Abstract

Since 18 December 2004, the PARASOL satellite is a member of the so-called A-train atmospheric orbital observatory, flying together with Aqua, Aura, CALIPSO, CLOUDSAT, and OCO satellites. These satellites combine for the first time a full suite of instruments for observing aerosols and clouds, using passive radiometer complementarily with active lidar and radar sounders. The PARASOL payload is extensively derived from the instrument developed for the POLDER programs that performs measurements of bidirectionality and polarization for a very wide field-of-view and for a visible∕near-infrared spectral range. An overview of the results obtained during the commissioning phase and the reevaluation after one year in orbit is presented. In-flight calibration methods are briefly described, and radiometric and geometric performances are both evaluated. All algorithms are based on a panel of methods using mainly natural targets previously developed for POLDER missions and adapted or redeveloped in the PARASOL context. Regarding performances, all mission requirements are met except for band 443 (not recommended for use). After one year in orbit, a perfect geometrical stability was found while a slight decrease of the radiometric sensitivity was observed and corrected through an innovative multitemporal algorithm based on observations of bright and scattered convective clouds. The scientific exploitation of PARASOL has now begun, particularly by coupling these specific observations with other A-train sensor measurements.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006

X. Xiong and W. Barnes, "An overview of MODIS radiometric calibration and characterization," Adv. Atmos. Sci. 23, 69-79 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. Lafrance, C. Ruffel, and B. Fougnie, "PARASOL pre-flight radiometric calibration--synthesis report," CNES Tech. Memo. PAR-NT-S7-6423-CNS (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 2005).

2004

O. Hagolle, J. M. Nicolas, B. Fougnie, F. Cabot, and P. Henry, "Absolute calibration of Vegetation derived from an interband method based on sunglint over ocean sites," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 1-10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Six, M. Fily, S. Alvain, P. Henry, and J. P. Benoist, "Surface characterization of the Dome Concordia area (Antarctica) as a potential satellite calibration site, using SPOT-4 Vegetation instrument," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 83-94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. A. J. Schutgens, L. G. Tilstra, P. Stamnes, and F. M. Bréon, "On the relationship between Stokes parameters Q and U of atmospheric ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared radiation," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D09205, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Sylvander, I. Albert-Grousset, and P. Henry, "Geometric performances of the Vegetation products," IEEE International Geosciences And Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 573-575.

R. A. Barnes and F. Zalewski, "Reflectance-based calibration of SeaWiFS: I. Calibration coefficients," Appl. Opt. 42, 1629-1647 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

B. Fougnie, F. Cabot, O. Hagolle, and P. Henry, "CNES contribution to ocean color calibration: cross-calibration over desert sites," SIMBIOS Project 2001 Annual Report, NASA/TM-2002-210005 (NASA, 2002), pp. 159-163.

B. Lafrance, O. Hagolle, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, and G. Brogniez, "Interband calibration over clouds for POLDER space sensor," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 131-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

B. Fougnie, P. Henry, F. Cabot, A. Meygret, and M.-C. Laubies, "Vegetation: in-flight multi-angular calibration," in Earth Observing Systems V, Proc. SPIE 4135, 331-338 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

B. Fougnie, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Vicarious Calibration of the POLDER ocean color spectral bands using in-situ measurements," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1567-1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Toubbé, T. Bailleul, J. L. Deuzé, P. Goloub, O. Hagolle, and M. Herman, "In-flight calibration of the POLDER polarized channels using the sun's glitter," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 513-525 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Cabot, O. Hagolle, C. Ruffel, and P. Henry, "Remote sensing data repository for in-flight calibration of optical sensors over terrestrial targets," in Earth Observing Systems IV, Proc. SPIE 3750, 514-523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. Vanbauce, J. C. Buriez, F. Parol, B. Bonnel, G. Sèze, and P. Couvert, "Apparent pressure derived from ADEOS-POLDER observations in the oxygen A-band over ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3159-3162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, F. Parol, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud detection and derivation of cloud properties from POLDER," Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 2785-2813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

H. Cosnefroy, M. Leroy, and X. Briottet, "Selection and characterization of Saharian and Arabian desert sites for the calibration of optical satellite sensors," Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 101-114 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagolle, A. Guerry, L. Cunin, B. Millet, J. Perbos, J. M. Laherrère, T. Bret-Dibat, and L. Poutier, "POLDER level 1 processing algorithms," in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery II, Proc. SPIE 2758, pp. 308-319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J.-C. Buriez, and G. Sèze, "The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 3598-3615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Rahman and G. Dedieu, "SMAC: a simplified method for the atmospheric correction of satellite measurements in the solar spectrum," Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 123-143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

E. Vermote, R. Santer, P.-Y. Deschamps, and M. Herman, "In-flight calibration of large field of view sensors at shorter wavelengths using Rayleigh scattering," Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 3409-3429 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1979

E. Shettle and R. Fenn, "Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties," AGFL-TR-79-0214, U.S. Air Force Geophys. Lab. (Hanscom Air Force Base, 1979), p. 94.

1954

Albert-Grousset, I.

S. Sylvander, I. Albert-Grousset, and P. Henry, "Geometric performances of the Vegetation products," IEEE International Geosciences And Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 573-575.

Alvain, S.

