Abstract

A regularized algorithm that has the potential to improve the quality of Raman lidar data processing is presented. Compared to the conventional scheme, the proposed algorithm has the advantage, which results from the fact that it is based on a well-posed procedure. That is, the profile of the aerosol backscatter coefficient is computed directly, using the explicit relationships, without numerical differentiation. Thereafter, the profile of the lidar ratio is retrieved as a regularized solution of a first-kind Volterra integral equation. Once these two steps have been completed, the profile of the aerosol extinction coefficient is computed by a straightforward multiplication. The numerical simulations demonstrated that the proposed algorithm provides good accuracy and resolution of aerosol profile retrievals. The error analysis showed that the retrieved profiles are continuous functions of the measurement errors and of the a priori information uncertainties.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. N. Whiteman, "Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. I. Evaluating the temperature-dependent lidar equations," Appl. Opt. 42, 2571-2592 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, and C. Weitkamp, "Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar," Opt. Lett. 15, 746-748 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, "Independent measurement of the extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, "Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and LIDAR ratio," Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. R. Gross, T. J. McGee, R. A. Ferrare, U. N. Singh, and P. Kimvilakani, "Temperature measurements with a combined Rayleigh-Mie and Raman lidar," Appl. Opt. 36, 5987-5995 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.
  7. T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, "Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project: 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio," Appl. Opt. 43, 5370-5385 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Whiteman, "Application of statistical methods to the determination of slope in lidar data," Appl. Opt. 38, 3360-3369 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. E. Tikhonov and V. Y. Arsenin, Solutions of Ill-posed Problems (Wiley, 1977).
  11. O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, "Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar," Appl. Opt. 41, 511-514 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, and M. P. McCormick, "Methodology for error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements," Appl. Opt. 18, 3783-3797 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  14. J. D. Klett, "Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns," Appl. Opt. 20, 211-220 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing. Fundamentals and Applications (Krieger, 1992).
  16. G. I. Marchuk, Methods of Numerical Mathematics, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1982).
  17. E. V. Shikin and A. I. Plis, Handbook on Splines for the User (CRC, 1995).
  18. W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).
  19. O. Dubovik, "Optimization of numerical inversion in photopolarimetric remote sensing," in Photopolarimetry in Remote Sensing, G. Videen, Y. Yatskiv, and M. Mishchenko, eds. (Kluwer, 2004), pp. 65-106.
  20. P. C. Hansen, "Analysis of discrete ill-posed problems by means of the L-curve," SIAM Rev. 34, 561-580 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. Shcherbakov, J.-F. Gayet, O. Jourdan, A. Minikin, J. Ström, and A. Petzold, "Assessment of cirrus cloud optical and microphysical data reliability by applying statistical procedures," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 409-420 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Tarantola, Inverse Problem Theory and Methods for Model Parameter Estimation (SIAM, 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

V. Shcherbakov, J.-F. Gayet, O. Jourdan, A. Minikin, J. Ström, and A. Petzold, "Assessment of cirrus cloud optical and microphysical data reliability by applying statistical procedures," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 409-420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Tarantola, Inverse Problem Theory and Methods for Model Parameter Estimation (SIAM, 2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

D. N. Whiteman, "Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. I. Evaluating the temperature-dependent lidar equations," Appl. Opt. 42, 2571-2592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, "Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar," Appl. Opt. 41, 511-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

E. V. Shikin and A. I. Plis, Handbook on Splines for the User (CRC, 1995).

1992 (5)

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing. Fundamentals and Applications (Krieger, 1992).

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, "Independent measurement of the extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, "Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and LIDAR ratio," Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Hansen, "Analysis of discrete ill-posed problems by means of the L-curve," SIAM Rev. 34, 561-580 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1982 (1)

G. I. Marchuk, Methods of Numerical Mathematics, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1982).

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

A. E. Tikhonov and V. Y. Arsenin, Solutions of Ill-posed Problems (Wiley, 1977).

Abo, M.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Althausen, D.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Amiridis, V.

Amodeo, A.

