Abstract

We present modeled aerosol optical properties (single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, and lidar ratio) in two layers with different aerosol loadings and particle sizes, observed during the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 (SAFARI 2000) campaign. The optical properties were calculated from aerosol size distributions retrieved from aerosol layer optical thickness spectra, measured using the NASA Ames airborne tracking 14-channel sunphotometer (AATS-14) and the refractive index based on the available information on aerosol chemical composition. The study focuses on sensitivity of modeled optical properties in the 0.3–1.5 μm wavelength range to assumptions regarding the mixing scenario. We considered two models for the mixture of absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosol components commonly used to model optical properties of biomass burning aerosol: a layered sphere with absorbing core and nonabsorbing shell and the Maxwell–Garnett effective medium model. In addition, comparisons of modeled optical properties with the measurements are discussed. We also estimated the radiative effect of the difference in aerosol absorption implied by the large difference between the single scattering albedo values (0.1 at midvisible wavelengths) obtained from different measurement methods for the case with a high amount of biomass burning particles. For that purpose, the volume fraction of black carbon was varied to obtain a range of single scattering albedo values (0.81–0.91 at λ=0.50  μm). The difference in absorption resulted in a significant difference in the instantaneous radiative forcing at the surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and can result in a change of the sign of the aerosol forcing at TOA from negative to positive.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007

M. Kuzmanoski, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, B. Schmid, J. Wang, P. B. Russell, H. H. Jonsson, and J. H. Seinfeld, "Aerosol properties computed from aircraft-based observations during the ACE-Asia campaign: 1. Aerosol size distributions retrieved from optical thickness measurements," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41, 202-216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Cattrall, J. Reagan, K. Thome, and O. Dubovik, "Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios of key aerosol types derived from selected aerosol robotic network locations," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, "A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. J. Eatough, N. L. Eatough, Y. Pang, S. Sizemore, T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, and P. V. Hobbs, "Semivolatile particulate organic material in southern Africa during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8479, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Queface, S. J. Piketh, H. J. Annegarn, B. N. Holben, and R. J. Uthui, "Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and size distribution from the CIMEL Sun photometer over Inhaca Island, Mozambique," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8509, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Freiman and S. J. Piketh, "Air transport into and out of the industrialized Highveld region of South Africa," J. Appl. Meteorol. 42, 994-1002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Pilewskie, J. Pommier, R. Bergstrom, W. Gore, S. Howard, M. Rabette, B. Schmid, P. V. Hobbs, and S. C. Tsay, "Solar spectral radiative forcing during the Southern African Science Initiative," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8486, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Posfai, R. Simonics, J. Li, P. V. Hobbs, and P. R. Buseck, "Individual aerosol particles from biomass burning in southern Africa: 1. Compositions and size distributions of carbonaceous particles," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8473, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, M. Posfai, P. V. Hobbs, and P. R. Buseck, "Individual aerosol particles from biomass burning in southern Africa: 2. Compositions and aging of inorganic particles," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8484, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Swap, H. J. Annegarn, J. T. Suttles, M. D. King, S. Platnick, J. L. Privette, and R. J. Scholes, "Africa burning: a thematic analysis of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8465, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, J. Redemann, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, B. N. Holben, E. J. Welton, J. R. Campbell, O. Torres, R. A. Kahn, D. J. Diner, M. C. Helmlinger, D. A. Chu, C. Robles-Gonzalez, and G. de Leeuw, "Coordinated airborne, spaceborne, and ground-based measurements of massive thick aerosol layers during the dry season in southern Africa," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8496, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Magi, P. V. Hobbs, B. Schmid, and J. Redemann, "Vertical profiles of light scattering, light absorption, and single scattering albedo during the dry, biomass burning season in southern Africa and comparisons of in situ and remote sensing measurements of aerosol optical depths," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8504, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Bergstrom, P. Pilewskie, B. Schmid, and P. B. Russell, "Estimates of the spectral aerosol single scattering albedo and aerosol radiative effects during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8474, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, S. R. Osborne, P. N. Francis, A. Keil, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, and P. H. Kaye, "The mean physical and optical properties of regional haze dominated by biomass burning aerosol measured from the C-130 aircraft during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8473, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. Holben, "Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties, and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Keil and J. M. Haywood, "Solar radiative forcing by biomass burning aerosol particles during SAFARI 2000: a case study based on measured aerosol and cloud properties," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8467, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. J. Annegarn, L. Otter, R. J. Swap, and R. J. Scholes, "Southern Africa's ecosystem in a test tube: a perspective on the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)," S. Afr. J. Sci. 98, 111-113 (2002).

M. D. McGill, D. Hlavka, W. Hart, J. Spinhirne, S. Scott, and B. Schmid, "The cloud physics lidar: instrument description and initial measurement results," Appl. Opt. 41, 3725-3734 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Bergstrom, P. B. Russell, and P. Hignett, "Wavelength dependence of the absorption of black carbon particles: predictions and results from the TARFOX experiment and implications for the aerosol single scattering albedo," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 567-577 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

I. A. Podgorny and V. Ramanathan, "A modeling study of the direct effect of aerosols over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 24097-24105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kay, M. A. Box, T. Trautmann, and J. Landgraf, "Actinic flux and net calculations in radiative transfer--a comparative study of computational efficiency," J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 3752-3761 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Keil, M. Wendisch, and E. Bruggemann, "Measured profiles of aerosol particle absorption and its influence on clear-sky solar radiative forcing," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1237-1247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

