Abstract

The retrieval of ocean color radiometry from space-based sensors requires on-orbit vicarious calibration to achieve the level of accuracy desired for quantitative oceanographic applications. The approach developed by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) adjusts the integrated instrument and atmospheric correction system to retrieve normalized water-leaving radiances that are in agreement with ground truth measurements. The method is independent of the satellite sensor or the source of the ground truth data, but it is specific to the atmospheric correction algorithm. The OBPG vicarious calibration approach is described in detail, and results are presented for the operational calibration of SeaWiFS using data from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) and observations of clear-water sites in the South Pacific and southern Indian Ocean. It is shown that the vicarious calibration allows SeaWiFS to reproduce the MOBY radiances and achieve good agreement with radiometric and chlorophyll a measurements from independent in situ sources. We also find that the derived vicarious gains show no significant temporal or geometric dependencies, and that the mission-average calibration reaches stability after 2040 high-quality calibration samples. Finally, we demonstrate that the performance of the vicariously calibrated retrieval system is relatively insensitive to the assumptions inherent in our approach.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  39. P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, "Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84 (2003) p. 379 and 385.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  42. N. Martiny, R. Frouin, and R. Santer, "Radiometric calibration of SeaWiFS in the near infrared," Appl. Opt. 44, 7828-7844 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. R. Green and T. G. Chrien, "High altitude measurements of radiance at high spectral and spatial resolution for SIMBIOS sensor calibration, validation and intercomparisons," NASA Tech. Memo. 208645 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (1999).

2007 (1)

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the 'clearest' natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, "A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products," Remote Sens. Environ. 102, 12-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, "Effects of ocean surface reflectance variation with solar elevation on normalized water-leaving radiance," Appl. Opt. 45, 4122-4128 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

H. R. Gordon, "Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness," Appl. Opt. 44, 241-248 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, "Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction," Appl. Opt. 44, 5524-5535 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Martiny, R. Frouin, and R. Santer, "Radiometric calibration of SeaWiFS in the near infrared," Appl. Opt. 44, 7828-7844 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS" 5882, 1-13 (2005).

M. Wang, "A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure," Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5651-5653 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, "A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from seawifs in coastal waters," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, "Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84 (2003) p. 379 and 385.
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes and E. F. Zalewski, "Reflectance-based calibration of seawifs II. conversion to radiance," Appl. Opt. 42, 1648-1660 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, H. H. Kieffer, T. C. Stone, G. Meister, J. J. Butler, and C. R. McClain, "Comparison of SeaWiFS measurements of the moon with the U.S. geological survey lunar model," Appl. Opt. 43, 5838-5854 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentilli, "Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Ramen emission and varying particle scattering phase function," Appl. Opt. 41, 6289-6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, "Calibration of ocean color scanners: how much error is acceptable in the near infrared?" Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497-504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, "The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWIFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2693-2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

B. A. Franz, E. J. Ainsworth, and S. W. Bailey, "SeaWiFS vicarious calibration: an alternative approach utilizing simultaneous in situ observations of oceanic and atmospheric optical properties," NASA Tech. Memo. 209982 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2001).

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean," Appl. Opt. 40, 343-348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee Jr., W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. vicarious techniqes," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

B. C. Gao, M. J. Montes, Z. Ahmad, and C. O. Davis, "Atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of ocean color from space," Appl. Opt. 39, 887-896 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Higurashi, T. Nakajima, B. N. Holben, A. Smirnov, R. Frouin, and B. Chatenet, "A study of global aerosol optical climatology with two-channel avhrr remote sensing," J. Clim. 13, 2011-2027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, "Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

D. Antoine and A. Morel, "A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (meris instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875-1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Green and T. G. Chrien, "High altitude measurements of radiance at high spectral and spatial resolution for SIMBIOS sensor calibration, validation and intercomparisons," NASA Tech. Memo. 208645 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (1999).

