Abstract

The functionality of optical components relies heavily on the composition-dependent properties of germanosilicate materials, which include the refractive index, photosensitivity, and microstructural properties. Recent studies and parallel developments are presented of germanosilicate films with composition x of Ge content (i.e., xGeO2:(1x)SiO2) that were synthesized by the solgel process for various integrated photonic applications undertaken. The following novel aspects are discussed with respect to the effect of composition of the glassy films (0.05x0.40): determination of spectral optical properties, UV imprinting of optical waveguides with relatively large index change (Δn), and quantum-well intermixing enhancement observed in InGaAs(P)/InP quantum-well optical devices. The implications of the results are discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  32. P. Cusumano, B. S. Ooi, A. S. Helmy, S. G. Ayling, A. C. Bryce, J. H. Marsh, B. Voegele, and M. J. Rose, "Suppression of quantum well intermixing in GaAs/AlGaAs laser structures using phosphorus-doped SiO2 encapsulant layer," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2445-2447 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  45. M. Essid, J. Albert, J. L. Brebner, and K. Awazu, "Correlation between oxygen-deficient center concentration and KrF excimer laser induced defects in thermally annealed Ge-doped optical fiber preforms," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 246, 39-45 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  46. C. K. F. Ho, H. S. Djie, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, "Sintering and porosity control of (x)GeO2:(1 − x)SiO2 sol-gel derived films for optoelectronic applications," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, 96-98 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  49. H. S. Djie, S. L. Ng, O. Gunawan, P. Dowd, V. Aimez, J. Beauvais, and J. Beerens, "Analysis of strain-induced polarisation-insensitive integrated waveguides fabricated using ion-implantation-induced intermixing," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 138-144 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  50. L. H. Lee, B. S. Ooi, Y. Lam, Y. C. Chan, and C. H. Kam, "Quantum well intermixing in GaAs-AlGaAs laser structure using sol-gel SiO2 dielectric cap," Proc. SPIE 3547, 319-323 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  51. S. S. Rao, W. P. Gillin, and K. P. Homewood, "Interdiffusion of the group-III sublattice in In-Ga-As-P/In-Ga-As-P and In-Ga-As/In-Ga-As heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 50, 8071-8073 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
  53. P. N. K. Deenapanray, A. Martin, and C. Jagadish, "Defect engineering in annealed n-type GaAs epilayers using SiO2/Si3N4 stacking layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2561-2563 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

Rajni, K. Pita, S. F. Yu, S. C. Tjin, and C. H. Kam, "Fabrication of inorganic GeO2:SiO2 channel waveguides by ultraviolet imprinting technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071105 (2006).

S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, F. La Mattina, S. Grandi, and A. Magistris, "Hydrogen-related paramagnetic centers in Ge-doped sol-gel silica induced by γ-ray irradiation," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 37, 63-68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rajni, K. Pita, S. C. Tjin, S. F. Yu, and C. H. Kam, "Enhanced photosensitivity in sol-gel derived 20GeO2:80SiO2 thin films," Appl. Phys. A 82, 535-541 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. S. Djie, C. K. F. Ho, T. Mei, and B. S. Ooi, "Quantum well intermixing enhancement using Ge-doped sol-gel derived SiO2 encapsulant layer in InGaAs/InP laser structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. K. F. Ho, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, "Optical functions of (x)GeO2:(1 − x)SiO22 films determined by multisample and multiangle spectroscopic ellipsometry," Opt. Express 13, 1049-1054 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Takahashi, A. Sakoh, Y. Tokuda, T. Yoko, J. Nishii, H. Nishiyama, and I. Miyamoto, "Photochemical process of divalent germanium responsible for photorefractive index change in GeO2-SiO2 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 323-327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica," Opt. Lett. 29, 468-470 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Djie, T. Mei, J. Arokiaraj, and D. Nie, "Single step quantum well intermixing with multiple band gap control for III-V compound semiconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3282-3285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. K. F. Ho, H. S. Djie, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, "Sintering and porosity control of (x)GeO2:(1 − x)SiO2 sol-gel derived films for optoelectronic applications," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, 96-98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