Ansmann, A.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, "Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project: 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio," Appl. Opt. 43, 5370-5385 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, "Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar," Appl. Opt. 41, 511-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, "Independent measurement of the extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, "Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and LIDAR ratio," Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, and C. Weitkamp, "Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar," Opt. Lett. 15, 746-748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoki, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arao, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arsenin, V. Y.

A. E. Tikhonov and V. Y. Arsenin, Solutions of Ill-posed Problems (Wiley, 1977).

Baldasano, J. M.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Balis, D.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Böckmann, C.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Bösenberg, J.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, "Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project: 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio," Appl. Opt. 43, 5370-5385 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Calpini, B.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Chaikovsky, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

De Tomasi, F.

Dubovik, O.

O. Dubovik, "Optimization of numerical inversion in photopolarimetric remote sensing," in Photopolarimetry in Remote Sensing, G. Videen, Y. Yatskiv, and M. Mishchenko, eds. (Kluwer, 2004), pp. 65-106.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R. A.

Flamant, P.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Franke, K.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frioud, M.

Gayet, J.-F.

V. Shcherbakov, J.-F. Gayet, O. Jourdan, A. Minikin, J. Ström, and A. Petzold, "Assessment of cirrus cloud optical and microphysical data reliability by applying statistical procedures," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 409-420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M. R.

Hågård, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Hagiwara, N.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, P. C.

P. C. Hansen, "Analysis of discrete ill-posed problems by means of the L-curve," SIAM Rev. 34, 561-580 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iarlori, M.

Iokibe, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaka, Y.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jourdan, O.

V. Shcherbakov, J.-F. Gayet, O. Jourdan, A. Minikin, J. Ström, and A. Petzold, "Assessment of cirrus cloud optical and microphysical data reliability by applying statistical procedures," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 409-420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kimvilakani, P.

King, M. D.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klett, J. D.

Koga, R.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Komguem, L.

Lahmann, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, "Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and LIDAR ratio," Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marchuk, G. I.

G. I. Marchuk, Methods of Numerical Mathematics, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1982).

Matsui, I.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, V.

McCormick, M. P.

McGee, T. J.

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing. Fundamentals and Applications (Krieger, 1992).

Michaelis, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, "Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and LIDAR ratio," Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, "Independent measurement of the extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minikin, A.

V. Shcherbakov, J.-F. Gayet, O. Jourdan, A. Minikin, J. Ström, and A. Petzold, "Assessment of cirrus cloud optical and microphysical data reliability by applying statistical procedures," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 409-420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mitev, V.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Müller, D.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murayama, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pandolfi, M.

Papayannis, A.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, "Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project: 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio," Appl. Opt. 43, 5370-5385 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Pappalardo, G.

Pelon, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Petzold, A.

V. Shcherbakov, J.-F. Gayet, O. Jourdan, A. Minikin, J. Ström, and A. Petzold, "Assessment of cirrus cloud optical and microphysical data reliability by applying statistical procedures," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 409-420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Plis, A. I.

E. V. Shikin and A. I. Plis, Handbook on Splines for the User (CRC, 1995).

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Reddy, M. S.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Resendes, D.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Riebesell, M.

Rocadenbosch, F.

Russell, P. B.

Sakai, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scheele, R.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Shcherbakov, V.

V. Shcherbakov, J.-F. Gayet, O. Jourdan, A. Minikin, J. Ström, and A. Petzold, "Assessment of cirrus cloud optical and microphysical data reliability by applying statistical procedures," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 409-420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shikin, E. V.

E. V. Shikin and A. I. Plis, Handbook on Splines for the User (CRC, 1995).

Singh, U. N.

Slutsker, I.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, B.-J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, N.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Ström, J.

V. Shcherbakov, J.-F. Gayet, O. Jourdan, A. Minikin, J. Ström, and A. Petzold, "Assessment of cirrus cloud optical and microphysical data reliability by applying statistical procedures," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 409-420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Swissler, T. J.

Tanré, D.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tarantola, A.

