3, 182-192 (1993).
  12. M. F. Weber and L. A. Riseberg, "Optical spectra of vanadium ions in yttrium aluminum garnet," J. Chem. Phys. 55, 2032-2038 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, A. M. Malyarevich, P. V. Prokoshin, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. N. Posnov, V. P. Mikhailov, and V. A. Sandulenko, "Ultrafast dynamics of excited-state absorption in V3+:YAG crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4782-4784 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Yu. V. Volk, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, "Anisotropy of nonlinear absorption in Co2+:MgAl2O4 crystal," Appl. Phys. B. doi.10.1007/500340-007-2716-5 (2007).

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

A. V. Podlipensky, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, H. M. Kretschmann, and G. Huber, "Passive Q-switching of 1.44 μm and 1.34 μm diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers with a V:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 76, 245-247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. Agnesi, A. Guandalini, G. Reali, J. K. Jabczynski, K. Kopczynski, and Z. Mierczyk, "Diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1.34 μm Q-switched and mode locked by a V3+:YAG saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 194, 429-433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Grabctchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. A. Orlovich, A. A. Demidovich, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, H. J. Eichler, and M. B. Danailov, "Passively Q-switched 1.35 μm diode-pumped Nd:KGW laser with V:YAG saturable absorber," Opt. Mater. 16, 349-352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, "V:YAG--a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. B 67, 555-558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, A. M. Malyarevich, P. V. Prokoshin, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. N. Posnov, V. P. Mikhailov, and V. A. Sandulenko, "Ultrafast dynamics of excited-state absorption in V3+:YAG crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4782-4784 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Kir'yanov, P. P. Pashinin, V. A. Sandulenko, A. V. Sandulenko, and S. M. Shpuga, "Anisotropy of nonlinear absorption in YAG:V3+ crystal," Quantum Electron. 22, 1192-1194 (1995).

1994 (1)

N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Kir'yanov, P. P. Pashinin, and S. M. Shpuga, "Study of anisotropy of nonlinear absorption in YAG:Cr4+ crystal," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 78, 1426-1441 (1994).

1993 (2)

V. P. Mikhailov, N. V. Kuleshov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, and V. A. Sandulenko, "Optical absorption and nonlinear transmission of tetrahedral V3+ (d2) in yttrium aluminum garnet," Opt. Mater. 2, 267-273 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Kir'yanov, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, and S. M. Shpuga, "The anisotropy of nonlinear absorption induced by laser radiation in LiF:F2− crystal: the short pulse case," Laser Phys. 3, 182-192 (1993).

1992 (1)

H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Dennis, S. M. Jackobsen, and W. M. Yen, "Saturation of 1.064 μm absorption in Cr, Ca:Y3Al5O12 crystals crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958-2960 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

M. F. Weber and L. A. Riseberg, "Optical spectra of vanadium ions in yttrium aluminum garnet," J. Chem. Phys. 55, 2032-2038 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, R. S. Conroy, and B. D. Sinclair, "V:YAG--a new passive Q-switch for diode-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. B 67, 555-558 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Podlipensky, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, H. M. Kretschmann, and G. Huber, "Passive Q-switching of 1.44 μm and 1.34 μm diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers with a V:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 76, 245-247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B. (1)

Yu. V. Volk, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, "Anisotropy of nonlinear absorption in Co2+:MgAl2O4 crystal," Appl. Phys. B. doi.10.1007/500340-007-2716-5 (2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Dennis, S. M. Jackobsen, and W. M. Yen, "Saturation of 1.064 μm absorption in Cr, Ca:Y3Al5O12 crystals crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958-2960 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, A. M. Malyarevich, P. V. Prokoshin, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. N. Posnov, V. P. Mikhailov, and V. A. Sandulenko, "Ultrafast dynamics of excited-state absorption in V3+:YAG crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4782-4784 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. F. Weber and L. A. Riseberg, "Optical spectra of vanadium ions in yttrium aluminum garnet," J. Chem. Phys. 55, 2032-2038 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (1)

N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Kir'yanov, P. P. Pashinin, and S. M. Shpuga, "Study of anisotropy of nonlinear absorption in YAG:Cr4+ crystal," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 78, 1426-1441 (1994).

Laser Phys. (1)

N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Kir'yanov, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, and S. M. Shpuga, "The anisotropy of nonlinear absorption induced by laser radiation in LiF:F2− crystal: the short pulse case," Laser Phys. 3, 182-192 (1993).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Agnesi, A. Guandalini, G. Reali, J. K. Jabczynski, K. Kopczynski, and Z. Mierczyk, "Diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1.34 μm Q-switched and mode locked by a V3+:YAG saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 194, 429-433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (2)

A. S. Grabctchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. A. Orlovich, A. A. Demidovich, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, H. J. Eichler, and M. B. Danailov, "Passively Q-switched 1.35 μm diode-pumped Nd:KGW laser with V:YAG saturable absorber," Opt. Mater. 16, 349-352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Mikhailov, N. V. Kuleshov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, and V. A. Sandulenko, "Optical absorption and nonlinear transmission of tetrahedral V3+ (d2) in yttrium aluminum garnet," Opt. Mater. 2, 267-273 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Kir'yanov, P. P. Pashinin, V. A. Sandulenko, A. V. Sandulenko, and S. M. Shpuga, "Anisotropy of nonlinear absorption in YAG:V3+ crystal," Quantum Electron. 22, 1192-1194 (1995).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of V:YAG crystal plate orientation regarding crystallographic axes. Laser radiation propagates along axis z ([001]), θ is the angle between laser light polarization vector and crystallographic axis [100].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Near infrared absorption spectrum of the V:YAG crystal (inset: energy level model for absorption and relaxation processes in V:YAG crystal).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

V:YAG energy transmissions of linearly polarized light as the function of rotation angle θ at 1.08 μ m (a) and 1.35 μ m (b) for several input energy fluences. Symbols—experiment, lines—modeling according to Eq. (1)—(a) and rate equations from [11]—(b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy-dependent transmissions (a), (c) and the contrast of nonlinear transmission D in dependence on T a v (b), (d) for a V:YAG crystal at 1.08 μ m (a), (b) and 1.35 μ m (c), (d). Symbols—experiment, lines—modeling according to Eq. (1)—(a), (b) and rate equations from [11]—(c), (d). See text for details.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of 1.07- or 1.35 - μ m Nd 3+ :KGd ( WO 4 ) 2 laser passively Q-switched with V:YAG crystal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output parameters of 1.07 - μ m Nd:KGW (a-c) and 1.35 - μ m Nd:KGW (e-g) diode-pumped lasers passively Q-switched with a V:YAG crystal in dependence on rotation angle θ between crystallographic axis [100] and intracavity field polarization: (a, e)—pulse energy, (b, f)—pulse duration, (c, g)—pulse repetition rate. (d, h)—Change of V:YAG SA nonlinear transmission with rotation on the angle θ in the cavity of 1.07-μm (d) and 1.35-μm (h) Nd:KGW lasers under their Q-switched performance.

Equations (1)

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d F d z = 3 F S α 0 ( 1 σ e s a σ g s a ) [ 1 1 3 i = 1 3 exp ( F F S f i ( θ ) ) ] α 0 σ e s a σ g s a F ,

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