S. Doshi, P. N. K. Deenapanray, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Towards a better understanding of the operative mechanisms underlying impurity-free disordering of GaAs: Effect of stress," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 198-203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, N. Q. Ngo, K. Pita, C. H. Kam, P. V. Ramana, and M. K. Iyer, "Determining the minimum number of arrayed waveguides and the optimal orientation angle of slab for the design of arrayed waveguide gratings," Opt. Commun. 226, 181-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, S. C. Tjin, C. H. Kam, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, "Laser-induced ultraviolet absorption and refractive index changes in Ge-B-SiO2 planar waveguides by inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," Chem. Phys. Lett. 379, 534-538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Sakoh, M. Takahashi, T. Yoko, J. Nishii, H. Nishiyama, and I. Miyamoto, "Photochemical process of divalent germanium responsible for photorefractive index change in GeO2-SiO2 glasses," Opt. Express 11, 2679-2688 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Takada and M. Abe, "UV trimming of AWG devices," in Bragg Gratings Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 93 in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America , 2003), pp. 175-177.

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, C. K. F. Ho, N. Q. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, "Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183-188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (6)

M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, Y. Tokuda, T. Uchino, T. Yoko, J. Nishii, and T. Fujiwara, "Photochemical reaction of divalent-germanium center in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-ultraviolet laser excitation: Origin of 5.7 eV band and site selective excitation of divalent-germanium center," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442-3446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Djurisic, Y. Chan, and E. H. Li, "Progress in the room-temperature optical functions of semiconductors," Mater. Sci. Eng. , R. 38, 237-293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Abe, K. Takada, T. Tanaka, M. Itoh, T. Kitoh, and Y. Hibino, "Reduction in dispersion of silica-based AWG using photosensitive phase trimming technique," Electron. Lett. 38, 1673-1675 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Lim, V. Aimez, B. S. Ooi, J. Beauvais, and J. Beerens, "A novel fabrication technique for multiple-wavelength photonic-integrated devices in InGaAs-InGaAsP laser heterostructures," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 594-596 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. N. K. Deenapanray, B. Gong, R. N. Lamb, A. Martin, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Impurity-free disordering mechanisms in GaAs-based structures using doped spin-on silica layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4351-4353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Djie, S. L. Ng, O. Gunawan, P. Dowd, V. Aimez, J. Beauvais, and J. Beerens, "Analysis of strain-induced polarisation-insensitive integrated waveguides fabricated using ion-implantation-induced intermixing," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 138-144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. N. K. Deenapanray, A. Martin, and C. Jagadish, "Defect engineering in annealed n-type GaAs epilayers using SiO2/Si3N4 stacking layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2561-2563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Fokine and W. Margulis, "Large increase in photosensitivity through massive hydroxyl formation," Opt. Lett. 25, 302-304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Gehler and F. Knappe, "Crosstalk reduction of arrayed waveguide gratings by UV trimming of individual waveguides without H2-loading," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America , 2000), paper WM9.

1999 (1)

M. Essid, J. Albert, J. L. Brebner, and K. Awazu, "Correlation between oxygen-deficient center concentration and KrF excimer laser induced defects in thermally annealed Ge-doped optical fiber preforms," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 246, 39-45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, "Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multisample, multiwavelength, multiangle investigation," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3323-3336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, and W. Paulson, "A multisample, multiwavelength, multiangle investigation of the interface layer between silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide," Thin Solid Films 313, 281-285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, "Permanent index changes in Ge-SiO2 glasses by excimer laser irradiation," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 54, 1-10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Zauner, J. Hubner, K. J. Malone, and M. Kristensen, "UV trimming of arrayed-waveguide grating wavelength division demultiplexers," Electron. Lett. 34, 780-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Lee, B. S. Ooi, Y. Lam, Y. C. Chan, and C. H. Kam, "Quantum well intermixing in GaAs-AlGaAs laser structure using sol-gel SiO2 dielectric cap," Proc. SPIE 3547, 319-323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