A. Tarantola, Inverse Problem Theory and Methods for Model Parameter Estimation (SIAM, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Tikhonov, A. E.

A. E. Tikhonov and V. Y. Arsenin, Solutions of Ill-posed Problems (Wiley, 1977).

Trickl, T.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Uno, I.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Venkataraman, C.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Visconti, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Voss, E.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, "Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and LIDAR ratio," Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, F.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

Wang, X.

Weitkamp, C.

Whiteman, D.

Whiteman, D. N.

Wiegner, M.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Won, J.-G.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.-C.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, and M. P. McCormick, "Methodology for error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements," Appl. Opt. 18, 3783-3797 (1979).
[PubMed]

J. D. Klett, "Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns," Appl. Opt. 20, 211-220 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, "Independent measurement of the extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Whiteman, "Application of statistical methods to the determination of slope in lidar data," Appl. Opt. 38, 3360-3369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gross, T. J. McGee, R. A. Ferrare, U. N. Singh, and P. Kimvilakani, "Temperature measurements with a combined Rayleigh-Mie and Raman lidar," Appl. Opt. 36, 5987-5995 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, "Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar," Appl. Opt. 41, 511-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, "Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. I. Evaluating the temperature-dependent lidar equations," Appl. Opt. 42, 2571-2592 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, "Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project: 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio," Appl. Opt. 43, 5370-5385 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, "Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and LIDAR ratio," Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

V. Shcherbakov, J.-F. Gayet, O. Jourdan, A. Minikin, J. Ström, and A. Petzold, "Assessment of cirrus cloud optical and microphysical data reliability by applying statistical procedures," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22, 409-420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, "Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

SIAM Rev. (1)

P. C. Hansen, "Analysis of discrete ill-posed problems by means of the L-curve," SIAM Rev. 34, 561-580 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

A. E. Tikhonov and V. Y. Arsenin, Solutions of Ill-posed Problems (Wiley, 1977).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing. Fundamentals and Applications (Krieger, 1992).

G. I. Marchuk, Methods of Numerical Mathematics, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1982).

E. V. Shikin and A. I. Plis, Handbook on Splines for the User (CRC, 1995).

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

O. Dubovik, "Optimization of numerical inversion in photopolarimetric remote sensing," in Photopolarimetry in Remote Sensing, G. Videen, Y. Yatskiv, and M. Mishchenko, eds. (Kluwer, 2004), pp. 65-106.

A. Tarantola, Inverse Problem Theory and Methods for Model Parameter Estimation (SIAM, 2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network," in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (Editions de L'Ecole Polytechnique, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Retrieved aerosol profiles (gray curves) and input data (black curves) at the wavelength of 355   nm : (a) the backscatter coefficients, (b) the lidar ratios, and (c) the extinction coefficients.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Retrieved aerosol profiles (gray curves) and input data (black curves) at the wavelength of 532   nm : (a) the backscatter coefficients, (b) the lidar ratios, and (c) the extinction coefficients.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

B q τ 2 versus the regularization parameter γ; the black triangle marks the value of γ estimated by means of the L-curve method.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profiles of the “measured” (gray curves) and retrieved (black curves) optical thicknesses τ a 0 ( z , z ref ) at the wavelengths of (a) 355 and (b) 532 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Aerosol profiles retrieved with the proposed algorithm (PA, gray curves), with the conventional algorithm (CA, dotted curves and solid circles) and input data (black curves) at the wavelength of 532   nm : (a) the backscatter coefficients, (b) the lidar ratios, and (c) the extinction coefficients.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Profiles of the lidar ratio derived for (a) different matrices of a priori smoothness constraint, and (b) different values of the regularization parameter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

First principal components (gray curves) and scaled retrieved profiles (black curves) at the wavelengths of (a) 355 and (b) 532 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Original signals (gray curves) and smoothed profiles (black curves) at the wavelengths of (a) 532 and (b) 607 nm.

