Abstract

The correct formula of the thermal focal length in a side-pumped Nd:YAG laser rod is discussed and confirmed by experimental results. It is shown that thermally induced stresses that cause a distortion of flatness occur within the region of the whole rod. The presented calculations are in agreement with the experimental observations. The results reveal that the temperature-dependent variation of the refractive index and the distortion caused by the thermally induced stresses constitute the major contributions to thermal lensing.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Koechner, "Thermo-optic effects and heat removal," in Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999), pp. 406-468.
  2. W. Koechner, "Thermal lensing in a Nd:YAG laser rod," Appl. Opt. 9, 2548-2553 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Koechner, "Properties of solid-state laser materials," in Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999), pp. 28-87.
  4. P. M. Blanchard, D. J. Fisher, S. C. Woods, and A. H. Greenaway, "Phase-diversity wavefront sensing with a distorted diffraction grating," Appl. Opt. 39, 6649-6655 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. M. Blanchard and A. H. Greenaway, "Simultaneous multiplane imaging with a distorted diffraction grating," Appl. Opt. 38, 6692-6699 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Y. Fan, "Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457-1459 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. "Nd-doped Phosphate Glass," http://www.laserglass.com.cn/english-page/index/product/Nd%20doped%20phosphate%20glass.htm.
  8. G. Albrecht, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, W. Sooy, and S. B. Sutton, "High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime," U.S. patent 5,526,372 (11 June 1996).
  9. X. Wang, X. Xu, Q. Lu, and E. Xi, "Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurement for dynamic temperature profiles in heat capacity laser rods," Appl. Opt. 46, 2963-2968 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2000

1999

P. M. Blanchard and A. H. Greenaway, "Simultaneous multiplane imaging with a distorted diffraction grating," Appl. Opt. 38, 6692-6699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Koechner, "Thermo-optic effects and heat removal," in Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999), pp. 406-468.

W. Koechner, "Properties of solid-state laser materials," in Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999), pp. 28-87.

1996

G. Albrecht, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, W. Sooy, and S. B. Sutton, "High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime," U.S. patent 5,526,372 (11 June 1996).

1993

T. Y. Fan, "Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457-1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1970

Albrecht, G.

G. Albrecht, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, W. Sooy, and S. B. Sutton, "High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime," U.S. patent 5,526,372 (11 June 1996).

Blanchard, P. M.

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, "Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457-1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, D. J.

George, E. V.

G. Albrecht, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, W. Sooy, and S. B. Sutton, "High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime," U.S. patent 5,526,372 (11 June 1996).

Greenaway, A. H.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, "Properties of solid-state laser materials," in Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999), pp. 28-87.

W. Koechner, "Thermo-optic effects and heat removal," in Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999), pp. 406-468.

W. Koechner, "Thermal lensing in a Nd:YAG laser rod," Appl. Opt. 9, 2548-2553 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krupke, W. F.

G. Albrecht, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, W. Sooy, and S. B. Sutton, "High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime," U.S. patent 5,526,372 (11 June 1996).

Lu, Q.

Sooy, W.

G. Albrecht, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, W. Sooy, and S. B. Sutton, "High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime," U.S. patent 5,526,372 (11 June 1996).

Sutton, S. B.

G. Albrecht, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, W. Sooy, and S. B. Sutton, "High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime," U.S. patent 5,526,372 (11 June 1996).

Wang, X.

Woods, S. C.

Xi, E.

Xu, X.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

T. Y. Fan, "Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457-1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

"Nd-doped Phosphate Glass," http://www.laserglass.com.cn/english-page/index/product/Nd%20doped%20phosphate%20glass.htm.

G. Albrecht, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, W. Sooy, and S. B. Sutton, "High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime," U.S. patent 5,526,372 (11 June 1996).

W. Koechner, "Thermo-optic effects and heat removal," in Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999), pp. 406-468.

W. Koechner, "Properties of solid-state laser materials," in Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999), pp. 28-87.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental diagram: measurement of the thermal lensing of the Nd:YAG rod.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparing experimental results and calculations with operating current range from 15 to 25 A.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental diagram: measurement of the dynamic distortion profile of the Nd:glass rod.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Properties of Nd:YAG

Tables Icon

Table 2 Properties of Nd:Phosphate

Equations (42)

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Nd 3 +
Nd 3 +
f = K A P a [ 1 2 d n d T + α C r , ϕ n 0 3 + α r 0 ( n 0 1 ) L ] 1 ,
r 0
P a
n 0
C r , ϕ
f = K A P a ( 1 2 d n d T + α C r , ϕ n 0 3 + α ( n 0 1 ) ) 1 .
Nd 3 +
0.6328   μm
T E M 00
632.8   nm
105   mm
+ 1
1
102.02   mm
C r , ϕ
0.808   μm
1.064   μm
0 .6328   μm
56   cm
4   cm
Nd 3 +
Nd 3 +
Nd 3 +
50   cm
460   μs
10   Hz
256 × 256
16 × 16
1 .5   kHz
3   cm
0 .6328   μm
T E M 00
632 .8   nm
100   Hz
0 .32   cm
2   cm
d n d T
d n d T
K 1
4.3 × 10 6

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