Abstract

A piezoelectric optical fiber stretcher has been introduced for working point controlling and low-frequency noise suppression of a fiber-optic atmospheric turbulence sensor. It is actuated by a piezoelectric ceramic stack. The rational structure allows the fiber to extend only along the axial direction, which minimizes the nonlinear birefringence effects for the optical phase shift. What is believed to be a novel method has been proposed to measure its phase-shift coefficient. With the use of this device, the fiber-optic atmospheric turbulence sensor has been tested for the air refractive index measurement.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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2005

H. P. Mei and R. Z. Rao, 'An optical fiber interferomtetric system for noncontact measurement of atmospheric optical turbulence,' in Optical Test and Measurement Technology and Equipment,Proc. SPIE 6150, 61500L (2005).

2004

A. H. David, H. Conrad, C. Robert, and V. Dan, 'Kilohertz scanning all-fiber delay line using piezoelectric actuation,' in Fiber Optic Sensor Technology and Applications III,Proc. SPIE 5589, 99-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Yu, Y. Liu, A. Wang, and B. S. Li, 'Measurement of the phase-shift coefficient of piezoelectrical phase modulator,' Optoelectron. Technol. Info. 17, 80-82 (2004).

2001

C. Chen, D. G. Li, Z. S. Liu, J. Peng, and W. Chen, 'Measurement of the phase-shift coefficient of piezoelectrical phase modulator by use of fiber interferometer,' J. Naval Univ. Eng. 13, 68-70 (2001).

M. Ni, R. H. Zhang, Y. M. Hu, and Z. Meng, 'Implement of controlling the working point of an interferometric fiber-optic hydrophone by closed loop and pick-up of the signal,' Appl. Acoust. 20, 13-18 (2001).

D. Laurent and R. Francois, 'Kilometric optical fiber interferometer,' Opt. Express 9, 267-271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. R. Li, D. R. Chen, and Q. R. Yin, 'Displacement characterization of the PZT-based monolithic multilayer piezoelectric actuators,' J. Inorg. Mater. 14, 418-424 (1999).

P. Pant, C. S. Stalin, and R. Sagar, 'Microthermal measurements of surface layer seeing at Devasthal site,' Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 136, 19-25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

J. D. C. Jones, 'Engineering applications of optical fiber interferometers,' in Interferometric Fiber Sensing,Proc. SPIE 2341, 222-238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

1990

A. D. Kersey, 'Novel passive phase noise canceling technique for interferometeric fiber optic sensors,' Electron. Lett. 26, 640-641 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey and T. A. Berkoff, 'Passive laser phase noise suppression technique for fiber interferometers,' in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors VIII,Proc. SPIE 1367, 310-318 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

1984

1982

1980

Berkoff, T. A.

A. D. Kersey and T. A. Berkoff, 'Passive laser phase noise suppression technique for fiber interferometers,' in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors VIII,Proc. SPIE 1367, 310-318 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, D. G. Li, Z. S. Liu, J. Peng, and W. Chen, 'Measurement of the phase-shift coefficient of piezoelectrical phase modulator by use of fiber interferometer,' J. Naval Univ. Eng. 13, 68-70 (2001).

Chen, D. R.

G. R. Li, D. R. Chen, and Q. R. Yin, 'Displacement characterization of the PZT-based monolithic multilayer piezoelectric actuators,' J. Inorg. Mater. 14, 418-424 (1999).

Chen, W.

C. Chen, D. G. Li, Z. S. Liu, J. Peng, and W. Chen, 'Measurement of the phase-shift coefficient of piezoelectrical phase modulator by use of fiber interferometer,' J. Naval Univ. Eng. 13, 68-70 (2001).

Chien, P. Y.

Conrad, H.

A. H. David, H. Conrad, C. Robert, and V. Dan, 'Kilohertz scanning all-fiber delay line using piezoelectric actuation,' in Fiber Optic Sensor Technology and Applications III,Proc. SPIE 5589, 99-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dan, V.

A. H. David, H. Conrad, C. Robert, and V. Dan, 'Kilohertz scanning all-fiber delay line using piezoelectric actuation,' in Fiber Optic Sensor Technology and Applications III,Proc. SPIE 5589, 99-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

David, A. H.