D. Six, M. Fily, S. Alvain, P. Henry, and J. P. Benoist, "Surface characterization of the Dome Concordia area (Antarctica) as a potential satellite calibration site, using SPOT-4 Vegetation instrument," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 83-94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andre, Y.

T. Bret-Dibat, Y. Andre, and J. M. Laherrère, "Preflight calibration of the POLDER instrument," Remote Sensing and Reconstruction for three Dimensional Objects and Scenes, Proc. SPIE 2572, doi: (1995).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

B. Fougnie, B. P. Henry, A. Morel, D. Antoine, and F. Montagner, "Identification and characterization of stable homogeneous oceanic zones: climatology and impact on in-flight calibration of space sensor over Rayleigh scattering," presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 18-22 November 2002.

Bailey, Sean W.

Bailleul, T.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Toubbé, T. Bailleul, J. L. Deuzé, P. Goloub, O. Hagolle, and M. Herman, "In-flight calibration of the POLDER polarized channels using the sun's glitter," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 513-525 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baqué, C.

J. M. Laherrère, L. Poutier, T. Bret-Dibat, O. Hagolle, C. Baqué, P. Moyer, and E. Verges, "POLDER on-ground stray light analysis, calibration and correction," presented at Europto Conference on Sensors, Systems and Next Generation Satellites III, London, UK, 22-26 September 1997.

Barnes, R. A.

Barnes, W.

X. Xiong and W. Barnes, "An overview of MODIS radiometric calibration and characterization," Adv. Atmos. Sci. 23, 69-79 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benoist, J. P.

D. Six, M. Fily, S. Alvain, P. Henry, and J. P. Benoist, "Surface characterization of the Dome Concordia area (Antarctica) as a potential satellite calibration site, using SPOT-4 Vegetation instrument," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 83-94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bonnel, B.

B. Lafrance, O. Hagolle, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, and G. Brogniez, "Interband calibration over clouds for POLDER space sensor," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 131-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Vanbauce, J. C. Buriez, F. Parol, B. Bonnel, G. Sèze, and P. Couvert, "Apparent pressure derived from ADEOS-POLDER observations in the oxygen A-band over ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3159-3162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, F. Parol, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud detection and derivation of cloud properties from POLDER," Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 2785-2813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bourg, L.

L. Bourg and S. Delwart, "MERIS instrument calibration," presented at the Second MERIS and AATSR Calibration and Geophysical Validation Workshop, Frascati, Italy, 20-24 March 2006.

Bracco, G.

B. Fougnie, G. Bracco, B. Lafrance, C. Ruffel, O. Hagolle, and C. Tinel, "In-flight performances of PARASOL inside the aqua-train atmospheric observatory," presented at the AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 5-9 December 2005, paper A33C-915.

Bréon, F. M.

N. A. J. Schutgens, L. G. Tilstra, P. Stamnes, and F. M. Bréon, "On the relationship between Stokes parameters Q and U of atmospheric ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared radiation," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D09205, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F.-M.

P. Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J.-C. Buriez, and G. Sèze, "The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 3598-3615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bret-Dibat, T.

O. Hagolle, A. Guerry, L. Cunin, B. Millet, J. Perbos, J. M. Laherrère, T. Bret-Dibat, and L. Poutier, "POLDER level 1 processing algorithms," in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery II, Proc. SPIE 2758, pp. 308-319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Bret-Dibat, Y. Andre, and J. M. Laherrère, "Preflight calibration of the POLDER instrument," Remote Sensing and Reconstruction for three Dimensional Objects and Scenes, Proc. SPIE 2572, doi: (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Laherrère, L. Poutier, T. Bret-Dibat, O. Hagolle, C. Baqué, P. Moyer, and E. Verges, "POLDER on-ground stray light analysis, calibration and correction," presented at Europto Conference on Sensors, Systems and Next Generation Satellites III, London, UK, 22-26 September 1997.

Bricaud, A.

P. Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J.-C. Buriez, and G. Sèze, "The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 3598-3615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Briottet, X.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cosnefroy, M. Leroy, and X. Briottet, "Selection and characterization of Saharian and Arabian desert sites for the calibration of optical satellite sensors," Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 101-114 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, G.

B. Lafrance, O. Hagolle, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, and G. Brogniez, "Interband calibration over clouds for POLDER space sensor," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 131-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buriez, J. C.

C. Vanbauce, J. C. Buriez, F. Parol, B. Bonnel, G. Sèze, and P. Couvert, "Apparent pressure derived from ADEOS-POLDER observations in the oxygen A-band over ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3159-3162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, F. Parol, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud detection and derivation of cloud properties from POLDER," Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 2785-2813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Buriez, J.-C.

P. Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J.-C. Buriez, and G. Sèze, "The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 3598-3615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cabot, F.

O. Hagolle, J. M. Nicolas, B. Fougnie, F. Cabot, and P. Henry, "Absolute calibration of Vegetation derived from an interband method based on sunglint over ocean sites," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 1-10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, F. Cabot, O. Hagolle, and P. Henry, "CNES contribution to ocean color calibration: cross-calibration over desert sites," SIMBIOS Project 2001 Annual Report, NASA/TM-2002-210005 (NASA, 2002), pp. 159-163.

