Abstract

To establish trends in surface ultraviolet radiation levels, accurate and stable long-term measurements are required. The accuracy level of today's measurements has become high enough to notice even smaller effects that influence instrument sensitivity. Laboratory measurements of the sensitivity of the entrance optics have shown a decrease of as much as 0.07–0.1%∕deg temperature increase. Since the entrance optics can heat to greater than 45°C in Dutch summers, corrections are necessary. A method is developed to estimate the entrance optics temperatures from pyranometer measurements and meteorological data. The method enables us to correct historic data records for which temperature information is not available. The temperature retrieval method has an uncertainty of less than 2.5  °C, resulting in a 0.3% uncertainty in the correction to be performed. The temperature correction improves the agreement between modeled and measured doses and instrument intercomparison as performed within the Quality Assurance of Spectral Ultraviolet Measurements in Europe project. The retrieval method is easily transferable to other instruments.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, and D. Rembges, "Traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 5321-5331 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Göbner, M. Blumthaler, S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, A. Webb, J. Schreder, G. Seck-meyer, and D. Rembges, "Quality assurance of spectral solar UV measurements: results from 25 UV monitoring sites in Europe, 2002 to 2004," Metrologia 43, S66-S71 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Gröbner and P. Sperfeld, "Direct traceability of the portable QASUME irradiance scale to the primary irradiance standard of the PTB," Metrologia 42, 134-139 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Ylianttila and J. Schreder, "Temperature effects of PTFE diffusers," Opt. Mater. 27, 1811-1814 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. N. den Outer, H. Slaper, and R. B. Tax, "UV radiation in the Netherlands: Assessing long-term variability and trends in relation to ozone and clouds," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. F. McKinley and B. L. Diffey, "A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin," CIE J. 6, 17-22 (1987).

2006 (1)

J. Göbner, M. Blumthaler, S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, A. Webb, J. Schreder, G. Seck-meyer, and D. Rembges, "Quality assurance of spectral solar UV measurements: results from 25 UV monitoring sites in Europe, 2002 to 2004," Metrologia 43, S66-S71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

J. Gröbner and P. Sperfeld, "Direct traceability of the portable QASUME irradiance scale to the primary irradiance standard of the PTB," Metrologia 42, 134-139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Ylianttila and J. Schreder, "Temperature effects of PTFE diffusers," Opt. Mater. 27, 1811-1814 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. N. den Outer, H. Slaper, and R. B. Tax, "UV radiation in the Netherlands: Assessing long-term variability and trends in relation to ozone and clouds," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, and D. Rembges, "Traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 5321-5331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

A. F. McKinley and B. L. Diffey, "A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin," CIE J. 6, 17-22 (1987).

Bais, A.

J. Göbner, M. Blumthaler, S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, A. Webb, J. Schreder, G. Seck-meyer, and D. Rembges, "Quality assurance of spectral solar UV measurements: results from 25 UV monitoring sites in Europe, 2002 to 2004," Metrologia 43, S66-S71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bais, A. F.

Blumthaler, M.

J. Göbner, M. Blumthaler, S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, A. Webb, J. Schreder, G. Seck-meyer, and D. Rembges, "Quality assurance of spectral solar UV measurements: results from 25 UV monitoring sites in Europe, 2002 to 2004," Metrologia 43, S66-S71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, and D. Rembges, "Traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 5321-5331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

den Outer, P. N.

P. N. den Outer, H. Slaper, and R. B. Tax, "UV radiation in the Netherlands: Assessing long-term variability and trends in relation to ozone and clouds," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diffey, B. L.

A. F. McKinley and B. L. Diffey, "A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin," CIE J. 6, 17-22 (1987).

Göbner, J.

J. Göbner, M. Blumthaler, S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, A. Webb, J. Schreder, G. Seck-meyer, and D. Rembges, "Quality assurance of spectral solar UV measurements: results from 25 UV monitoring sites in Europe, 2002 to 2004," Metrologia 43, S66-S71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Görts, P.

Gröbner, J.

Kazadzis, S.

J. Göbner, M. Blumthaler, S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, A. Webb, J. Schreder, G. Seck-meyer, and D. Rembges, "Quality assurance of spectral solar UV measurements: results from 25 UV monitoring sites in Europe, 2002 to 2004," Metrologia 43, S66-S71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, and D. Rembges, "Traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 5321-5331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koskela, T.

McKinley, A. F.

A. F. McKinley and B. L. Diffey, "A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin," CIE J. 6, 17-22 (1987).

Rembges, D.