A. H. David, H. Conrad, C. Robert, and V. Dan, 'Kilohertz scanning all-fiber delay line using piezoelectric actuation,' in Fiber Optic Sensor Technology and Applications III,Proc. SPIE 5589, 99-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flatte, S. M.

Francois, R.

Hirokazu, M.

Hu, Y. M.

M. Ni, R. H. Zhang, Y. M. Hu, and Z. Meng, 'Implement of controlling the working point of an interferometric fiber-optic hydrophone by closed loop and pick-up of the signal,' Appl. Acoust. 20, 13-18 (2001).

Jackson, D. A.

Jones, J. D. C.

J. D. C. Jones, 'Engineering applications of optical fiber interferometers,' in Interferometric Fiber Sensing,Proc. SPIE 2341, 222-238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey and T. A. Berkoff, 'Passive laser phase noise suppression technique for fiber interferometers,' in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors VIII,Proc. SPIE 1367, 310-318 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, 'Novel passive phase noise canceling technique for interferometeric fiber optic sensors,' Electron. Lett. 26, 640-641 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Koichi, T.

Laurent, D.

Li, B. S.

T. L. Yu, Y. Liu, A. Wang, and B. S. Li, 'Measurement of the phase-shift coefficient of piezoelectrical phase modulator,' Optoelectron. Technol. Info. 17, 80-82 (2004).

Li, D. G.

C. Chen, D. G. Li, Z. S. Liu, J. Peng, and W. Chen, 'Measurement of the phase-shift coefficient of piezoelectrical phase modulator by use of fiber interferometer,' J. Naval Univ. Eng. 13, 68-70 (2001).

Li, G. R.

G. R. Li, D. R. Chen, and Q. R. Yin, 'Displacement characterization of the PZT-based monolithic multilayer piezoelectric actuators,' J. Inorg. Mater. 14, 418-424 (1999).

Liu, Y.

T. L. Yu, Y. Liu, A. Wang, and B. S. Li, 'Measurement of the phase-shift coefficient of piezoelectrical phase modulator,' Optoelectron. Technol. Info. 17, 80-82 (2004).

Liu, Z. S.

C. Chen, D. G. Li, Z. S. Liu, J. Peng, and W. Chen, 'Measurement of the phase-shift coefficient of piezoelectrical phase modulator by use of fiber interferometer,' J. Naval Univ. Eng. 13, 68-70 (2001).

Martin, J. M.

Mei, H. P.

H. P. Mei and R. Z. Rao, 'An optical fiber interferomtetric system for noncontact measurement of atmospheric optical turbulence,' in Optical Test and Measurement Technology and Equipment,Proc. SPIE 6150, 61500L (2005).

Meng, Z.

M. Ni, R. H. Zhang, Y. M. Hu, and Z. Meng, 'Implement of controlling the working point of an interferometric fiber-optic hydrophone by closed loop and pick-up of the signal,' Appl. Acoust. 20, 13-18 (2001).

Mermelstein, M. D.

Ni, M.

M. Ni, R. H. Zhang, Y. M. Hu, and Z. Meng, 'Implement of controlling the working point of an interferometric fiber-optic hydrophone by closed loop and pick-up of the signal,' Appl. Acoust. 20, 13-18 (2001).

Pan, C. L.

Pant, P.

P. Pant, C. S. Stalin, and R. Sagar, 'Microthermal measurements of surface layer seeing at Devasthal site,' Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 136, 19-25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J.

C. Chen, D. G. Li, Z. S. Liu, J. Peng, and W. Chen, 'Measurement of the phase-shift coefficient of piezoelectrical phase modulator by use of fiber interferometer,' J. Naval Univ. Eng. 13, 68-70 (2001).

Rao, R. Z.

H. P. Mei and R. Z. Rao, 'An optical fiber interferomtetric system for noncontact measurement of atmospheric optical turbulence,' in Optical Test and Measurement Technology and Equipment,Proc. SPIE 6150, 61500L (2005).

Robert, C.

A. H. David, H. Conrad, C. Robert, and V. Dan, 'Kilohertz scanning all-fiber delay line using piezoelectric actuation,' in Fiber Optic Sensor Technology and Applications III,Proc. SPIE 5589, 99-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sagar, R.