O. Dubovik and M. King, "A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673-20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Jacobson, "A physically-based treatment of elemental carbon optics: implications for global direct forcing of aerosols," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 217-220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. A. Fuller, W. C. Malm, and S. M. Kreidenweis, "Effects of mixing on extinction by carbonaceous particles," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 15941-15954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, S. Mattoo, P. V. Hobbs, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and A. Smirnov, "Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and size distribution over ocean from the MODIS airborne simulator during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2261-2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, and P. V. Hobbs, "Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289-2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smimov, "AERONET-- a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanre, and I. Slutsker, "Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31903-31923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Martins, P. V. Hobbs, R. E. Weiss, and P. Artaxo, "Sphericity and morphology of smoke particles from biomass burning in Brazil," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32051-32057 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, "Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831-844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid and P. V. Hobbs, "Physical and optical properties of young smoke from individual biomass fires in Brazil," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32013-32030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Martins, P. Artaxo, C. Liousse, J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, and Y. J. Kaufman, "Effects of black carbon content, particle size, and mixing on light absorption by aerosols from biomass burning in Brazil," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32041-32050 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Ferek, D. R. Blake, J. V. Martins, M. R. Dunlap, and C. Liousse, "Physical, chemical, and optical properties of regional hazes dominated by smoke in Brazil," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32059-32080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao and J. H. Seinfeld, "Radiative forcing by mineral dust aerosols: sensitivity to key variables," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31637-31645 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Ross, P. V. Hobbs, and B. Holben, "Radiative characteristics of regional hazes dominant by smoke from biomass burning in Brazil: Closure tests and direct radiative forcing," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31925-31941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. Liousse, F. Dulac, H. Cachier, and D. Tanre, "Remote sensing of carbonaceous aerosol production by African savanna biomass burning," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 5895-5911 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Hobbs, J. S. Reid, R. A. Kotchenruther, R. J. Ferek, and R. Weiss, "Direct radiative forcing by smoke from biomass burning," Science 275, 1776-1778 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

B. E. Anderson, W. B. Grant, G. L. Gregory, E. V. Browell, J. E. Collins, Jr., G. W. Sachse, D. R. Bagwell, C. H. Hudgins, D. R. Blake, and N. J. Blake, "Aerosols from biomass burning over the tropical South Atlantic region: distributions and impacts," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24117-24137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. M. Haywood and K. P. Shine, "The effect of anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosol on clear sky planetary radiation budget," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 603-606 (1995).
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W. M. Hao and M.-H. Liu, "Spatial and temporal distribution of tropical biomass burning," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 8, 495-503 (1994).
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H. Horvath, "Atmospheric light absorption-a review," Atmos. Environ. , Part A 27, 293-317 (1993).

Q. Fu and K. N. Liou, "Parameterization of the radiative properties of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 2008-2025 (1993).
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1992

Q. Fu and K. N. Liou, "On the correlated k-distribution method for radiative transfer in nonhomogeneous atmospheres," J. Atmos. Sci. 49, 2139-2156 (1992).
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J. E. Penner, R. E. Dickinson, and C. A. O'Neill, "Effects of aerosols from biomass burning on the global radiation budget," Science 256, 1432-1434 (1992).
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1990

H. Chang and T. T. Charalampopoulos, "Determination of the wavelength dependence of refractive indices of flame soot," Proc. R. Soc. London , Ser. A 430, 577-591 (1990).
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1988

1983

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983), 530 pp.

1982

M. D. King, "Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagarange multiplier," J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 1356-1369 (1982).
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1981

1980

1978

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, "Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153-2167 (1978).
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1929

A. Ångström, "On the atmospheric transmission of sun radiation and on dust in the air," Geogr. Ann. 11, 156-166 (1929).
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Ackerman, T. P.

Anderson, B. E.

B. E. Anderson, W. B. Grant, G. L. Gregory, E. V. Browell, J. E. Collins, Jr., G. W. Sachse, D. R. Bagwell, C. H. Hudgins, D. R. Blake, and N. J. Blake, "Aerosols from biomass burning over the tropical South Atlantic region: distributions and impacts," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24117-24137 (1996).
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Andreae, M. O.

J. M. Haywood, S. R. Osborne, P. N. Francis, A. Keil, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, and P. H. Kaye, "The mean physical and optical properties of regional haze dominated by biomass burning aerosol measured from the C-130 aircraft during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8473, doi: (2003).
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Ångström, A.

A. Ångström, "On the atmospheric transmission of sun radiation and on dust in the air," Geogr. Ann. 11, 156-166 (1929).
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A. J. Queface, S. J. Piketh, H. J. Annegarn, B. N. Holben, and R. J. Uthui, "Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and size distribution from the CIMEL Sun photometer over Inhaca Island, Mozambique," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8509, doi: (2003).
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R. J. Swap, H. J. Annegarn, J. T. Suttles, M. D. King, S. Platnick, J. L. Privette, and R. J. Scholes, "Africa burning: a thematic analysis of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8465, doi: (2003).
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H. J. Annegarn, L. Otter, R. J. Swap, and R. J. Scholes, "Southern Africa's ecosystem in a test tube: a perspective on the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)," S. Afr. J. Sci. 98, 111-113 (2002).

Artaxo, P.

J. V. Martins, P. V. Hobbs, R. E. Weiss, and P. Artaxo, "Sphericity and morphology of smoke particles from biomass burning in Brazil," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32051-32057 (1998).
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J. V. Martins, P. Artaxo, C. Liousse, J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, and Y. J. Kaufman, "Effects of black carbon content, particle size, and mixing on light absorption by aerosols from biomass burning in Brazil," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32041-32050 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bagwell, D. R.