B. Fougnie, P. Henry, F. Cabot, A. Meygret, and M.-C. Laubies, "Vegetation: in-flight multi-angular calibration," in Earth Observing Systems V, Proc. SPIE 4135, 331-338 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Cabot, O. Hagolle, C. Ruffel, and P. Henry, "Remote sensing data repository for in-flight calibration of optical sensors over terrestrial targets," in Earth Observing Systems IV, Proc. SPIE 3750, 514-523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagolle and F. Cabot, "Calibration of MERIS using natural targets," presented at the Second MERIS and AATSR Calibration and Geophysical Validation Workshop, Frascati, Italy, 20-24 March 2006.

B. Fougnie, O. Hagolle, and F. Cabot, "In-flight measurement and correction of non-linearity of the POLDER-1's sensitivity," presented at the 8th Symposium of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Aussois, France, 8-12 January 2001.

Clark, D. K.

Cosnefroy, H.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cosnefroy, M. Leroy, and X. Briottet, "Selection and characterization of Saharian and Arabian desert sites for the calibration of optical satellite sensors," Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 101-114 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Couvert, P.

C. Vanbauce, J. C. Buriez, F. Parol, B. Bonnel, G. Sèze, and P. Couvert, "Apparent pressure derived from ADEOS-POLDER observations in the oxygen A-band over ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3159-3162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, F. Parol, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud detection and derivation of cloud properties from POLDER," Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 2785-2813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

Cunin, L.

O. Hagolle, A. Guerry, L. Cunin, B. Millet, J. Perbos, J. M. Laherrère, T. Bret-Dibat, and L. Poutier, "POLDER level 1 processing algorithms," in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery II, Proc. SPIE 2758, pp. 308-319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dedieu, G.

H. Rahman and G. Dedieu, "SMAC: a simplified method for the atmospheric correction of satellite measurements in the solar spectrum," Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 123-143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Delwart, S.

L. Bourg and S. Delwart, "MERIS instrument calibration," presented at the Second MERIS and AATSR Calibration and Geophysical Validation Workshop, Frascati, Italy, 20-24 March 2006.

Deschamps, P. Y.

B. Fougnie, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Vicarious Calibration of the POLDER ocean color spectral bands using in-situ measurements," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1567-1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J.-C. Buriez, and G. Sèze, "The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 3598-3615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P.-Y.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Vermote, R. Santer, P.-Y. Deschamps, and M. Herman, "In-flight calibration of large field of view sensors at shorter wavelengths using Rayleigh scattering," Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 3409-3429 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Deuzé, J. L.

B. Toubbé, T. Bailleul, J. L. Deuzé, P. Goloub, O. Hagolle, and M. Herman, "In-flight calibration of the POLDER polarized channels using the sun's glitter," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 513-525 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eplee, R. E.

Fenn, R.

E. Shettle and R. Fenn, "Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties," AGFL-TR-79-0214, U.S. Air Force Geophys. Lab. (Hanscom Air Force Base, 1979), p. 94.

Fily, M.

D. Six, M. Fily, S. Alvain, P. Henry, and J. P. Benoist, "Surface characterization of the Dome Concordia area (Antarctica) as a potential satellite calibration site, using SPOT-4 Vegetation instrument," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 83-94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fougnie, B.

B. Lafrance, C. Ruffel, and B. Fougnie, "PARASOL pre-flight radiometric calibration--synthesis report," CNES Tech. Memo. PAR-NT-S7-6423-CNS (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 2005).

O. Hagolle, J. M. Nicolas, B. Fougnie, F. Cabot, and P. Henry, "Absolute calibration of Vegetation derived from an interband method based on sunglint over ocean sites," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 1-10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, F. Cabot, O. Hagolle, and P. Henry, "CNES contribution to ocean color calibration: cross-calibration over desert sites," SIMBIOS Project 2001 Annual Report, NASA/TM-2002-210005 (NASA, 2002), pp. 159-163.

B. Fougnie, P. Henry, F. Cabot, A. Meygret, and M.-C. Laubies, "Vegetation: in-flight multi-angular calibration," in Earth Observing Systems V, Proc. SPIE 4135, 331-338 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Vicarious Calibration of the POLDER ocean color spectral bands using in-situ measurements," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1567-1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, G. Bracco, B. Lafrance, C. Ruffel, O. Hagolle, and C. Tinel, "In-flight performances of PARASOL inside the aqua-train atmospheric observatory," presented at the AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 5-9 December 2005, paper A33C-915.

B. Fougnie, O. Hagolle, and F. Cabot, "In-flight measurement and correction of non-linearity of the POLDER-1's sensitivity," presented at the 8th Symposium of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Aussois, France, 8-12 January 2001.

B. Fougnie, B. P. Henry, A. Morel, D. Antoine, and F. Montagner, "Identification and characterization of stable homogeneous oceanic zones: climatology and impact on in-flight calibration of space sensor over Rayleigh scattering," presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 18-22 November 2002.

Fouquart, Y.

B. Lafrance, O. Hagolle, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, and G. Brogniez, "Interband calibration over clouds for POLDER space sensor," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 131-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, F. Parol, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud detection and derivation of cloud properties from POLDER," Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 2785-2813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

B. Fougnie, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Vicarious Calibration of the POLDER ocean color spectral bands using in-situ measurements," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1567-1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goloub, P.