O. M. Khreis, W. P. Gillin, and K. P. Homewood, "Interdiffusion: a probe of vacancy diffusion in III-V materials," Phys. Rev. B 55, 15813-15818 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Pepin, C. Vieu, M. Schneider, H. Launois, and Y. Nissim, "Evidence of stress dependence in SiO2/Si3N4 encapsulation-based layer disordering of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well heterostructures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 142-153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Cusumano, B. S. Ooi, A. S. Helmy, S. G. Ayling, A. C. Bryce, J. H. Marsh, B. Voegele, and M. J. Rose, "Suppression of quantum well intermixing in GaAs/AlGaAs laser structures using phosphorus-doped SiO2 encapsulant layer," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2445-2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. M. Kan'an, P. LiKamWa, Mitra-Dutta, and J. Pamulapati, "Area-selective disordering of multiple quantum well structures and its applications to all-optical devices," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3179-3183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (6)

R. R. A. Syms, "Stress in thick sol-gel phosphosilicate glass films formed on Si substrates," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 167, 16-20 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. R. A. Syms and A. S. Holmes, "Deposition of thick silica-titania sol-gel films on Si substrates," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 170, 223-233 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D.-G. Chen, B. G. Potter, and J. H. Simmons, "GeO2-SiO2 thin films for planar waveguide applications," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 178, 135-147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Simmons, G. I. Stegeman, B. G. Potter, Jr., and J. H. Simmons, "Photosensitivity in germano-silicate sol-gel thin films," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 254-259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, "Characteristics of 5-eV absorption band in sputter deposited GeO2-SiO2 thin glass films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 282-284 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Rao, W. P. Gillin, and K. P. Homewood, "Interdiffusion of the group-III sublattice in In-Ga-As-P/In-Ga-As-P and In-Ga-As/In-Ga-As heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 50, 8071-8073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Poole, "Photolytic index changes in optical fibers," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381-410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Marsh, "Quantum well intermixing," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 8, 1136-1155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, "Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in GeO2:SiO2 glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445-11451 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Susa, I. Matsuyama, S. Satoh, and T. Suganuma, "Sol-gel derived Ge-doped silica glass for optical fiber application. I. Preparation of gel and glass and their characterization," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 21-28 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Y. Y. Huang, A. Sarkar, and P. C. Schultz, "Relationship between composition, density and refractive index for germania silica glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 27, 29-37 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

K. Takada and M. Abe, "UV trimming of AWG devices," in Bragg Gratings Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 93 in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America , 2003), pp. 175-177.

M. Abe, K. Takada, T. Tanaka, M. Itoh, T. Kitoh, and Y. Hibino, "Reduction in dispersion of silica-based AWG using photosensitive phase trimming technique," Electron. Lett. 38, 1673-1675 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Abe, Y.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, "Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in GeO2:SiO2 glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445-11451 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Agnello, S.

S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, F. La Mattina, S. Grandi, and A. Magistris, "Hydrogen-related paramagnetic centers in Ge-doped sol-gel silica induced by γ-ray irradiation," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 37, 63-68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aimez, V.