B. E. Anderson, W. B. Grant, G. L. Gregory, E. V. Browell, J. E. Collins, Jr., G. W. Sachse, D. R. Bagwell, C. H. Hudgins, D. R. Blake, and N. J. Blake, "Aerosols from biomass burning over the tropical South Atlantic region: distributions and impacts," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24117-24137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, R.

P. Pilewskie, J. Pommier, R. Bergstrom, W. Gore, S. Howard, M. Rabette, B. Schmid, P. V. Hobbs, and S. C. Tsay, "Solar spectral radiative forcing during the Southern African Science Initiative," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8486, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, and P. V. Hobbs, "Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289-2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, R. W.

R. W. Bergstrom, P. Pilewskie, B. Schmid, and P. B. Russell, "Estimates of the spectral aerosol single scattering albedo and aerosol radiative effects during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8474, doi: (2003).
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R. W. Bergstrom, P. B. Russell, and P. Hignett, "Wavelength dependence of the absorption of black carbon particles: predictions and results from the TARFOX experiment and implications for the aerosol single scattering albedo," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 567-577 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blake, D. R.

J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Ferek, D. R. Blake, J. V. Martins, M. R. Dunlap, and C. Liousse, "Physical, chemical, and optical properties of regional hazes dominated by smoke in Brazil," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32059-32080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Anderson, W. B. Grant, G. L. Gregory, E. V. Browell, J. E. Collins, Jr., G. W. Sachse, D. R. Bagwell, C. H. Hudgins, D. R. Blake, and N. J. Blake, "Aerosols from biomass burning over the tropical South Atlantic region: distributions and impacts," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24117-24137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blake, N. J.

B. E. Anderson, W. B. Grant, G. L. Gregory, E. V. Browell, J. E. Collins, Jr., G. W. Sachse, D. R. Bagwell, C. H. Hudgins, D. R. Blake, and N. J. Blake, "Aerosols from biomass burning over the tropical South Atlantic region: distributions and impacts," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24117-24137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983), 530 pp.

Box, G. P.

M. Kuzmanoski, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, B. Schmid, J. Wang, P. B. Russell, H. H. Jonsson, and J. H. Seinfeld, "Aerosol properties computed from aircraft-based observations during the ACE-Asia campaign: 1. Aerosol size distributions retrieved from optical thickness measurements," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41, 202-216 (2007).
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Box, M. A.

M. Kuzmanoski, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, B. Schmid, J. Wang, P. B. Russell, H. H. Jonsson, and J. H. Seinfeld, "Aerosol properties computed from aircraft-based observations during the ACE-Asia campaign: 1. Aerosol size distributions retrieved from optical thickness measurements," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41, 202-216 (2007).
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M. J. Kay, M. A. Box, T. Trautmann, and J. Landgraf, "Actinic flux and net calculations in radiative transfer--a comparative study of computational efficiency," J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 3752-3761 (2001).
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Browell, E. V.

B. E. Anderson, W. B. Grant, G. L. Gregory, E. V. Browell, J. E. Collins, Jr., G. W. Sachse, D. R. Bagwell, C. H. Hudgins, D. R. Blake, and N. J. Blake, "Aerosols from biomass burning over the tropical South Atlantic region: distributions and impacts," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24117-24137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bruggemann, E.

A. Keil, M. Wendisch, and E. Bruggemann, "Measured profiles of aerosol particle absorption and its influence on clear-sky solar radiative forcing," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1237-1247 (2001).
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Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smimov, "AERONET-- a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
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Buseck, P. R.

J. Li, M. Posfai, P. V. Hobbs, and P. R. Buseck, "Individual aerosol particles from biomass burning in southern Africa: 2. Compositions and aging of inorganic particles," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8484, doi: (2003).
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M. Posfai, R. Simonics, J. Li, P. V. Hobbs, and P. R. Buseck, "Individual aerosol particles from biomass burning in southern Africa: 1. Compositions and size distributions of carbonaceous particles," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8473, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, D. M.

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, "Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153-2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Cachier, H.

C. Liousse, F. Dulac, H. Cachier, and D. Tanre, "Remote sensing of carbonaceous aerosol production by African savanna biomass burning," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 5895-5911 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. R.

B. Schmid, J. Redemann, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, B. N. Holben, E. J. Welton, J. R. Campbell, O. Torres, R. A. Kahn, D. J. Diner, M. C. Helmlinger, D. A. Chu, C. Robles-Gonzalez, and G. de Leeuw, "Coordinated airborne, spaceborne, and ground-based measurements of massive thick aerosol layers during the dry season in southern Africa," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8496, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cattrall, C.

C. Cattrall, J. Reagan, K. Thome, and O. Dubovik, "Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios of key aerosol types derived from selected aerosol robotic network locations," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.

H. Chang and T. T. Charalampopoulos, "Determination of the wavelength dependence of refractive indices of flame soot," Proc. R. Soc. London , Ser. A 430, 577-591 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Charalampopoulos, T. T.

H. Chang and T. T. Charalampopoulos, "Determination of the wavelength dependence of refractive indices of flame soot," Proc. R. Soc. London , Ser. A 430, 577-591 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chien, A.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, and P. V. Hobbs, "Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289-2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Christopher, S. A.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, "A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, D. A.

B. Schmid, J. Redemann, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, B. N. Holben, E. J. Welton, J. R. Campbell, O. Torres, R. A. Kahn, D. J. Diner, M. C. Helmlinger, D. A. Chu, C. Robles-Gonzalez, and G. de Leeuw, "Coordinated airborne, spaceborne, and ground-based measurements of massive thick aerosol layers during the dry season in southern Africa," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8496, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chýlek, P.