M. Wang, "Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: computing atmospheric diffuse transmittance," Appl. Opt. 38, 451-455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, and N. Kuring, "Science quality seawifs data for global biosphere research," Sea Technol. 39, 10-16 (1998).

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, "In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors," Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265-278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Dechamps, "Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361-14371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, and T. Zhang, "Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: analysis of the effects of residual instrument polarization sensitivity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6938-6948 (1997).

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, "Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209-17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

1992 (1)

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, "An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color," NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (1992).

1989 (1)

R. Frouin, D. W. Ligner, and C. Gautier, "A simple analytical formula to compute clear sky total and photosynthetically available solar irradiance at the ocean surface," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9731-9742 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Astronomical Almanac (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984).

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on their Optical Properties, vol. ADA085951 of Environmental Research Papers (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory Hanscom AFB, 1979).

Abbot, M. R.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, M. R.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Ahmad, Z.

Aiken, J.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

Ainsworth, E. J.

B. A. Franz, E. J. Ainsworth, and S. W. Bailey, "SeaWiFS vicarious calibration: an alternative approach utilizing simultaneous in situ observations of oceanic and atmospheric optical properties," NASA Tech. Memo. 209982 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2001).

Antoine, D.

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentilli, "Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Ramen emission and varying particle scattering phase function," Appl. Opt. 41, 6289-6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Antoine and A. Morel, "A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (meris instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875-1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, P. Henry, A. Morel, D. Antoine, and F. Montagner, "Identification and characterization of stable homogeneous oceanic zones: climatology and impact on in-flight calibration of space sensors over Rayleigh scattering," in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XVI (Oceanography Society, 2002).

Arnone, R.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Arnone, R. A.

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, "A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from seawifs in coastal waters," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Arrigo, K. R.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

Babin, M.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the 'clearest' natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, "A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products," Remote Sens. Environ. 102, 12-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS" 5882, 1-13 (2005).

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, "Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84 (2003) p. 379 and 385.
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee Jr., W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. vicarious techniqes," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, E. J. Ainsworth, and S. W. Bailey, "SeaWiFS vicarious calibration: an alternative approach utilizing simultaneous in situ observations of oceanic and atmospheric optical properties," NASA Tech. Memo. 209982 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2001).

Balch, W. M.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, J. R. M. A.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Barnes, R. A.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

R. A. Barnes and E. F. Zalewski, "Reflectance-based calibration of seawifs II. conversion to radiance," Appl. Opt. 42, 1648-1660 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, H. H. Kieffer, T. C. Stone, G. Meister, J. J. Butler, and C. R. McClain, "Comparison of SeaWiFS measurements of the moon with the U.S. geological survey lunar model," Appl. Opt. 43, 5838-5854 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee Jr., W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. vicarious techniqes," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean," Appl. Opt. 40, 343-348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barton, I. J.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the 'clearest' natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Broenkow, W.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Broenkow, W. W.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, "Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209-17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Butler, J. J.

Campbell, J. W.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Carder, K. L.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chatenet, B.

A. Higurashi, T. Nakajima, B. N. Holben, A. Smirnov, R. Frouin, and B. Chatenet, "A study of global aerosol optical climatology with two-channel avhrr remote sensing," J. Clim. 13, 2011-2027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chavez, F. P.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

Chrien, T. G.

R. Green and T. G. Chrien, "High altitude measurements of radiance at high spectral and spatial resolution for SIMBIOS sensor calibration, validation and intercomparisons," NASA Tech. Memo. 208645 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (1999).

Clark, D. K.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

R. E. Eplee Jr., W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. vicarious techniqes," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, "Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209-17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the 'clearest' natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cleave, M. L.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, and N. Kuring, "Science quality seawifs data for global biosphere research," Sea Technol. 39, 10-16 (1998).

Cota, G. F.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

Culver, M.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

Davis, C.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Davis, C. O.

Dechamps, P. Y.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Dechamps, "Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361-14371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, T. D.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Du, T.

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, and T. Zhang, "Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: analysis of the effects of residual instrument polarization sensitivity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6938-6948 (1997).