B. Toubbé, T. Bailleul, J. L. Deuzé, P. Goloub, O. Hagolle, and M. Herman, "In-flight calibration of the POLDER polarized channels using the sun's glitter," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 513-525 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, F. Parol, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud detection and derivation of cloud properties from POLDER," Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 2785-2813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guerry, A.

O. Hagolle, A. Guerry, L. Cunin, B. Millet, J. Perbos, J. M. Laherrère, T. Bret-Dibat, and L. Poutier, "POLDER level 1 processing algorithms," in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery II, Proc. SPIE 2758, pp. 308-319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hagolle, O.

O. Hagolle, J. M. Nicolas, B. Fougnie, F. Cabot, and P. Henry, "Absolute calibration of Vegetation derived from an interband method based on sunglint over ocean sites," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 1-10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Lafrance, O. Hagolle, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, and G. Brogniez, "Interband calibration over clouds for POLDER space sensor," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 131-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, F. Cabot, O. Hagolle, and P. Henry, "CNES contribution to ocean color calibration: cross-calibration over desert sites," SIMBIOS Project 2001 Annual Report, NASA/TM-2002-210005 (NASA, 2002), pp. 159-163.

F. Cabot, O. Hagolle, C. Ruffel, and P. Henry, "Remote sensing data repository for in-flight calibration of optical sensors over terrestrial targets," in Earth Observing Systems IV, Proc. SPIE 3750, 514-523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Toubbé, T. Bailleul, J. L. Deuzé, P. Goloub, O. Hagolle, and M. Herman, "In-flight calibration of the POLDER polarized channels using the sun's glitter," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 513-525 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagolle, A. Guerry, L. Cunin, B. Millet, J. Perbos, J. M. Laherrère, T. Bret-Dibat, and L. Poutier, "POLDER level 1 processing algorithms," in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery II, Proc. SPIE 2758, pp. 308-319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, O. Hagolle, and F. Cabot, "In-flight measurement and correction of non-linearity of the POLDER-1's sensitivity," presented at the 8th Symposium of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Aussois, France, 8-12 January 2001.

B. Fougnie, G. Bracco, B. Lafrance, C. Ruffel, O. Hagolle, and C. Tinel, "In-flight performances of PARASOL inside the aqua-train atmospheric observatory," presented at the AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 5-9 December 2005, paper A33C-915.

O. Hagolle and F. Cabot, "Calibration of MERIS using natural targets," presented at the Second MERIS and AATSR Calibration and Geophysical Validation Workshop, Frascati, Italy, 20-24 March 2006.

J. M. Laherrère, L. Poutier, T. Bret-Dibat, O. Hagolle, C. Baqué, P. Moyer, and E. Verges, "POLDER on-ground stray light analysis, calibration and correction," presented at Europto Conference on Sensors, Systems and Next Generation Satellites III, London, UK, 22-26 September 1997.

Henry, B. P.

B. Fougnie, B. P. Henry, A. Morel, D. Antoine, and F. Montagner, "Identification and characterization of stable homogeneous oceanic zones: climatology and impact on in-flight calibration of space sensor over Rayleigh scattering," presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 18-22 November 2002.

Henry, P.

O. Hagolle, J. M. Nicolas, B. Fougnie, F. Cabot, and P. Henry, "Absolute calibration of Vegetation derived from an interband method based on sunglint over ocean sites," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 1-10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Six, M. Fily, S. Alvain, P. Henry, and J. P. Benoist, "Surface characterization of the Dome Concordia area (Antarctica) as a potential satellite calibration site, using SPOT-4 Vegetation instrument," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 83-94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Sylvander, I. Albert-Grousset, and P. Henry, "Geometric performances of the Vegetation products," IEEE International Geosciences And Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 573-575.

B. Fougnie, F. Cabot, O. Hagolle, and P. Henry, "CNES contribution to ocean color calibration: cross-calibration over desert sites," SIMBIOS Project 2001 Annual Report, NASA/TM-2002-210005 (NASA, 2002), pp. 159-163.

B. Fougnie, P. Henry, F. Cabot, A. Meygret, and M.-C. Laubies, "Vegetation: in-flight multi-angular calibration," in Earth Observing Systems V, Proc. SPIE 4135, 331-338 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Cabot, O. Hagolle, C. Ruffel, and P. Henry, "Remote sensing data repository for in-flight calibration of optical sensors over terrestrial targets," in Earth Observing Systems IV, Proc. SPIE 3750, 514-523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

B. Toubbé, T. Bailleul, J. L. Deuzé, P. Goloub, O. Hagolle, and M. Herman, "In-flight calibration of the POLDER polarized channels using the sun's glitter," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 513-525 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, F. Parol, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud detection and derivation of cloud properties from POLDER," Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 2785-2813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Vermote, R. Santer, P.-Y. Deschamps, and M. Herman, "In-flight calibration of large field of view sensors at shorter wavelengths using Rayleigh scattering," Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 3409-3429 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lafrance, B.

B. Lafrance, C. Ruffel, and B. Fougnie, "PARASOL pre-flight radiometric calibration--synthesis report," CNES Tech. Memo. PAR-NT-S7-6423-CNS (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 2005).

B. Lafrance, O. Hagolle, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, and G. Brogniez, "Interband calibration over clouds for POLDER space sensor," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 131-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, G. Bracco, B. Lafrance, C. Ruffel, O. Hagolle, and C. Tinel, "In-flight performances of PARASOL inside the aqua-train atmospheric observatory," presented at the AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 5-9 December 2005, paper A33C-915.