Collins, J. E.

B. E. Anderson, W. B. Grant, G. L. Gregory, E. V. Browell, J. E. Collins, Jr., G. W. Sachse, D. R. Bagwell, C. H. Hudgins, D. R. Blake, and N. J. Blake, "Aerosols from biomass burning over the tropical South Atlantic region: distributions and impacts," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24117-24137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Leeuw, G.

B. Schmid, J. Redemann, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, B. N. Holben, E. J. Welton, J. R. Campbell, O. Torres, R. A. Kahn, D. J. Diner, M. C. Helmlinger, D. A. Chu, C. Robles-Gonzalez, and G. de Leeuw, "Coordinated airborne, spaceborne, and ground-based measurements of massive thick aerosol layers during the dry season in southern Africa," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8496, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, R. E.

J. E. Penner, R. E. Dickinson, and C. A. O'Neill, "Effects of aerosols from biomass burning on the global radiation budget," Science 256, 1432-1434 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diner, D. J.

B. Schmid, J. Redemann, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, B. N. Holben, E. J. Welton, J. R. Campbell, O. Torres, R. A. Kahn, D. J. Diner, M. C. Helmlinger, D. A. Chu, C. Robles-Gonzalez, and G. de Leeuw, "Coordinated airborne, spaceborne, and ground-based measurements of massive thick aerosol layers during the dry season in southern Africa," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8496, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O.

C. Cattrall, J. Reagan, K. Thome, and O. Dubovik, "Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios of key aerosol types derived from selected aerosol robotic network locations," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, "A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. Holben, "Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties, and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471, doi: (2003).
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O. Dubovik and M. King, "A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673-20696 (2000).
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O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanre, and I. Slutsker, "Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31903-31923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dulac, F.

C. Liousse, F. Dulac, H. Cachier, and D. Tanre, "Remote sensing of carbonaceous aerosol production by African savanna biomass burning," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 5895-5911 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dunlap, M. R.

J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Ferek, D. R. Blake, J. V. Martins, M. R. Dunlap, and C. Liousse, "Physical, chemical, and optical properties of regional hazes dominated by smoke in Brazil," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32059-32080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Durkee, P.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, and P. V. Hobbs, "Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289-2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eatough, D. J.

D. J. Eatough, N. L. Eatough, Y. Pang, S. Sizemore, T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, and P. V. Hobbs, "Semivolatile particulate organic material in southern Africa during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8479, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eatough, N. L.

D. J. Eatough, N. L. Eatough, Y. Pang, S. Sizemore, T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, and P. V. Hobbs, "Semivolatile particulate organic material in southern Africa during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8479, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, "A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smimov, "AERONET-- a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eleuterio, D. P.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, "A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferek, R. J.

J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Ferek, D. R. Blake, J. V. Martins, M. R. Dunlap, and C. Liousse, "Physical, chemical, and optical properties of regional hazes dominated by smoke in Brazil," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32059-32080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Hobbs, J. S. Reid, R. A. Kotchenruther, R. J. Ferek, and R. Weiss, "Direct radiative forcing by smoke from biomass burning," Science 275, 1776-1778 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Formenti, P.

J. M. Haywood, S. R. Osborne, P. N. Francis, A. Keil, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, and P. H. Kaye, "The mean physical and optical properties of regional haze dominated by biomass burning aerosol measured from the C-130 aircraft during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8473, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Francis, P.

J. M. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. Holben, "Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties, and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Francis, P. N.

J. M. Haywood, S. R. Osborne, P. N. Francis, A. Keil, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, and P. H. Kaye, "The mean physical and optical properties of regional haze dominated by biomass burning aerosol measured from the C-130 aircraft during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8473, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freiman, M. T.

M. T. Freiman and S. J. Piketh, "Air transport into and out of the industrialized Highveld region of South Africa," J. Appl. Meteorol. 42, 994-1002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Q.

Q. Fu and K. N. Liou, "Parameterization of the radiative properties of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 2008-2025 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fu and K. N. Liou, "On the correlated k-distribution method for radiative transfer in nonhomogeneous atmospheres," J. Atmos. Sci. 49, 2139-2156 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, K. A.

K. A. Fuller, W. C. Malm, and S. M. Kreidenweis, "Effects of mixing on extinction by carbonaceous particles," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 15941-15954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Glew, M.

J. M. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. Holben, "Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties, and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gore, W.

P. Pilewskie, J. Pommier, R. Bergstrom, W. Gore, S. Howard, M. Rabette, B. Schmid, P. V. Hobbs, and S. C. Tsay, "Solar spectral radiative forcing during the Southern African Science Initiative," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8486, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grant, W. B.

B. E. Anderson, W. B. Grant, G. L. Gregory, E. V. Browell, J. E. Collins, Jr., G. W. Sachse, D. R. Bagwell, C. H. Hudgins, D. R. Blake, and N. J. Blake, "Aerosols from biomass burning over the tropical South Atlantic region: distributions and impacts," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24117-24137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, G. L.

B. E. Anderson, W. B. Grant, G. L. Gregory, E. V. Browell, J. E. Collins, Jr., G. W. Sachse, D. R. Bagwell, C. H. Hudgins, D. R. Blake, and N. J. Blake, "Aerosols from biomass burning over the tropical South Atlantic region: distributions and impacts," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24117-24137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hao, W. M.

W. M. Hao and M.-H. Liu, "Spatial and temporal distribution of tropical biomass burning," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 8, 495-503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hart, W.