Eplee, R. E.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS" 5882, 1-13 (2005).

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, H. H. Kieffer, T. C. Stone, G. Meister, J. J. Butler, and C. R. McClain, "Comparison of SeaWiFS measurements of the moon with the U.S. geological survey lunar model," Appl. Opt. 43, 5838-5854 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee Jr., W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. vicarious techniqes," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W. E.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, "An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color," NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (1992).

Evans, R. H.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fargion, G.

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, "Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84 (2003) p. 379 and 385.
[CrossRef]

Fargion, G. S.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Feinholz, M.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Feldman, G.

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, "Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84 (2003) p. 379 and 385.
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G. C.

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, "Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction," Appl. Opt. 44, 5524-5535 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, and N. Kuring, "Science quality seawifs data for global biosphere research," Sea Technol. 39, 10-16 (1998).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, "An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color," NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (1992).

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B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS" 5882, 1-13 (2005).

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, "Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction," Appl. Opt. 44, 5524-5535 (2005).
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F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

B. A. Franz, E. J. Ainsworth, and S. W. Bailey, "SeaWiFS vicarious calibration: an alternative approach utilizing simultaneous in situ observations of oceanic and atmospheric optical properties," NASA Tech. Memo. 209982 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2001).

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean," Appl. Opt. 40, 343-348 (2001).
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J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

A. Higurashi, T. Nakajima, B. N. Holben, A. Smirnov, R. Frouin, and B. Chatenet, "A study of global aerosol optical climatology with two-channel avhrr remote sensing," J. Clim. 13, 2011-2027 (2000).
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Gales, J.

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Gao, B. C.

Gautier, C.

R. Frouin, D. W. Ligner, and C. Gautier, "A simple analytical formula to compute clear sky total and photosynthetically available solar irradiance at the ocean surface," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9731-9742 (1989).
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Ge, Y.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, "Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209-17217 (1997).
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A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the 'clearest' natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
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Gordon, H. R.

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W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
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H. R. Gordon, "In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors," Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265-278 (1998).
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H. R. Gordon, T. Du, and T. Zhang, "Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: analysis of the effects of residual instrument polarization sensitivity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6938-6948 (1997).

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, "Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209-17217 (1997).
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H. R. Gordon, "Remote sensing of ocean color: a methodology for dealing with broad spectral bands and significant out-of-band response," Appl. Opt. 34, 8363-8374 (1995).
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H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 33, 443-452 (1994).
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H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS," Appl. Opt. 33, 7754-7763 (1994).
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H. R. Gordon, "Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery," Appl. Opt. 20, 4175-4180 (1981).
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Gould, J. R. W.

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, "A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from seawifs in coastal waters," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Green, R.

R. Green and T. G. Chrien, "High altitude measurements of radiance at high spectral and spatial resolution for SIMBIOS sensor calibration, validation and intercomparisons," NASA Tech. Memo. 208645 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (1999).

Gregg, W. W.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, and N. Kuring, "Science quality seawifs data for global biosphere research," Sea Technol. 39, 10-16 (1998).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, "An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color," NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (1992).

Harding, J. L. W.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Harding, L.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

Henry, P.

B. Fougnie, P. Henry, A. Morel, D. Antoine, and F. Montagner, "Identification and characterization of stable homogeneous oceanic zones: climatology and impact on in-flight calibration of space sensors over Rayleigh scattering," in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XVI (Oceanography Society, 2002).

Higurashi, A.

A. Higurashi, T. Nakajima, B. N. Holben, A. Smirnov, R. Frouin, and B. Chatenet, "A study of global aerosol optical climatology with two-channel avhrr remote sensing," J. Clim. 13, 2011-2027 (2000).
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Hoge, F. E.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Holben, B. N.

A. Higurashi, T. Nakajima, B. N. Holben, A. Smirnov, R. Frouin, and B. Chatenet, "A study of global aerosol optical climatology with two-channel avhrr remote sensing," J. Clim. 13, 2011-2027 (2000).
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Hooker, S. B.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, and N. Kuring, "Science quality seawifs data for global biosphere research," Sea Technol. 39, 10-16 (1998).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, "An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color," NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (1992).