Laherrère, J. M.

O. Hagolle, A. Guerry, L. Cunin, B. Millet, J. Perbos, J. M. Laherrère, T. Bret-Dibat, and L. Poutier, "POLDER level 1 processing algorithms," in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery II, Proc. SPIE 2758, pp. 308-319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Bret-Dibat, Y. Andre, and J. M. Laherrère, "Preflight calibration of the POLDER instrument," Remote Sensing and Reconstruction for three Dimensional Objects and Scenes, Proc. SPIE 2572, doi: (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Laherrère, L. Poutier, T. Bret-Dibat, O. Hagolle, C. Baqué, P. Moyer, and E. Verges, "POLDER on-ground stray light analysis, calibration and correction," presented at Europto Conference on Sensors, Systems and Next Generation Satellites III, London, UK, 22-26 September 1997.

Laubies, M.-C.

B. Fougnie, P. Henry, F. Cabot, A. Meygret, and M.-C. Laubies, "Vegetation: in-flight multi-angular calibration," in Earth Observing Systems V, Proc. SPIE 4135, 331-338 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leroy, M.

H. Cosnefroy, M. Leroy, and X. Briottet, "Selection and characterization of Saharian and Arabian desert sites for the calibration of optical satellite sensors," Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 101-114 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J.-C. Buriez, and G. Sèze, "The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 3598-3615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

Meygret, A.

B. Fougnie, P. Henry, F. Cabot, A. Meygret, and M.-C. Laubies, "Vegetation: in-flight multi-angular calibration," in Earth Observing Systems V, Proc. SPIE 4135, 331-338 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Millet, B.

O. Hagolle, A. Guerry, L. Cunin, B. Millet, J. Perbos, J. M. Laherrère, T. Bret-Dibat, and L. Poutier, "POLDER level 1 processing algorithms," in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery II, Proc. SPIE 2758, pp. 308-319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Montagner, F.

B. Fougnie, B. P. Henry, A. Morel, D. Antoine, and F. Montagner, "Identification and characterization of stable homogeneous oceanic zones: climatology and impact on in-flight calibration of space sensor over Rayleigh scattering," presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 18-22 November 2002.

Morel, A.

B. Fougnie, B. P. Henry, A. Morel, D. Antoine, and F. Montagner, "Identification and characterization of stable homogeneous oceanic zones: climatology and impact on in-flight calibration of space sensor over Rayleigh scattering," presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 18-22 November 2002.

Moyer, P.

J. M. Laherrère, L. Poutier, T. Bret-Dibat, O. Hagolle, C. Baqué, P. Moyer, and E. Verges, "POLDER on-ground stray light analysis, calibration and correction," presented at Europto Conference on Sensors, Systems and Next Generation Satellites III, London, UK, 22-26 September 1997.

Munk, W.

Nicolas, J. M.

O. Hagolle, J. M. Nicolas, B. Fougnie, F. Cabot, and P. Henry, "Absolute calibration of Vegetation derived from an interband method based on sunglint over ocean sites," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 1-10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parol, F.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Vanbauce, J. C. Buriez, F. Parol, B. Bonnel, G. Sèze, and P. Couvert, "Apparent pressure derived from ADEOS-POLDER observations in the oxygen A-band over ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3159-3162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, F. Parol, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud detection and derivation of cloud properties from POLDER," Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 2785-2813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perbos, J.

O. Hagolle, A. Guerry, L. Cunin, B. Millet, J. Perbos, J. M. Laherrère, T. Bret-Dibat, and L. Poutier, "POLDER level 1 processing algorithms," in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery II, Proc. SPIE 2758, pp. 308-319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Platt, F. S.

Podaire, A.

P. Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J.-C. Buriez, and G. Sèze, "The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 3598-3615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poutier, L.

O. Hagolle, A. Guerry, L. Cunin, B. Millet, J. Perbos, J. M. Laherrère, T. Bret-Dibat, and L. Poutier, "POLDER level 1 processing algorithms," in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery II, Proc. SPIE 2758, pp. 308-319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Laherrère, L. Poutier, T. Bret-Dibat, O. Hagolle, C. Baqué, P. Moyer, and E. Verges, "POLDER on-ground stray light analysis, calibration and correction," presented at Europto Conference on Sensors, Systems and Next Generation Satellites III, London, UK, 22-26 September 1997.

Rahman, H.

H. Rahman and G. Dedieu, "SMAC: a simplified method for the atmospheric correction of satellite measurements in the solar spectrum," Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 123-143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, D.

Ruffel, C.

B. Lafrance, C. Ruffel, and B. Fougnie, "PARASOL pre-flight radiometric calibration--synthesis report," CNES Tech. Memo. PAR-NT-S7-6423-CNS (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 2005).

F. Cabot, O. Hagolle, C. Ruffel, and P. Henry, "Remote sensing data repository for in-flight calibration of optical sensors over terrestrial targets," in Earth Observing Systems IV, Proc. SPIE 3750, 514-523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, G. Bracco, B. Lafrance, C. Ruffel, O. Hagolle, and C. Tinel, "In-flight performances of PARASOL inside the aqua-train atmospheric observatory," presented at the AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 5-9 December 2005, paper A33C-915.