Haywood, J. M.

J. M. Haywood, S. R. Osborne, P. N. Francis, A. Keil, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, and P. H. Kaye, "The mean physical and optical properties of regional haze dominated by biomass burning aerosol measured from the C-130 aircraft during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8473, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. Holben, "Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties, and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Keil and J. M. Haywood, "Solar radiative forcing by biomass burning aerosol particles during SAFARI 2000: a case study based on measured aerosol and cloud properties," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8467, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood and K. P. Shine, "The effect of anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosol on clear sky planetary radiation budget," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 603-606 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Helmlinger, M. C.

B. Schmid, J. Redemann, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, B. N. Holben, E. J. Welton, J. R. Campbell, O. Torres, R. A. Kahn, D. J. Diner, M. C. Helmlinger, D. A. Chu, C. Robles-Gonzalez, and G. de Leeuw, "Coordinated airborne, spaceborne, and ground-based measurements of massive thick aerosol layers during the dry season in southern Africa," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8496, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, "Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153-2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hess, M.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, "Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831-844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hignett, P.

R. W. Bergstrom, P. B. Russell, and P. Hignett, "Wavelength dependence of the absorption of black carbon particles: predictions and results from the TARFOX experiment and implications for the aerosol single scattering albedo," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 567-577 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, and P. V. Hobbs, "Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289-2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hlavka, D.

Hlavka, D. L.

B. Schmid, J. Redemann, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, B. N. Holben, E. J. Welton, J. R. Campbell, O. Torres, R. A. Kahn, D. J. Diner, M. C. Helmlinger, D. A. Chu, C. Robles-Gonzalez, and G. de Leeuw, "Coordinated airborne, spaceborne, and ground-based measurements of massive thick aerosol layers during the dry season in southern Africa," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8496, doi: (2003).
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Hobbs, P. V.

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R. J. Swap, H. J. Annegarn, J. T. Suttles, M. D. King, S. Platnick, J. L. Privette, and R. J. Scholes, "Africa burning: a thematic analysis of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8465, doi: (2003).
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I. A. Podgorny and V. Ramanathan, "A modeling study of the direct effect of aerosols over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 24097-24105 (2001).
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Pommier, J.

P. Pilewskie, J. Pommier, R. Bergstrom, W. Gore, S. Howard, M. Rabette, B. Schmid, P. V. Hobbs, and S. C. Tsay, "Solar spectral radiative forcing during the Southern African Science Initiative," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8486, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Posfai, M.

J. Li, M. Posfai, P. V. Hobbs, and P. R. Buseck, "Individual aerosol particles from biomass burning in southern Africa: 2. Compositions and aging of inorganic particles," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8484, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Posfai, R. Simonics, J. Li, P. V. Hobbs, and P. R. Buseck, "Individual aerosol particles from biomass burning in southern Africa: 1. Compositions and size distributions of carbonaceous particles," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8473, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Privette, J. L.

R. J. Swap, H. J. Annegarn, J. T. Suttles, M. D. King, S. Platnick, J. L. Privette, and R. J. Scholes, "Africa burning: a thematic analysis of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8465, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Queface, A.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Queface, A. J.

A. J. Queface, S. J. Piketh, H. J. Annegarn, B. N. Holben, and R. J. Uthui, "Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and size distribution from the CIMEL Sun photometer over Inhaca Island, Mozambique," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8509, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rabette, M.

P. Pilewskie, J. Pommier, R. Bergstrom, W. Gore, S. Howard, M. Rabette, B. Schmid, P. V. Hobbs, and S. C. Tsay, "Solar spectral radiative forcing during the Southern African Science Initiative," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8486, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramanathan, V.

I. A. Podgorny and V. Ramanathan, "A modeling study of the direct effect of aerosols over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 24097-24105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J.

C. Cattrall, J. Reagan, K. Thome, and O. Dubovik, "Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios of key aerosol types derived from selected aerosol robotic network locations," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smimov, "AERONET-- a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
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M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, "Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153-2167 (1978).
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Redemann, J.

B. Schmid, J. Redemann, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, B. N. Holben, E. J. Welton, J. R. Campbell, O. Torres, R. A. Kahn, D. J. Diner, M. C. Helmlinger, D. A. Chu, C. Robles-Gonzalez, and G. de Leeuw, "Coordinated airborne, spaceborne, and ground-based measurements of massive thick aerosol layers during the dry season in southern Africa," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8496, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Magi, P. V. Hobbs, B. Schmid, and J. Redemann, "Vertical profiles of light scattering, light absorption, and single scattering albedo during the dry, biomass burning season in southern Africa and comparisons of in situ and remote sensing measurements of aerosol optical depths," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8504, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reid, E. A.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, "A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J. S.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, "A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827-849 (2005).
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J. S. Reid and P. V. Hobbs, "Physical and optical properties of young smoke from individual biomass fires in Brazil," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32013-32030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Ferek, D. R. Blake, J. V. Martins, M. R. Dunlap, and C. Liousse, "Physical, chemical, and optical properties of regional hazes dominated by smoke in Brazil," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32059-32080 (1998).
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J. V. Martins, P. Artaxo, C. Liousse, J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, and Y. J. Kaufman, "Effects of black carbon content, particle size, and mixing on light absorption by aerosols from biomass burning in Brazil," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32041-32050 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Hobbs, J. S. Reid, R. A. Kotchenruther, R. J. Ferek, and R. Weiss, "Direct radiative forcing by smoke from biomass burning," Science 275, 1776-1778 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Remer, L. A.