Equations (29)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P 0 ( z ) = K 0 Q 0 ( z ) z 2 [ β M 0 ( z ) + β a 0 ( z ) ] exp { 2 0 z [ α M 0 ( z ) + α a 0 ( z ) ] d z } ,
P X ( z ) = K X Q X ( z ) z 2 N X ( z ) [ d σ X 0 ( π ) / d Ω ] exp { 0 z [ α M 0 ( z ) + α a 0 ( z ) + α M X ( z ) + α a X ( z ) ] d z } ,
α a X ( z ) = α a 0 ( z ) ( λ 0 λ X ) k = η α a 0 ( z ) ,
S 0 ( z , z ref ) = P 0 ( z ) z 2 P 0 ( z ref ) z ref 2 Q 0 ( z ref ) Q 0 ( z ) R 0 ( z ref ) β M 0 ( z ref ) × exp [ 2 z z ref α M 0 ( z ) d z ] ,
S X ( z , z ref ) = P X ( z ) z 2 P X ( z ref ) z ref 2 Q X ( z ref ) Q X ( z ) N X ( z ref ) N X ( z ) × exp { z z ref [ α M 0 ( z ) + α M X ( z ) ] d z } .
S 0 ( z , z ref ) = [ β M 0 ( z ) + β a 0 ( z ) ] exp [ 2 z z ref α a 0 ( z ) d z ] ,
S X ( z , z ref ) = exp [ ( 1 + η ) z z ref α a 0 ( z ) d z ] .
β a 0 ( z ) = S 0 ( z , z ref ) [ S X ( z , z ref ) ] 2 / ( 1 + η ) β M 0 ( z ) .
τ a 0 ( z , z ref ) = z z ref α a 0 ( z ) d z
τ a 0 ( z , z ref ) = 1 1 + η ln [ S X ( z , z ref ) ] ,
τ a 0 ( z , z ref ) = 1 2 ln [ S 0 ( z , z ref ) β M 0 ( z ) + β a 0 ( z ) ] .
τ a 0 ( z , z ref ) = z z ref q a 0 ( z ) β a 0 ( z ) d z ,
B q = τ ,
q = ( B T W 1 B + γ H T H ) 1 B T W 1 τ ,
H = ( 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 ) ,
δ R 0 ( z ) = R 0 * ( z ) R 0 ( z ) / R 0 ( z ) ,
δ R 0 ( z ) = exp 2 γ 1 τ a 0 ( z , z ref ) 1 ,
γ 1 = ( λ 0 / λ X ) k ( λ 0 / λ X ) Δ k 1 ( λ 0 / λ X ) k + Δ k + 1 .
M ( z ) = β M 0 ( z ref ) [ N X ( z ) / N X ( z ref ) ] 2 / ( 1 + η ) × exp [ 2 γ 2 τ M 0 ( z , z ref ) ] ,
γ 2 = ( λ 0 / λ X ) k ( λ 0 / λ X ) 4 ( λ 0 / λ X ) k + 1 ,
C q = ( B T W 1 B + γ H T H ) 1 .
δ [ q a 0 ( z ) ] = γ 1 ,
Δ τ a 0 ( z , z ref ) = 1 1 + η { ln [ 1 + δ N X ( z ref ) ] ln [ 1 + δ N X ( z ) ] z z ref [ Δ α M 0 ( z ) + Δ α M X ( z ) ] d z } ,
Δ q = ( B T W 1 B + γ H T H ) 1 B T W 1 Δ τ ,
J ( s ) = a b [ s ] 2 d z + k = 1 n p k [ s ( z k ) f k ] 2 ,
μ = f P 1 D T m ,
( A + D P 1 D T ) m = D f ,
A = ( 2 Δ z / 3 Δ z / 6 0 0 0 Δ z / 6 2 Δ z / 3 Δ z / 6 0 0 0 Δ z / 6 2 Δ z / 3 0 0 0 0 0 Δ z / 6 2 Δ z / 3 ) ,
D = ( 1 / Δ z 2 / Δ z 1 / Δ z 0 0 0 0 1 / Δ z 2 / Δ z 1 / Δ z 0 0 0 0 1 / Δ z 2 / Δ z 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 / Δ z 1 / Δ z ) .

Metrics