J. Göbner, M. Blumthaler, S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, A. Webb, J. Schreder, G. Seck-meyer, and D. Rembges, "Quality assurance of spectral solar UV measurements: results from 25 UV monitoring sites in Europe, 2002 to 2004," Metrologia 43, S66-S71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, and D. Rembges, "Traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 5321-5331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreder, J.

J. Göbner, M. Blumthaler, S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, A. Webb, J. Schreder, G. Seck-meyer, and D. Rembges, "Quality assurance of spectral solar UV measurements: results from 25 UV monitoring sites in Europe, 2002 to 2004," Metrologia 43, S66-S71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, and D. Rembges, "Traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 5321-5331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ylianttila and J. Schreder, "Temperature effects of PTFE diffusers," Opt. Mater. 27, 1811-1814 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seckmeyer, G.

Seck-meyer, G.

J. Göbner, M. Blumthaler, S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, A. Webb, J. Schreder, G. Seck-meyer, and D. Rembges, "Quality assurance of spectral solar UV measurements: results from 25 UV monitoring sites in Europe, 2002 to 2004," Metrologia 43, S66-S71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Slaper, H.

P. N. den Outer, H. Slaper, and R. B. Tax, "UV radiation in the Netherlands: Assessing long-term variability and trends in relation to ozone and clouds," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sperfeld, P.

J. Gröbner and P. Sperfeld, "Direct traceability of the portable QASUME irradiance scale to the primary irradiance standard of the PTB," Metrologia 42, 134-139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tax, R.

Tax, R. B.

P. N. den Outer, H. Slaper, and R. B. Tax, "UV radiation in the Netherlands: Assessing long-term variability and trends in relation to ozone and clouds," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webb, A.

J. Göbner, M. Blumthaler, S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, A. Webb, J. Schreder, G. Seck-meyer, and D. Rembges, "Quality assurance of spectral solar UV measurements: results from 25 UV monitoring sites in Europe, 2002 to 2004," Metrologia 43, S66-S71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Webb, A. R.

Ylianttila, L.

L. Ylianttila and J. Schreder, "Temperature effects of PTFE diffusers," Opt. Mater. 27, 1811-1814 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

CIE J. (1)

A. F. McKinley and B. L. Diffey, "A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin," CIE J. 6, 17-22 (1987).

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

P. N. den Outer, H. Slaper, and R. B. Tax, "UV radiation in the Netherlands: Assessing long-term variability and trends in relation to ozone and clouds," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (2)

J. Göbner, M. Blumthaler, S. Kazadzis, A. Bais, A. Webb, J. Schreder, G. Seck-meyer, and D. Rembges, "Quality assurance of spectral solar UV measurements: results from 25 UV monitoring sites in Europe, 2002 to 2004," Metrologia 43, S66-S71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner and P. Sperfeld, "Direct traceability of the portable QASUME irradiance scale to the primary irradiance standard of the PTB," Metrologia 42, 134-139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

L. Ylianttila and J. Schreder, "Temperature effects of PTFE diffusers," Opt. Mater. 27, 1811-1814 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ratio of signals measured at different temperatures of the RIVM1 diffuser with reference to the lamp signal measured at T dif = 25 ° C .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ratio of signals measured at different temperatures of the RIVM2 diffuser with reference to the lamp signal measured at T dif = 25 ° C . The vertical error bars indicate the standard deviations of the wavelength averaging.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Solar global radiation F and temperature of the diffuser T dif for days 199–201 in 2004.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Weighted and (b) shifted weighted solar irradiances versus the diffuser temperature. The data are shown for several T max bins.3.+

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured and retrieved diffuser temperatures for the period from 4 to 14 July 2006.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of RIVM1 and QASUME with correction (TC) and without correction (NTC) of temperature dependence for days 196–198 in 2003.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of measured and modeled erythemal doses for clear sky days. Open triangles: temperature correction not applied; filled triangles, correction applied.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Measured and Retrieved Temperatures

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Daily UV Sums

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d T ( t ) d t = γ [ T ( t ) T sur ] + α F ( t ) ,
T n ( t ) = [ T n 0 ( α F n γ + T sur ) ] e γ [ t ( n 1 ) Δ t ] + ( α F n γ + T sur )
T N ( t = N Δ t ) = T N + 1 0 = n = 1 N ( 1 e γ Δ t ) e γ Δ t ( N n )
    × ( α F n γ + T sur ) .
F N ( t = N Δ t ) = C 1 F w + C 2 ( T air , T roof , windspeed ,   … )
F w = 0 N F n e γ ( N n ) Δ t .
T dif = b 0 + b 1 F shift .

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