D. Tanré, L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, S. Mattoo, P. V. Hobbs, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and A. Smirnov, "Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and size distribution over ocean from the MODIS airborne simulator during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2261-2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robles-Gonzalez, C.

B. Schmid, J. Redemann, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, B. N. Holben, E. J. Welton, J. R. Campbell, O. Torres, R. A. Kahn, D. J. Diner, M. C. Helmlinger, D. A. Chu, C. Robles-Gonzalez, and G. de Leeuw, "Coordinated airborne, spaceborne, and ground-based measurements of massive thick aerosol layers during the dry season in southern Africa," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8496, doi: (2003).
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Ross, J. L.

J. L. Ross, P. V. Hobbs, and B. Holben, "Radiative characteristics of regional hazes dominant by smoke from biomass burning in Brazil: Closure tests and direct radiative forcing," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31925-31941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

M. Kuzmanoski, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, B. Schmid, J. Wang, P. B. Russell, H. H. Jonsson, and J. H. Seinfeld, "Aerosol properties computed from aircraft-based observations during the ACE-Asia campaign: 1. Aerosol size distributions retrieved from optical thickness measurements," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41, 202-216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, J. Redemann, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, B. N. Holben, E. J. Welton, J. R. Campbell, O. Torres, R. A. Kahn, D. J. Diner, M. C. Helmlinger, D. A. Chu, C. Robles-Gonzalez, and G. de Leeuw, "Coordinated airborne, spaceborne, and ground-based measurements of massive thick aerosol layers during the dry season in southern Africa," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8496, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Bergstrom, P. Pilewskie, B. Schmid, and P. B. Russell, "Estimates of the spectral aerosol single scattering albedo and aerosol radiative effects during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8474, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Bergstrom, P. B. Russell, and P. Hignett, "Wavelength dependence of the absorption of black carbon particles: predictions and results from the TARFOX experiment and implications for the aerosol single scattering albedo," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 567-577 (2002).
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D. Tanré, L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, S. Mattoo, P. V. Hobbs, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and A. Smirnov, "Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and size distribution over ocean from the MODIS airborne simulator during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2261-2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, and P. V. Hobbs, "Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289-2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sachse, G. W.

B. E. Anderson, W. B. Grant, G. L. Gregory, E. V. Browell, J. E. Collins, Jr., G. W. Sachse, D. R. Bagwell, C. H. Hudgins, D. R. Blake, and N. J. Blake, "Aerosols from biomass burning over the tropical South Atlantic region: distributions and impacts," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24117-24137 (1996).
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Schafer, J. S.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, B.

M. Kuzmanoski, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, B. Schmid, J. Wang, P. B. Russell, H. H. Jonsson, and J. H. Seinfeld, "Aerosol properties computed from aircraft-based observations during the ACE-Asia campaign: 1. Aerosol size distributions retrieved from optical thickness measurements," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41, 202-216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Pilewskie, J. Pommier, R. Bergstrom, W. Gore, S. Howard, M. Rabette, B. Schmid, P. V. Hobbs, and S. C. Tsay, "Solar spectral radiative forcing during the Southern African Science Initiative," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8486, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Magi, P. V. Hobbs, B. Schmid, and J. Redemann, "Vertical profiles of light scattering, light absorption, and single scattering albedo during the dry, biomass burning season in southern Africa and comparisons of in situ and remote sensing measurements of aerosol optical depths," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8504, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Bergstrom, P. Pilewskie, B. Schmid, and P. B. Russell, "Estimates of the spectral aerosol single scattering albedo and aerosol radiative effects during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8474, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, J. Redemann, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, B. N. Holben, E. J. Welton, J. R. Campbell, O. Torres, R. A. Kahn, D. J. Diner, M. C. Helmlinger, D. A. Chu, C. Robles-Gonzalez, and G. de Leeuw, "Coordinated airborne, spaceborne, and ground-based measurements of massive thick aerosol layers during the dry season in southern Africa," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8496, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGill, D. Hlavka, W. Hart, J. Spinhirne, S. Scott, and B. Schmid, "The cloud physics lidar: instrument description and initial measurement results," Appl. Opt. 41, 3725-3734 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholes, R. J.

R. J. Swap, H. J. Annegarn, J. T. Suttles, M. D. King, S. Platnick, J. L. Privette, and R. J. Scholes, "Africa burning: a thematic analysis of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8465, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Annegarn, L. Otter, R. J. Swap, and R. J. Scholes, "Southern Africa's ecosystem in a test tube: a perspective on the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)," S. Afr. J. Sci. 98, 111-113 (2002).

Schult, I.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, "Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831-844 (1998).
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Scott, S.

Seinfeld, J. H.

M. Kuzmanoski, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, B. Schmid, J. Wang, P. B. Russell, H. H. Jonsson, and J. H. Seinfeld, "Aerosol properties computed from aircraft-based observations during the ACE-Asia campaign: 1. Aerosol size distributions retrieved from optical thickness measurements," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41, 202-216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao and J. H. Seinfeld, "Radiative forcing by mineral dust aerosols: sensitivity to key variables," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31637-31645 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smimov, "AERONET-- a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shine, K. P.

J. M. Haywood and K. P. Shine, "The effect of anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosol on clear sky planetary radiation budget," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 603-606 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Simonics, R.

M. Posfai, R. Simonics, J. Li, P. V. Hobbs, and P. R. Buseck, "Individual aerosol particles from biomass burning in southern Africa: 1. Compositions and size distributions of carbonaceous particles," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8473, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sizemore, S.