H. S. Lim, V. Aimez, B. S. Ooi, J. Beauvais, and J. Beerens, "A novel fabrication technique for multiple-wavelength photonic-integrated devices in InGaAs-InGaAsP laser heterostructures," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 594-596 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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H. S. Lim, V. Aimez, B. S. Ooi, J. Beauvais, and J. Beerens, "A novel fabrication technique for multiple-wavelength photonic-integrated devices in InGaAs-InGaAsP laser heterostructures," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 594-596 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Djie, S. L. Ng, O. Gunawan, P. Dowd, V. Aimez, J. Beauvais, and J. Beerens, "Analysis of strain-induced polarisation-insensitive integrated waveguides fabricated using ion-implantation-induced intermixing," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 138-144 (2002).
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H. S. Djie, S. L. Ng, O. Gunawan, P. Dowd, V. Aimez, J. Beauvais, and J. Beerens, "Analysis of strain-induced polarisation-insensitive integrated waveguides fabricated using ion-implantation-induced intermixing," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 138-144 (2002).
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H. S. Lim, V. Aimez, B. S. Ooi, J. Beauvais, and J. Beerens, "A novel fabrication technique for multiple-wavelength photonic-integrated devices in InGaAs-InGaAsP laser heterostructures," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 594-596 (2002).
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R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
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M. Essid, J. Albert, J. L. Brebner, and K. Awazu, "Correlation between oxygen-deficient center concentration and KrF excimer laser induced defects in thermally annealed Ge-doped optical fiber preforms," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 246, 39-45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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P. Cusumano, B. S. Ooi, A. S. Helmy, S. G. Ayling, A. C. Bryce, J. H. Marsh, B. Voegele, and M. J. Rose, "Suppression of quantum well intermixing in GaAs/AlGaAs laser structures using phosphorus-doped SiO2 encapsulant layer," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2445-2447 (1997).
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L. H. Lee, B. S. Ooi, Y. Lam, Y. C. Chan, and C. H. Kam, "Quantum well intermixing in GaAs-AlGaAs laser structure using sol-gel SiO2 dielectric cap," Proc. SPIE 3547, 319-323 (1998).
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P. N. K. Deenapanray, B. Gong, R. N. Lamb, A. Martin, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Impurity-free disordering mechanisms in GaAs-based structures using doped spin-on silica layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4351-4353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. N. K. Deenapanray, A. Martin, and C. Jagadish, "Defect engineering in annealed n-type GaAs epilayers using SiO2/Si3N4 stacking layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2561-2563 (2001).
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H. S. Djie, C. K. F. Ho, T. Mei, and B. S. Ooi, "Quantum well intermixing enhancement using Ge-doped sol-gel derived SiO2 encapsulant layer in InGaAs/InP laser structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. K. F. Ho, H. S. Djie, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, "Sintering and porosity control of (x)GeO2:(1 − x)SiO2 sol-gel derived films for optoelectronic applications," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, 96-98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Djie, T. Mei, J. Arokiaraj, and D. Nie, "Single step quantum well intermixing with multiple band gap control for III-V compound semiconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3282-3285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Djie, S. L. Ng, O. Gunawan, P. Dowd, V. Aimez, J. Beauvais, and J. Beerens, "Analysis of strain-induced polarisation-insensitive integrated waveguides fabricated using ion-implantation-induced intermixing," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 138-144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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A. B. Djurisic, Y. Chan, and E. H. Li, "Progress in the room-temperature optical functions of semiconductors," Mater. Sci. Eng. , R. 38, 237-293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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S. Doshi, P. N. K. Deenapanray, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Towards a better understanding of the operative mechanisms underlying impurity-free disordering of GaAs: Effect of stress," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 198-203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dowd, P.

H. S. Djie, S. L. Ng, O. Gunawan, P. Dowd, V. Aimez, J. Beauvais, and J. Beerens, "Analysis of strain-induced polarisation-insensitive integrated waveguides fabricated using ion-implantation-induced intermixing," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 138-144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Essid, M.

M. Essid, J. Albert, J. L. Brebner, and K. Awazu, "Correlation between oxygen-deficient center concentration and KrF excimer laser induced defects in thermally annealed Ge-doped optical fiber preforms," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 246, 39-45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fokine, M.

Fu, L.

P. N. K. Deenapanray, B. Gong, R. N. Lamb, A. Martin, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Impurity-free disordering mechanisms in GaAs-based structures using doped spin-on silica layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4351-4353 (2002).
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O. M. Khreis, W. P. Gillin, and K. P. Homewood, "Interdiffusion: a probe of vacancy diffusion in III-V materials," Phys. Rev. B 55, 15813-15818 (1997).
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[CrossRef]

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P. N. K. Deenapanray, B. Gong, R. N. Lamb, A. Martin, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Impurity-free disordering mechanisms in GaAs-based structures using doped spin-on silica layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4351-4353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grandi, S.