Johnson, B. C.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Kahru, M.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

Kieffer, H. H.

Kim, Y. S.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Knobelspiesse, K.

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, "Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84 (2003) p. 379 and 385.
[CrossRef]

Knobelspiesse, K. D.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Kuring, N.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, and N. Kuring, "Science quality seawifs data for global biosphere research," Sea Technol. 39, 10-16 (1998).

Kuwahara, V. S.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Kwiatkowska, E.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS" 5882, 1-13 (2005).

Kwiatkowska, E. J.

Lazin, G.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Lee, Z.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Letelier, R.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Letelier, R. M.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Lewis, M. R.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Ligner, D. W.

R. Frouin, D. W. Ligner, and C. Gautier, "A simple analytical formula to compute clear sky total and photosynthetically available solar irradiance at the ocean surface," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9731-9742 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lykke, K. R.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Magnuson, A.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

Manov, D.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Maritorena, S.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

Martinolich, P. M.

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, "A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from seawifs in coastal waters," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Martiny, N.

McClain, C.

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, "Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84 (2003) p. 379 and 385.
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, "Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction," Appl. Opt. 44, 5524-5535 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS" 5882, 1-13 (2005).

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, H. H. Kieffer, T. C. Stone, G. Meister, J. J. Butler, and C. R. McClain, "Comparison of SeaWiFS measurements of the moon with the U.S. geological survey lunar model," Appl. Opt. 43, 5838-5854 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee Jr., W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. vicarious techniqes," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean," Appl. Opt. 40, 343-348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, and N. Kuring, "Science quality seawifs data for global biosphere research," Sea Technol. 39, 10-16 (1998).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, "An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color," NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (1992).

McLean, S.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Meister, G.

Miller, M.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Minnett, P. J.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbot, I. J. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

Mobley, C. D.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Montagner, F.

B. Fougnie, P. Henry, A. Morel, D. Antoine, and F. Montagner, "Identification and characterization of stable homogeneous oceanic zones: climatology and impact on in-flight calibration of space sensors over Rayleigh scattering," in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XVI (Oceanography Society, 2002).

Montes, M. J.

Moore, G. F.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

Moore, K. D.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, "Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the 'clearest' natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentilli, "Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Ramen emission and varying particle scattering phase function," Appl. Opt. 41, 6289-6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Antoine and A. Morel, "A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (meris instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875-1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, P. Henry, A. Morel, D. Antoine, and F. Montagner, "Identification and characterization of stable homogeneous oceanic zones: climatology and impact on in-flight calibration of space sensors over Rayleigh scattering," in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XVI (Oceanography Society, 2002).

Mueller, J. L.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Muller-Karger, F.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

Nakajima, T.

A. Higurashi, T. Nakajima, B. N. Holben, A. Smirnov, R. Frouin, and B. Chatenet, "A study of global aerosol optical climatology with two-channel avhrr remote sensing," J. Clim. 13, 2011-2027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, M. C.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

O'Reilly, J. E.

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

Patt, F. S.

G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, "Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction," Appl. Opt. 44, 5524-5535 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS" 5882, 1-13 (2005).

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, H. H. Kieffer, T. C. Stone, G. Meister, J. J. Butler, and C. R. McClain, "Comparison of SeaWiFS measurements of the moon with the U.S. geological survey lunar model," Appl. Opt. 43, 5838-5854 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phinney, D.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

Pietras, C.

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, "Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84 (2003) p. 379 and 385.
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Porter, J.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Ransibrahmanakul, V.

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, "A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from seawifs in coastal waters," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Ras, J.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the 'clearest' natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, W. D.

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

R. E. Eplee Jr., W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. vicarious techniqes," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Santer, R.