D. J. Eatough, N. L. Eatough, Y. Pang, S. Sizemore, T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, and P. V. Hobbs, "Semivolatile particulate organic material in southern Africa during SAFARI 2000," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8479, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smimov, "AERONET-- a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanre, and I. Slutsker, "Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31903-31923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smimov, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smimov, "AERONET-- a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, S. Mattoo, P. V. Hobbs, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and A. Smirnov, "Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and size distribution over ocean from the MODIS airborne simulator during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2261-2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanre, and I. Slutsker, "Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31903-31923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, J.

Srivastava, V.

Suttles, J. T.

R. J. Swap, H. J. Annegarn, J. T. Suttles, M. D. King, S. Platnick, J. L. Privette, and R. J. Scholes, "Africa burning: a thematic analysis of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8465, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Swap, R. J.

R. J. Swap, H. J. Annegarn, J. T. Suttles, M. D. King, S. Platnick, J. L. Privette, and R. J. Scholes, "Africa burning: a thematic analysis of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8465, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Annegarn, L. Otter, R. J. Swap, and R. J. Scholes, "Southern Africa's ecosystem in a test tube: a perspective on the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)," S. Afr. J. Sci. 98, 111-113 (2002).

Tanre, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smimov, "AERONET-- a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanre, and I. Slutsker, "Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31903-31923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Liousse, F. Dulac, H. Cachier, and D. Tanre, "Remote sensing of carbonaceous aerosol production by African savanna biomass burning," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 5895-5911 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

D. Tanré, L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, S. Mattoo, P. V. Hobbs, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and A. Smirnov, "Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and size distribution over ocean from the MODIS airborne simulator during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2261-2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thome, K.

C. Cattrall, J. Reagan, K. Thome, and O. Dubovik, "Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios of key aerosol types derived from selected aerosol robotic network locations," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

Torres, O.

B. Schmid, J. Redemann, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, B. N. Holben, E. J. Welton, J. R. Campbell, O. Torres, R. A. Kahn, D. J. Diner, M. C. Helmlinger, D. A. Chu, C. Robles-Gonzalez, and G. de Leeuw, "Coordinated airborne, spaceborne, and ground-based measurements of massive thick aerosol layers during the dry season in southern Africa," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8496, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trautmann, T.

M. J. Kay, M. A. Box, T. Trautmann, and J. Landgraf, "Actinic flux and net calculations in radiative transfer--a comparative study of computational efficiency," J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 3752-3761 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, S. C.

P. Pilewskie, J. Pommier, R. Bergstrom, W. Gore, S. Howard, M. Rabette, B. Schmid, P. V. Hobbs, and S. C. Tsay, "Solar spectral radiative forcing during the Southern African Science Initiative," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8486, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uthui, R. J.

A. J. Queface, S. J. Piketh, H. J. Annegarn, B. N. Holben, and R. J. Uthui, "Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and size distribution from the CIMEL Sun photometer over Inhaca Island, Mozambique," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8509, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smimov, "AERONET-- a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

M. Kuzmanoski, M. A. Box, G. P. Box, B. Schmid, J. Wang, P. B. Russell, H. H. Jonsson, and J. H. Seinfeld, "Aerosol properties computed from aircraft-based observations during the ACE-Asia campaign: 1. Aerosol size distributions retrieved from optical thickness measurements," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41, 202-216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. T.

Ward, D. E.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8477, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, R.

P. V. Hobbs, J. S. Reid, R. A. Kotchenruther, R. J. Ferek, and R. Weiss, "Direct radiative forcing by smoke from biomass burning," Science 275, 1776-1778 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, R. E.

J. V. Martins, P. V. Hobbs, R. E. Weiss, and P. Artaxo, "Sphericity and morphology of smoke particles from biomass burning in Brazil," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32051-32057 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Welton, E. J.

B. Schmid, J. Redemann, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, B. N. Holben, E. J. Welton, J. R. Campbell, O. Torres, R. A. Kahn, D. J. Diner, M. C. Helmlinger, D. A. Chu, C. Robles-Gonzalez, and G. de Leeuw, "Coordinated airborne, spaceborne, and ground-based measurements of massive thick aerosol layers during the dry season in southern Africa," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8496, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wendisch, M.