S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, F. La Mattina, S. Grandi, and A. Magistris, "Hydrogen-related paramagnetic centers in Ge-doped sol-gel silica induced by γ-ray irradiation," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 37, 63-68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guiot, E.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guiziou, L.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
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H. S. Djie, S. L. Ng, O. Gunawan, P. Dowd, V. Aimez, J. Beauvais, and J. Beerens, "Analysis of strain-induced polarisation-insensitive integrated waveguides fabricated using ion-implantation-induced intermixing," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 138-144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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P. Cusumano, B. S. Ooi, A. S. Helmy, S. G. Ayling, A. C. Bryce, J. H. Marsh, B. Voegele, and M. J. Rose, "Suppression of quantum well intermixing in GaAs/AlGaAs laser structures using phosphorus-doped SiO2 encapsulant layer," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2445-2447 (1997).
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C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, "Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multisample, multiwavelength, multiangle investigation," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3323-3336 (1998).
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C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, and W. Paulson, "A multisample, multiwavelength, multiangle investigation of the interface layer between silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide," Thin Solid Films 313, 281-285 (1998).
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H. S. Djie, C. K. F. Ho, T. Mei, and B. S. Ooi, "Quantum well intermixing enhancement using Ge-doped sol-gel derived SiO2 encapsulant layer in InGaAs/InP laser structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. K. F. Ho, H. S. Djie, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, "Sintering and porosity control of (x)GeO2:(1 − x)SiO2 sol-gel derived films for optoelectronic applications," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, 96-98 (2004).
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Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, C. K. F. Ho, N. Q. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, "Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183-188 (2003).
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S. S. Rao, W. P. Gillin, and K. P. Homewood, "Interdiffusion of the group-III sublattice in In-Ga-As-P/In-Ga-As-P and In-Ga-As/In-Ga-As heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 50, 8071-8073 (1994).
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J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, "Characteristics of 5-eV absorption band in sputter deposited GeO2-SiO2 thin glass films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 282-284 (1994).
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H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, "Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in GeO2:SiO2 glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445-11451 (1992).
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M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, Y. Tokuda, T. Uchino, T. Yoko, J. Nishii, and T. Fujiwara, "Photochemical reaction of divalent-germanium center in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-ultraviolet laser excitation: Origin of 5.7 eV band and site selective excitation of divalent-germanium center," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442-3446 (2002).
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Itoh, M.

M. Abe, K. Takada, T. Tanaka, M. Itoh, T. Kitoh, and Y. Hibino, "Reduction in dispersion of silica-based AWG using photosensitive phase trimming technique," Electron. Lett. 38, 1673-1675 (2002).
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J. Zhou, N. Q. Ngo, K. Pita, C. H. Kam, P. V. Ramana, and M. K. Iyer, "Determining the minimum number of arrayed waveguides and the optimal orientation angle of slab for the design of arrayed waveguide gratings," Opt. Commun. 226, 181-189 (2003).
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S. Doshi, P. N. K. Deenapanray, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Towards a better understanding of the operative mechanisms underlying impurity-free disordering of GaAs: Effect of stress," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 198-203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. N. K. Deenapanray, B. Gong, R. N. Lamb, A. Martin, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Impurity-free disordering mechanisms in GaAs-based structures using doped spin-on silica layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4351-4353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. N. K. Deenapanray, A. Martin, and C. Jagadish, "Defect engineering in annealed n-type GaAs epilayers using SiO2/Si3N4 stacking layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2561-2563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johs, B.

C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, and W. Paulson, "A multisample, multiwavelength, multiangle investigation of the interface layer between silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide," Thin Solid Films 313, 281-285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, "Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multisample, multiwavelength, multiangle investigation," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3323-3336 (1998).
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Kam, C. H.