Santer, R.

E. Vermote, R. Santer, P.-Y. Deschamps, and M. Herman, "In-flight calibration of large field of view sensors at shorter wavelengths using Rayleigh scattering," Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 3409-3429 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, G. M.

Schutgens, N. A. J.

N. A. J. Schutgens, L. G. Tilstra, P. Stamnes, and F. M. Bréon, "On the relationship between Stokes parameters Q and U of atmospheric ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared radiation," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D09205, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sèze, G.

C. Vanbauce, J. C. Buriez, F. Parol, B. Bonnel, G. Sèze, and P. Couvert, "Apparent pressure derived from ADEOS-POLDER observations in the oxygen A-band over ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3159-3162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, F. Parol, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud detection and derivation of cloud properties from POLDER," Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 2785-2813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J.-C. Buriez, and G. Sèze, "The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 3598-3615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E.

E. Shettle and R. Fenn, "Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties," AGFL-TR-79-0214, U.S. Air Force Geophys. Lab. (Hanscom Air Force Base, 1979), p. 94.

Six, D.

D. Six, M. Fily, S. Alvain, P. Henry, and J. P. Benoist, "Surface characterization of the Dome Concordia area (Antarctica) as a potential satellite calibration site, using SPOT-4 Vegetation instrument," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 83-94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, P.

N. A. J. Schutgens, L. G. Tilstra, P. Stamnes, and F. M. Bréon, "On the relationship between Stokes parameters Q and U of atmospheric ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared radiation," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D09205, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sylvander, S.

S. Sylvander, I. Albert-Grousset, and P. Henry, "Geometric performances of the Vegetation products," IEEE International Geosciences And Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 573-575.

Thoby, M.

M. Thoby, "Myriad: CNES Micro-Satellite Program," presented at the 15th Annual AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites, Logan, Utah, 13-16 August 2001, paper SCO1-I-8.

Tilstra, L. G.

N. A. J. Schutgens, L. G. Tilstra, P. Stamnes, and F. M. Bréon, "On the relationship between Stokes parameters Q and U of atmospheric ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared radiation," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D09205, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tinel, C.

B. Fougnie, G. Bracco, B. Lafrance, C. Ruffel, O. Hagolle, and C. Tinel, "In-flight performances of PARASOL inside the aqua-train atmospheric observatory," presented at the AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 5-9 December 2005, paper A33C-915.

Toubbé, B.

B. Toubbé, T. Bailleul, J. L. Deuzé, P. Goloub, O. Hagolle, and M. Herman, "In-flight calibration of the POLDER polarized channels using the sun's glitter," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 513-525 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vanbauce, C.

C. Vanbauce, J. C. Buriez, F. Parol, B. Bonnel, G. Sèze, and P. Couvert, "Apparent pressure derived from ADEOS-POLDER observations in the oxygen A-band over ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3159-3162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, F. Parol, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud detection and derivation of cloud properties from POLDER," Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 2785-2813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Verges, E.

J. M. Laherrère, L. Poutier, T. Bret-Dibat, O. Hagolle, C. Baqué, P. Moyer, and E. Verges, "POLDER on-ground stray light analysis, calibration and correction," presented at Europto Conference on Sensors, Systems and Next Generation Satellites III, London, UK, 22-26 September 1997.

Vermote, E.

E. Vermote, R. Santer, P.-Y. Deschamps, and M. Herman, "In-flight calibration of large field of view sensors at shorter wavelengths using Rayleigh scattering," Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 3409-3429 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Wayne, D.

Werdell, P. J.

Xiong, X.

X. Xiong and W. Barnes, "An overview of MODIS radiometric calibration and characterization," Adv. Atmos. Sci. 23, 69-79 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zalewski, F.

Adv. Atmos. Sci.

X. Xiong and W. Barnes, "An overview of MODIS radiometric calibration and characterization," Adv. Atmos. Sci. 23, 69-79 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Geophys. Res. Lett.

C. Vanbauce, J. C. Buriez, F. Parol, B. Bonnel, G. Sèze, and P. Couvert, "Apparent pressure derived from ADEOS-POLDER observations in the oxygen A-band over ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3159-3162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

B. Lafrance, O. Hagolle, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, and G. Brogniez, "Interband calibration over clouds for POLDER space sensor," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 131-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagolle, J. M. Nicolas, B. Fougnie, F. Cabot, and P. Henry, "Absolute calibration of Vegetation derived from an interband method based on sunglint over ocean sites," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 1-10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Toubbé, T. Bailleul, J. L. Deuzé, P. Goloub, O. Hagolle, and M. Herman, "In-flight calibration of the POLDER polarized channels using the sun's glitter," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 513-525 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J.-C. Buriez, and G. Sèze, "The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 3598-3615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Vicarious Calibration of the POLDER ocean color spectral bands using in-situ measurements," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1567-1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens.

E. Vermote, R. Santer, P.-Y. Deschamps, and M. Herman, "In-flight calibration of large field of view sensors at shorter wavelengths using Rayleigh scattering," Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 3409-3429 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Buriez, C. Vanbauce, F. Parol, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud detection and derivation of cloud properties from POLDER," Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 2785-2813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Rahman and G. Dedieu, "SMAC: a simplified method for the atmospheric correction of satellite measurements in the solar spectrum," Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 123-143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

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[CrossRef]

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IOCCG, "In-flight calibration of ocean Color Sensor," Reports of the International Ocean-Color Coordinating Group, R. Frouin, ed. (Dartmouth, Canada, to be published).