A. Keil, M. Wendisch, and E. Bruggemann, "Measured profiles of aerosol particle absorption and its influence on clear-sky solar radiative forcing," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1237-1247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wong, J.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, A. Chien, R. Bergstrom, P. Durkee, and P. V. Hobbs, "Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlantic coast: comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2289-2307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamasoe, M.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Yamasoe, A. Smirnov, D. Tanre, and I. Slutsker, "Single-scattering albedo of smoke retrieved from the sky radiance and solar transmittance measured from ground," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31903-31923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, "A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Aerosol optical thickness spectra over Mongu, Zambia, on 6 September, from AATS-14 measurements: optical depth at 1.24   km , and optical thickness of the layer between 1.24 and 4 .82   km ; optical depth calculated from AERONET-derived size distribution [see (c)]; and optical depth obtained from AERONET measurements; lines represent optical thickness calculated from the retrieved size distributions [shown in (b)]. (b) Aerosol size distributions retrieved from AATS-14—measured optical depth at 1.24 km and layer optical thickness between 1.24 and 4.82 km. (c) Comparison of aerosol size distributions in (b) with AERONET-derived size distribution (obtained from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov); black curve represents the retrieval closest in time to the aircraft overfly, and gray area shows daily variability of AERONET size distribution (mean ± standard deviation).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) AATS-14—measured aerosol optical thickness spectra of layers between four horizontal legs flown by UW Convair-580 over Inhaca Island, Mozambique, on 24 August. Lines represent spectra calculated from the retrieved size distributions [see (b)]. (b) Aerosol layer size distributions retrieved from the AATS-14—measured optical thickness spectra shown in (a). Open circles represent the scaled size distribution for the layer over Mongu (see the text).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the relative difference between the optical thicknesses resulting from the Maxwell–Garnett (MG) and core-shell (CS) mixing models on effective size parameter (defined in the text). The results are for BC volume fractions of 5%, 10%, and 15%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Aerosol single scattering albedo calculated from the retrieved size distribution over Inhaca Island, Mozambique, on 24 August, using the MG mixing model. Total aerosol single scattering albedo spectrum and spectra for individual modes of the aerosol size distribution, are shown. Gray area represents the range of aerosol single scattering albedo values calculated from the retrieved size distribution over Mongu, Zambia (6 September), using the MG mixing model, and a range of BC volume fractions that yield single scattering albedo at 0.50   μm in agreement with the values obtained from SSFR measurements [12] (see the text). At all wavelengths, the lower and upper limits of the range of single scattering albedo values correspond to BC volume fractions of 3.9% and 6.3%, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Size dependence of Ångström exponent of the absorption coefficient for the cases: (a) the MG mixing model and different volume mixing ratios of BC; (b) different mixing scenarios and 5% BC volume mixing ratio.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative difference between the aerosol backscattering coefficients calculated for two mixing models: Maxwell–Garnett (MG) and core-shell (CS).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Instantaneous shortwave radiative forcing of the aerosol layer over Mongu, at the TOA and the surface, as a function of surface albedo R s . Vertical lines indicate the range of surface albedo values typical of savanna. The data are shown for the cases of lower and higher single scattering albedo (SSA) values (0.81 and 0.91 at midvisible, respectively), and two values of cosine of solar zenith angle ( μ 0 = 0.89 and μ 0 = 0.50 ).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Aerosol Refractive Index Values Used in Calculations in the Present Work (for the Aerosol Layer over Mongu), and Values Retrieved from AERONET Measurements [22] (Obtained from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Lidar Ratio Calculated in This Study, and That Measured Using a CPL Aboard the ER-2 Aircraft (as Reported by Schmid et al. [10])

Equations (115)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

0.1
λ = 0.50   μm
1.557   μm
1 .557   μm
0 .940   μm
O 3
NO 2
H 2 O
O 2 O 2
τ ( λ ) = π ln r 1 ln r 2 r 2 Q e x t ( r , λ , m ) n ( r ) d ln r ,
τ ( λ )
Q e x t
n ( r ) = d N ( r ) / d ln r
1.11   km
α = 1.95
τ ( λ ) λ α
[ τ ( 0.5   μm ) = 0.18 ]
( α = 1.50 )
[ d S / d ln r = 4 π r 2 n ( r ) ]
0.34 1.02   μm
0 .05 15   μm
0 .13   km
1 .2   km
1 .24   km
d V / d ln r = ( 4 / 3 ) π r 3 n ( r )
1   μm
( 0 .15   μm )
2.80   km
( 0 .06 2 .80   km )
α = 1.18
0.06 2.80   km
10 20   km
2 .80   km
τ ( 0 .50   μm )
1   h
30%
40%
1 .7   g / cm 3
1.35 g / cm 3
0.5   μm
1 .75 - 0 .44 i
1.53 10 7 i
m e f f 2 = m s c 2 m a 2 + 2 m s c 2 + 2 v a ( m a 2 m s c 2 ) m a 2 + 2 m s c 2 v a ( m a 2 m s c 2 ) ,
m a
m s c
v a
( 0.354 1.557   μm )
5.0   μm
x e f f = 2 π r e f f / λ
r e f f
n ( r )
r e f f = r 1 r 2 r 3 n ( r ) d r r 1 r 2 r 2 n ( r ) d r .
( r e f f 0.14   μm )
x e f f
1.54 - 0.02 i
1.45 - 0.0035 i
± 0.1   μm
1 .52 - 0 .02 i
0.3 1.5   μm
λ = 0.50   μm
0 .89 ± 0 .02
0 .83 ± 0 .08
λ = 0.50   μm
λ = 0.50   μm
α a b s
τ a b s λ α a b s ,
0 .3 1 .5   μm
0 .3 1 .5   μm
0 .870   μm
0 .84 0 .86
0 .50   μm
0 .81 ± 0 .02
0 .80 0 .95
λ = 0.532   μm
1 .064   μm
60 ± 8   sr
λ = 0.532   μm
5   sr
3% 6%
λ = 0.50   μm
λ = 0.55   μm
( 1 .43 1 .55 )
2.0 - 1.0 i
1.8 - 0.5 i
1.75 - 0.44 i
1.5 - 0.5 i
0.5   μm
0 .02 - 0 .03
0 .07
2 .0 - 1 .0 i
0.532   μm
( 8 12   sr )
( 1 2   sr )
( 9 13   sr )
0.87 0.91
0.50   μm
60.0   sr
ω 0 = 0.81
4.82   km
27 ° ( μ 0 = 0.89 )
60 ° ( μ 0 = 0.50 )
( μ 0 = 0.89 )
64.5 W   m 2
42.4 W   m 2
( μ 0 = 0.50 )
0.50   μm
0 .89 ± 0 .02
37 .6   W   m 2
( μ 0 = 0.89 )
1.24   km
4 .82   km
0.50   μm
R s
μ 0 = 0.89
μ 0 = 0.50

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