P. Pant, C. S. Stalin, and R. Sagar, 'Microthermal measurements of surface layer seeing at Devasthal site,' Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 136, 19-25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sheem, S. K.

Stalin, C. S.

P. Pant, C. S. Stalin, and R. Sagar, 'Microthermal measurements of surface layer seeing at Devasthal site,' Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 136, 19-25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tveten, A. B.

Walters, D. L.

Wang, A.

T. L. Yu, Y. Liu, A. Wang, and B. S. Li, 'Measurement of the phase-shift coefficient of piezoelectrical phase modulator,' Optoelectron. Technol. Info. 17, 80-82 (2004).

Yin, Q. R.

G. R. Li, D. R. Chen, and Q. R. Yin, 'Displacement characterization of the PZT-based monolithic multilayer piezoelectric actuators,' J. Inorg. Mater. 14, 418-424 (1999).

Yu, T. L.

T. L. Yu, Y. Liu, A. Wang, and B. S. Li, 'Measurement of the phase-shift coefficient of piezoelectrical phase modulator,' Optoelectron. Technol. Info. 17, 80-82 (2004).

Zhang, R. H.

M. Ni, R. H. Zhang, Y. M. Hu, and Z. Meng, 'Implement of controlling the working point of an interferometric fiber-optic hydrophone by closed loop and pick-up of the signal,' Appl. Acoust. 20, 13-18 (2001).

Appl. Acoust.

M. Ni, R. H. Zhang, Y. M. Hu, and Z. Meng, 'Implement of controlling the working point of an interferometric fiber-optic hydrophone by closed loop and pick-up of the signal,' Appl. Acoust. 20, 13-18 (2001).

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser.

P. Pant, C. S. Stalin, and R. Sagar, 'Microthermal measurements of surface layer seeing at Devasthal site,' Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 136, 19-25 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. D. Kersey, 'Novel passive phase noise canceling technique for interferometeric fiber optic sensors,' Electron. Lett. 26, 640-641 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Inorg. Mater.

G. R. Li, D. R. Chen, and Q. R. Yin, 'Displacement characterization of the PZT-based monolithic multilayer piezoelectric actuators,' J. Inorg. Mater. 14, 418-424 (1999).

J. Naval Univ. Eng.

C. Chen, D. G. Li, Z. S. Liu, J. Peng, and W. Chen, 'Measurement of the phase-shift coefficient of piezoelectrical phase modulator by use of fiber interferometer,' J. Naval Univ. Eng. 13, 68-70 (2001).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Optoelectron. Technol. Info.

T. L. Yu, Y. Liu, A. Wang, and B. S. Li, 'Measurement of the phase-shift coefficient of piezoelectrical phase modulator,' Optoelectron. Technol. Info. 17, 80-82 (2004).

Proc. SPIE

H. P. Mei and R. Z. Rao, 'An optical fiber interferomtetric system for noncontact measurement of atmospheric optical turbulence,' in Optical Test and Measurement Technology and Equipment,Proc. SPIE 6150, 61500L (2005).

J. D. C. Jones, 'Engineering applications of optical fiber interferometers,' in Interferometric Fiber Sensing,Proc. SPIE 2341, 222-238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey and T. A. Berkoff, 'Passive laser phase noise suppression technique for fiber interferometers,' in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors VIII,Proc. SPIE 1367, 310-318 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. H. David, H. Conrad, C. Robert, and V. Dan, 'Kilohertz scanning all-fiber delay line using piezoelectric actuation,' in Fiber Optic Sensor Technology and Applications III,Proc. SPIE 5589, 99-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Structure of phase modulator: (1) cover plate, (2) PZT stack, (3) cap, (4) base plate, (5) holder, (6) screw stem.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Movement of PZT stack with applied voltage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Schematic of the experimental configuration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured f p with the increase of V m and (b) measured f p with the increase of f s .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Schematic of a fiber-optic atmospheric turbulence sensor.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Phase difference FOAOTS with the sampling frequency of 16 Hz: (a) open loop and (b) closed loop.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Time series of air refractive index variance σ n 2 and refractive index structure constant C n 2 .

Equations (3)

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Δ l = d 33 Δ V .
Δ φ = 4 π N Δ l / λ .
η = Δ φ Δ V = π V m f p f s .

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