B. Fougnie, B. P. Henry, A. Morel, D. Antoine, and F. Montagner, "Identification and characterization of stable homogeneous oceanic zones: climatology and impact on in-flight calibration of space sensor over Rayleigh scattering," presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 18-22 November 2002.

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B. Fougnie, O. Hagolle, and F. Cabot, "In-flight measurement and correction of non-linearity of the POLDER-1's sensitivity," presented at the 8th Symposium of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Aussois, France, 8-12 January 2001.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Typical shapes and values for the polynomial P ( θ ) or P l , p and epsilon ε ( θ ) as a function of the viewing angle θ. Polynomial P ( θ ) is linked to P l , p through tan ( θ ) = ( 1 / f ) sqrt [ ( l 137.5 ) d l + ( p 121.5 ) d p ] with f = 3.55   mm is the focal distance of the instrument, d l = 32 and d p = 27 micrometers are sizes of a CCD pixel, l and p are CCD line and column numbers. For the nadir direction, P ( θ ) is normalized to 1 and ε ( θ ) is null.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical top-of-atmosphere normalized radiances for the PARASOL spectral bands and corresponding to targets selected for calibration over Rayleigh scattering, sunglint, clouds, and desert sites. TOA normalized radiances, presented after gaseous absorption correction for ozone, oxygen, and water vapor, illustrate differences between the various calibration targets for both spectral behavior and radiance level aspects.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Location of calibration sites: oceanic sites used for Rayleigh scattering and sunglint calibrations (Indian, North∕South Pacific, and Atlantic), oceanic sites used for calibration over bright clouds (Maldives and Guinea), desert sites used for cross calibration with other sensors (20 sites in Africa and Arabia), and Antarctic sites used for multitemporal calibration (4 sites in Dome C, not presented on this paper).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Calibration over Rayleigh scattering. Measured to estimated radiance ratio Δ A k as a function of the estimated normalized radiance for spectral bands of 490 (top), 565 (middle), and 670 (bottom). Standard deviations are 1.15% for 490, 1.38% for 565, and 2.29% for 670 with N = 4457 points from March to May 2005.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Interband calibration over sunglint. Measured to estimated radiance ratio Δ A k as a function of the estimated normalized radiance for spectral bands of 490 (top), 765 (middle), and 865 (bottom). Standard deviations are 0.88% for 490, 0.84% for 765, and 1.05% for 865 with N = 765 points from March to May 2005.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Interband calibration over clouds. Measured to estimated radiance ratio Δ A k as a function of the estimated normalized radiance for spectral bands of 490 (top), 765 (middle), and 865 (bottom). Standard deviations are 0.67% for 490, 0.54% for 765, and 0.87% for 865 with N = 10614 points from March to May 2005.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Calibration over desert sites. Measured to estimated radiance ratio Δ A k as a function of the estimated normalized radiance for spectral bands of 490 (top), 765 (middle), and 865 (bottom) using POLDER-2∕ADEOS-2 as reference. Standard deviations are 4.61% for 490, 2.13% for 565, and 2.05% for 670 with N = 3941 points from March 2005 to March 2006.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Synthesis of PARASOL in-flight calibration results. Measured to estimated radiance ratio Δ A k for all PARASOL spectral bands and for calibration over Rayleigh scattering (circle), interband over sunglint (triangle), interband over clouds (square) and over desert sites using POLDER-2 as a reference (dot). Interband results (clouds and sunglint) reported here are renormalized to the mean of 490-565- 670 values to be comparable with results from the two other absolute methods.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Temporal evolution of Δ A k from March 2005 to September 2006 for bands 490 (a), 670 (b), and 865 (c) as observed for various calibration methods. For one given spectral band and calibration method, the set of measurements is normalized to a reference value computed for 1 April 2005 using a linear regression on this set. For interband methods, the band 765 is used as reference and is supposed to be stable with time.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Temporal drift in % of the radiometric sensitivity as measured over clouds [(a), top] and modeled [(b), bottom]. (a) The temporal drift is reported as observed from March 2005 to October 2006 over scattered convective clouds for viewing and solar angles less than 40° (“nadir” conditions). Results are normalized for 1 April 2005 and standard deviations are 1.14% for 490, 0.80% for 565, 0.57% for 670, 0.66% for 865, and 2.83% for 1020. The band 765 is used as reference. (b) The temporal drift is reported as estimated by the prediction model. The drift is approximated by a linear regression from March 2005 to May 2006 (initialization of the model). Since then the linear regression is updated each month, from June to November 2006, to operationally predict the temporal drift. Big symbols are the calibration coefficients-predicted for November 2006 using the measurements from March 2005 until October 2006 presented in (a).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) In-flight estimation of the polarization sensitivity of the instrument for the band 670, ε(θ), based on measurements over clouds in specific geometries for which the observed target is unpolarized.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Nonlinearity function as defined by Fougnie et al. [9], derived from preflight characterization (plain line), and measured in-flight using SIT∕LIT alternated acquisitions (diamonds). The in-flight estimated model (dashed line) is consistent with preflight model within 0.5%. All estimations have been normalized to 1.0 for digit 1000.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Calibration results summarized as a function of the viewing angle for the 4 calibration methods. Measured to estimated radiance ratio Δ A k were averaged every 3 degrees for bands 490 [(a), top], 565 [(b), middle], and 865 [(c), bottom].

