Adaptive spinning-disk interferometry is capable of measuring surface profiles of a thin biolayer with subnanometer longitudinal resolution. High-speed phase modulation in the signal beam arises from the moving surface height profile on the spinning disk and is detected as a homodyne signal via dynamic two-wave mixing. A photorefractive quantum-well device performs as an adaptive mixer that compensates disk wobble and vibration while it phase-locks the signal and reference waves in the phase quadrature condition ( relative phase between the signal and local oscillator). We performed biosensing of immobilized monolayers of antibodies on the disk in both transmission and reflection detection modes. Single- and dual-analyte adaptive spinning-disk immunoassays were demonstrated with good specificity and without observable cross-reactivity. Reflection-mode detection enhances the biosensing sensitivity to one-twentieth of a protein monolayer, creates a topographic map of the protein layer, and can differentiate monolayers of different species by their effective optical thicknesses.
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