Schwindling, M.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Dechamps, "Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361-14371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on their Optical Properties, vol. ADA085951 of Environmental Research Papers (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory Hanscom AFB, 1979).

Siegel, D. A.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

Smirnov, A.

A. Higurashi, T. Nakajima, B. N. Holben, A. Smirnov, R. Frouin, and B. Chatenet, "A study of global aerosol optical climatology with two-channel avhrr remote sensing," J. Clim. 13, 2011-2027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Stone, T. C.

Strutton, P.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

Strutton, P. G.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Stumpf, R. P.

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, "A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from seawifs in coastal waters," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Subramaniam, A.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Thomas, D.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS" 5882, 1-13 (2005).

Tieche, F.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the 'clearest' natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toole, D.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

Trees, C.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, "Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209-17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Voss, K. J.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, "Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, "Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209-17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

M. Wang, "Effects of ocean surface reflectance variation with solar elevation on normalized water-leaving radiance," Appl. Opt. 45, 4122-4128 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, "A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure," Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5651-5653 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

M. Wang, "The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWIFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2693-2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, "Calibration of ocean color scanners: how much error is acceptable in the near infrared?" Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497-504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee Jr., W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. vicarious techniqes," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean," Appl. Opt. 40, 343-348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, "Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: computing atmospheric diffuse transmittance," Appl. Opt. 38, 451-455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 33, 443-452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS," Appl. Opt. 33, 7754-7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werdell, P. J.

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, "A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products," Remote Sens. Environ. 102, 12-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS" 5882, 1-13 (2005).

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, "Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84 (2003) p. 379 and 385.
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee Jr., W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. vicarious techniqes," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yarbrough, M. A.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Yoder, J. A.

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Yuen, M.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

Zalewski, E. F.

Zhang, T.

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, and T. Zhang, "Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: analysis of the effects of residual instrument polarization sensitivity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6938-6948 (1997).

Zheng, X.

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS," Appl. Opt. 33, 7754-7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, "Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: computing atmospheric diffuse transmittance," Appl. Opt. 38, 451-455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean," Appl. Opt. 40, 343-348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee Jr., W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. vicarious techniqes," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
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A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentilli, "Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Ramen emission and varying particle scattering phase function," Appl. Opt. 41, 6289-6306 (2002).
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R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, H. H. Kieffer, T. C. Stone, G. Meister, J. J. Butler, and C. R. McClain, "Comparison of SeaWiFS measurements of the moon with the U.S. geological survey lunar model," Appl. Opt. 43, 5838-5854 (2002).
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H. R. Gordon, "Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness," Appl. Opt. 44, 241-248 (2005).
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M. Wang, "Effects of ocean surface reflectance variation with solar elevation on normalized water-leaving radiance," Appl. Opt. 45, 4122-4128 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, "Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84 (2003) p. 379 and 385.
[CrossRef]

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M. Wang, "The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWIFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2693-2702 (2002).
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[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, "Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209-17217 (1997).
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NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 (1)

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, M. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. Voss, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4, Volume III: Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols," NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 (1)

J. L. Mueller, D. K. Clark, V. S. Kuwahara, G. Lazin, S. Brown, G. S. Fargion, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, M. Yuen, P. G. Strutton, T. D. Dickey, M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, F. P. Chavez, J. R. M. A. Barnard, A. Subramaniam, D. Manov, X. Zheng, J. L. W. Harding, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, "Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, Revision 4: Special topics in ocean optics protocols and appendices," NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-21621 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (3)

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, "A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from seawifs in coastal waters," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2000).

F. S. Patt, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., B. A. Franz, W. D. Robinson, G. C. Feldman, S. W. Bailey, J. Gales, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. Frouin, R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, J. R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, V. Ransibrahmanakul, J. E. O'Reilly, and J. A. Yoder, "Algorithm updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS data reprocessing," NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2003).