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) PARASOL geometric registration performances and behavior as a function of the viewing angle for multiangular [(a), top], multispectral [(b), middle], and multipolarization [(c), bottom] aspects. For each of the 11 × 10 areas dividing the CCD matrix, the mean of all available measurements is reported. Statistics are presented in Tables 7, 8, and 9.

Tables (10)

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Table 1 Main Characteristics for PARASOL Satellite and Payload

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Table 2 PARASOL Spectral Bands Including Central Wavelength, Bandwidth, Ability to Measure Polarization, and Saturation Level in Reflectance Unit

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Table 3 Summary of the Calibration Results A k for Rayleigh, Sunglint, Clouds, and Deserts Methods a

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Table 4 Summary of Methods Used to Calibration all PARASOL Spectral Bands for Both Absolute and Temporal Aspects a

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Table 5 In-Flight Noise Estimation Using Dark Current Acquisitions, Dark Ocean Homogeneous Areas, and Analysis of the U Stokes Parameter in the Principal Plane, Compared to Specified Values and Preflight Previsions for Corresponding Spectral Bands and Normalized Radiance Levels

Tables Icon

Table 6 In-Flight Geometrical Calibration of the Alignment Matrix (Roll, Pitch, and Yaw) of the Instrument in Microradians a

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Table 7 Multipolarization Registration Performance for 490, 670, and 865 Polarized Triplets a

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Table 8 Multi-Spectral Registration Performance Estimated for 8 Couples of Neighbor Spectral Bands a

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Table 9 Multiangular Registration Performance Estimated for 7 Turn Numbers of the Filter Wheel a

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Table 10 Absolute Location Accuracy Estimation Using Vegetation SPOT5 as Reference a

Equations (117)

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443 1020   nm
60 °
X l , p = C l , p + A k g l , p G t i P l , p [ p 1 ( l , p , ε , η , α a , T a ) I + p 2 ( l , p , ε , η , α a , T a ) Q + p 3 ( l , p , ε , η , α a , T a ) U ] ,
X l , p
( l , p )
C l , p
[ I , Q , U ]
A k
t i
P l , p
g l , p
p 1
p 2
p 3
α a
T a
[ I , Q , U ]
A k
T a
α a
g l , p
P l , p
C l , p
P l , p
g l , p
P l , p
P ( θ )
ε ( θ )
P l , p
ε ( θ )
g l , p
0.2   nm
± 0.2   nm
0.2   nm
± 1%
λ 4
670   nm
670   nm
100 × 100 km 2
Δ A k
Δ A k Ray ( 490 )
Δ A k Ray ( 565 )
Δ A k Ray ( 670 )
Δ A k Sun ( λ NIR ) = d A k ( λ NIR ) × Δ A k Ray ( 670 )
λ NIR
d A k ( λ NIR )
d A k ( 670 ) = 1
Δ A k Sun ( 490 )
Δ A k Sun ( 565 )
Δ A k ( 670 )
F adj
F adj = / [ Δ A k Ray ( 490 ) + Δ A k Ray ( 565 ) + Δ A k Ray ( 670 ) ] / [ Δ A k Sun ( 490 ) + Δ A k Sun ( 565 ) + Δ A k Sun ( 670 ) ] .
Δ A k Ray ( 490 )
Δ A k Ray ( 565 )
Δ A k Ray ( 670 )
Δ A k Sun ( λ NIR ) = F adj × d A k ( λ NIR ) × Δ A k Ray ( 670 )
Δ A k Sun ( 865 )
M I ( 865 ) / Δ A k Sun ( 865 )
Δ A k Ray ( 490 )
± 1 %
± 1.5 %
± 2 %
O 2
2 %
3 %
1 %
1.5 %
cos 1 ( θ S min )
θ S min
( Q 2 + U 2 )
10   ms
62   ms
X S
X L
t 1000 = SIT + ( LIT SIT ) / ( X L X S ) . ( 1000 X S )
( X S / SIT ) . ( t 1000 / 1000 )
( X L / LIT ) . ( t 1000 / 1000 )
X L
P ( θ ) g l , p
P ( θ )
g l , p
P ( θ )
P ( θ )
g l , p
S P = f 1 k tan ( θ ) + f 3 k tan 3 ( θ ) + f 5 k tan 5 ( θ ) ,
f 1 k
f 3 k
f 5 k
11 × 10
( 11 × 10
60 ° ( X - 60 )
+ 60 °
A k = 1.0
[ A k ( 490 ) + A k ( 565 ) + A k ( 670 ) ] / 3
P ( θ )
P l , p
ε ( θ )
P ( θ )
P l , p
tan ( θ ) = ( 1 / f ) sqrt [ ( l 137.5 ) d l + ( p 121.5 ) d p ]
f = 3.55   mm
d l = 32
d p = 27
P ( θ )
ε ( θ )
Δ A k
N = 4457
Δ A k
N = 765
Δ A k
N = 10614
Δ A k
N = 3941
Δ A k
Δ A k
Δ A k
11 × 10

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