Rajni, K. Pita, S. C. Tjin, S. F. Yu, and C. H. Kam, "Enhanced photosensitivity in sol-gel derived 20GeO2:80SiO2 thin films," Appl. Phys. A 82, 535-541 (2006).
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Rajni, K. Pita, S. F. Yu, S. C. Tjin, and C. H. Kam, "Fabrication of inorganic GeO2:SiO2 channel waveguides by ultraviolet imprinting technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071105 (2006).

C. K. F. Ho, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, "Optical functions of (x)GeO2:(1 − x)SiO22 films determined by multisample and multiangle spectroscopic ellipsometry," Opt. Express 13, 1049-1054 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. F. Ho, H. S. Djie, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, "Sintering and porosity control of (x)GeO2:(1 − x)SiO2 sol-gel derived films for optoelectronic applications," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, 96-98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, N. Q. Ngo, K. Pita, C. H. Kam, P. V. Ramana, and M. K. Iyer, "Determining the minimum number of arrayed waveguides and the optimal orientation angle of slab for the design of arrayed waveguide gratings," Opt. Commun. 226, 181-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, S. C. Tjin, C. H. Kam, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, "Laser-induced ultraviolet absorption and refractive index changes in Ge-B-SiO2 planar waveguides by inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," Chem. Phys. Lett. 379, 534-538 (2003).
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L. H. Lee, B. S. Ooi, Y. Lam, Y. C. Chan, and C. H. Kam, "Quantum well intermixing in GaAs-AlGaAs laser structure using sol-gel SiO2 dielectric cap," Proc. SPIE 3547, 319-323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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A. M. Kan'an, P. LiKamWa, Mitra-Dutta, and J. Pamulapati, "Area-selective disordering of multiple quantum well structures and its applications to all-optical devices," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3179-3183 (1996).
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Kawazoe, H.

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, "Characteristics of 5-eV absorption band in sputter deposited GeO2-SiO2 thin glass films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 282-284 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, "Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in GeO2:SiO2 glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445-11451 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Khreis, O. M.

O. M. Khreis, W. P. Gillin, and K. P. Homewood, "Interdiffusion: a probe of vacancy diffusion in III-V materials," Phys. Rev. B 55, 15813-15818 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kinser, D. L.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, "Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in GeO2:SiO2 glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445-11451 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kitoh, T.

M. Abe, K. Takada, T. Tanaka, M. Itoh, T. Kitoh, and Y. Hibino, "Reduction in dispersion of silica-based AWG using photosensitive phase trimming technique," Electron. Lett. 38, 1673-1675 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knappe, F.

J. Gehler and F. Knappe, "Crosstalk reduction of arrayed waveguide gratings by UV trimming of individual waveguides without H2-loading," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America , 2000), paper WM9.

Kristensen, M.

D. A. Zauner, J. Hubner, K. J. Malone, and M. Kristensen, "UV trimming of arrayed-waveguide grating wavelength division demultiplexers," Electron. Lett. 34, 780-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

La Mattina, F.

S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, F. La Mattina, S. Grandi, and A. Magistris, "Hydrogen-related paramagnetic centers in Ge-doped sol-gel silica induced by γ-ray irradiation," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 37, 63-68 (2006).
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L. H. Lee, B. S. Ooi, Y. Lam, Y. C. Chan, and C. H. Kam, "Quantum well intermixing in GaAs-AlGaAs laser structure using sol-gel SiO2 dielectric cap," Proc. SPIE 3547, 319-323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lamb, R. N.

P. N. K. Deenapanray, B. Gong, R. N. Lamb, A. Martin, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Impurity-free disordering mechanisms in GaAs-based structures using doped spin-on silica layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4351-4353 (2002).
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A. Pepin, C. Vieu, M. Schneider, H. Launois, and Y. Nissim, "Evidence of stress dependence in SiO2/Si3N4 encapsulation-based layer disordering of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well heterostructures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 142-153 (1997).
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Lee, L. H.