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NASA Tech. Memo. 209982 (1)

B. A. Franz, E. J. Ainsworth, and S. W. Bailey, "SeaWiFS vicarious calibration: an alternative approach utilizing simultaneous in situ observations of oceanic and atmospheric optical properties," NASA Tech. Memo. 209982 , National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (2001).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry definition showing radiant path vector from the Sun to a location on the Earth's surface, path of upwelling radiance ( L u ) , and path of water-leaving radiance ( L w ) from surface to satellite sensor. θ s , θ v , and ϕ are the solar and sensor view zenith angles and the relative azimuth angle, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Map showing location of the vicarious calibration sites used operationally by the OBPG for the calibration of SeaWiFS and other ocean color sensors. The MOBY site is used for the calibration of the visible wavelengths. The locations in the SPG and SIO are used for the vicarious calibration of the NIR wavelength(s).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Vicarious gains derived for SeaWiFS bands at 443, 555, and 765   nm based on calibration samples spanning the mission lifetime from September 1997 to March 2006. The individual calibration gains (circles) are distributed around the mission mean gain line, which is constant for all time. The filled circles are the gains that passed the quality screening process, with the grey and black fill used to distinguish the cases that fell outside or within the semi-interquartile range, respectively. The J, M, and S labels indicate January, May, and September, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same data as in Fig. 3, but plotted as a function of the solar zenith angle associated with the time, date, and location of each calibration sample.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same data as in Fig. 3, but plotted as a function of the sensor view zenith angle. The SeaWiFS instrument scans from east to west over a scan angle range of + / 56 ° , but the sensor is also tilted 20° in the along track direction, so the resulting view zenith angle ranges from a minimum of 20° to a maximum of ∼72°, but observations beyond 60° are discarded.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mean vicarious gains, g ¯ ( λ ) , derived for SeaWiFS bands at 443, 555, and 765 nm based on calibration samples spanning the mission lifetime from September 1997 to March 2006. Individual gains from the mission-long set of calibration match-ups were randomly sampled, growing the sample set one case at a time and averaging to show the effect of increasing sample size on g ¯ ( λ ) . Vertical error bars show the standard error on the mean at each sample size.

Tables (10)

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Table 1 Glossary of Symbols

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Table 2 SeaWiFS Vicarious Gain Coefficients

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Table 3 Verification of Vicarious Calibration at MOBY

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Table 4 Validation of Vicarious Calibration Against Deep-Water In Situ Measurements

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Table 5 Sensitivity of Deep-Water Validation to No Vicarious Calibration

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Table 6 Sensitivity of Deep-Water Validation to NIR only Calibration; g ¯ ( 765 ) = 0.9720

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Table 7 Sensitivity of Deep-Water Validation to Calibration Assumptions +4% 865-nm Calibration; g ¯ ( 765 ) = 1.0007

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Table 8 Sensitivity of Deep-Water Validation to −4% 865-nm Calibration; g ¯ ( 765 ) = 0.9420

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Table 9 Sensitivity of Deep-Water Validation to M50 765-nm Calibration; g ¯ ( 765 ) = 0.9835

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Table 10 Sensitivity of Deep-Water Validation to O99 765-nm Calibration; g ¯ ( 765 ) = 0.9594

Equations (8)

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L t ( λ ) = [ L r ( λ ) + L a ( λ ) + t d v ( λ ) L f ( λ ) + t d v ( λ ) L w ( λ ) ] t g v ( λ ) t g s ( λ ) f p ( λ ) .
L w n ( λ ) = L w / ( μ s f s t d s f b f λ )
L w n t ( λ ) = L w t / ( μ s t f s t t d s t t g s t f b t f λ t )
L t t ( λ ) = [ t d v L w t ( μ s t d s f s f b f λ ) + t d v L f + L r + L a t ] t g v t g s f p
g i ( λ ) = L t t ( λ ) / L t ( λ )
( t d s t t g s t ) = exp [ ln ( t d s t g s ) μ s / μ s t ] .
L t ( NIR ) = [ L r + L a + t d v L f ] t g v t g s f p
L t t ( NIR ) = [ L r + L a t + t d v L f ] t g v t g s f p

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