L. H. Lee, B. S. Ooi, Y. Lam, Y. C. Chan, and C. H. Kam, "Quantum well intermixing in GaAs-AlGaAs laser structure using sol-gel SiO2 dielectric cap," Proc. SPIE 3547, 319-323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

LeGuen, E.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lehuede, P.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
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A. B. Djurisic, Y. Chan, and E. H. Li, "Progress in the room-temperature optical functions of semiconductors," Mater. Sci. Eng. , R. 38, 237-293 (2002).
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E. H. Li, ed., Semiconductor Quantum Wells Intermixing, Optoelectronic Properties of Semiconductors and Superlattices, Vol. 8 (Gordon & Breach, 2000), p. 695.

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A. M. Kan'an, P. LiKamWa, Mitra-Dutta, and J. Pamulapati, "Area-selective disordering of multiple quantum well structures and its applications to all-optical devices," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3179-3183 (1996).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Process flow of the fabrication of thick films involved in this work. The synthesis of porous or dense single-layer thin film essentially follows the same chemical mixing and spin coating procedures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Stoichiometry of solgel synthesized x GeO 2 : ( 1 x ) SiO 2 films determined by RBS. (b) Density of the films calculated using the areal atomic density from RBS and the thickness deduced from the SE analysis. (c) Linearity of the variation in RIs with composition. The dashed line represents the linear regression of the n(He–Ne) data from this work. RIs for the various important wavelengths are shown (see text).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sellmeier dispersion for the selected compositions, 0 x 0.4 . Inset shows the zero-dispersion wavelengths for the different compositions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Near-field image of the optical output of a direct-written channel waveguide. Aperture of the mask is 5 μ m . (b) Normalized intensity profiles of the measured beam profile across the X axis (X expt) and Y axis (Y expt); the theoretical profile derived from the Gaussian field approximation (X-Gmode); the abscissa is in units of micrometers. (c) Comparison between the Gaussian approximation of intensity profile with guiding (X Gmode) and without guiding (X Gdiff) in X.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Oxygen-deficient defects commonly found in GeO 2 and GeO 2 : SiO 2 glasses. Defects (a) and (b) are known as NOMV and can be identified by an absorption band 5.1   eV . Defect (c) consists of a divalent Ge, which is known to absorb 5.16   eV .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) (a) Effect of Ge content (x) of the solgel cap on the PL peak wavelength shift of the QW partial laser structure. The dashed line represents the amount of bandgap shift observed from the annealed bare samples as a control. The inset is the InGaAs/InGaAsP multiple QWs used in the experiment. (b) PL spectra at annealing temperature of 630 ° C from (i) e-beam evaporated SiO 2 capped, (ii) bare, (iii) x = 0.00 , (iv) x 0.16 capped QWs. The dashed curve represents the as-grown PI.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Porosity–Ge map demonstrating both the effect of annealing temperature and Ge content on the film porosity; dashed lines represent a fit-by-eye guide for the data points at each annealing temperature [47].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Photoluminescence at 77 K from (i) as-grown, (ii) control (annealed bare), and (iii) solgel capped samples: with (a) x = 0.1 and (b) x = 0.40 to the intermixing in the GaAs / Al 0.2 Ga 0.8 As multiwidth QWs ( QW 1 , 3   nm ; QW2 , 5   nm ; QW3 , 6   nm ; and QW4 , 8   nm ). The annealing was performed at 650 ° C for 2 min.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) (a) PL peak wavelength shift versus the annealing temperature of an InGaAs∕InP QW laser structure. (b) Diffusion coefficient of QW ( D QW ) deduced from the experimental data as a function of the inversed annealing temperature for doped and undoped solgel caps in our present work (InP substrate) and Lee et al. [51] (GaAs substrate). A representative best linear fit is shown for both data sets, whose slopes correspond to the activation energy.

Equations (2)

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n 2 = ε 0 + a λ 2 λ 2 b 2 c λ 2 ,
D M A T = λ c 2 n λ 2 ,

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