Abstract

The presence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) by optical pump in polystyrene films doped with N,N′-di(10-nonadecyl)perylene-3,4:9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDI-N) in a range of PDI-N concentrations between 0.25 and 5 wt. % is reported. Gain coefficients up to 10cm1, at a pump intensity of 74kW/cm2, were obtained. The lowest thresholds (15kW/cm2) and largest photostabilities measured at 50% (50min, i.e., 30,000 pump pulses) were obtained for concentrations up to 1 wt. %. The observation of an increase in the ASE threshold and a decrease in the photostability for larger concentrations is attributed to the presence of aggregated species.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  8. V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices," Nature 389, 362-364 (1997).
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  9. M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, "Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer," Nature 389, 466-469 (1997).
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  14. E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, "Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides," Org. Electron. 7, 319-329 (2006).
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  17. M. Sadrai, L. Hadel, R. R. Sauers, S. Husain, K. Krogh-Jespersen, J. D. Westbrook, and G. R. Bird, "Lasing action in a family of perylene derivatives: singlet absorption and emission spectra, triplet absorption and oxygen quenching constants, and molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7988-7996 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  27. H. Langhals, St. Demming, and Th. Potrawa, "The relation between packing effects and solid state fluorescence of dyes," J. Prakt. Chem. 333, 733-748 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. M. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035-7039 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Salbeck, H. Kunkely, H. Langhals, R. W. Saalfrank, and J. Daub, "Electron-transfer (ET) behaviour of fluorescent dyes studied in perylenebisdicarboximides and dioxaindenoindenedione using cyclovoltammetry and UV/VIS spectroelectrochemistry," Chimia 43, 6-9 (1989).
  30. J. L. Segura, R. Gómez, R. Blanco, E. Reinold, and P. Bäuerle, "Synthesis and electronic properties of anthraquinone-, tetracyanoanthraquinodimethane-, and perylenetetracarboxylic diimide-functionalized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenes)," Chem. Mater. 18, 2834-2847 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. H. Langhals, S. Sprenger, and M. T. Brandherm, "Perylenamidine-imide dyes," Liebigs Ann. 481-486 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  32. L. D. Wescott and D. L. Mattern, "Donor-σ-acceptor molecules incorporating a nonadecyl-swallowtailed perylenediimide acceptor," J. Org. Chem. 68, 10058-10066 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, "Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522-1-063522-6 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  34. E.-Z. M. Ebeid, S. A. El-Daly, and H. Langhals, "Emission characteristics and photostability of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4:9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide)," J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4565-4568 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. Schölz and M. Schreiber, "Linear optical properties of perylene-based chromophores," Chem. Phys. 325, 9-21 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  36. C. Burgdorff, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, and R. Reisfeld, "A perylene dye in sol-gel matrices: photophysical properties of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4:9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide) in glasses and thin films," Chem. Phys. Lett. 197, 358-363 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2006

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, "Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides," Org. Electron. 7, 319-329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Tanaka, N. Barashkov, J. Heath, and W. N. Sisk, "Photodegradation of polymer-dispersed perylene diimide dyes," Appl. Opt. 45, 3846-3851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Segura, R. Gómez, R. Blanco, E. Reinold, and P. Bäuerle, "Synthesis and electronic properties of anthraquinone-, tetracyanoanthraquinodimethane-, and perylenetetracarboxylic diimide-functionalized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenes)," Chem. Mater. 18, 2834-2847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Schölz and M. Schreiber, "Linear optical properties of perylene-based chromophores," Chem. Phys. 325, 9-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, "Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522-1-063522-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Langhals, "Control of the interactions in multichromophores: novel concepts. Perylene bisimides as components for larger functional units," Helv. Chim. Acta 88, 1309-1343 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Yang, M. Wang, G. Qian, Z. Wang, and X. Fan, "Laser properties and photostabilities of laser dyes doped in ORMOSILs," Opt. Mater. 24, 621-628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorenone derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel and C. A. Turnbull, "Polymer lasers: recent advances," Mater. Today 7, 28-35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

L. D. Wescott and D. L. Mattern, "Donor-σ-acceptor molecules incorporating a nonadecyl-swallowtailed perylenediimide acceptor," J. Org. Chem. 68, 10058-10066 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

A. K. Sheridan, A. R. Buckley, A. M. Fox, A. Bacher, D. D. C. Bradley, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Efficient energy transfer in organic thin-films implications for organic lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6367-6371 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, M. Zavelani-Rossi, C. Gadermaier, G. Lanzani, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, "Amplified spontaneous emission from a soluble thiophene-based oligomer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2679-2681 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, and H.-H. Hörhold, "Travelling-wave lasing of TPD solutions and neat films," Synth. Met. 113, 281-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, "Semiconducting (Conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers," Adv. Mater. 12, 1655-1668 (2000) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1999

N. Tessler, "Lasers based on semiconducting organic materials," Adv. Mater. 11, 363-370 (1999) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1998

N. Johansson, J. Salbeck, J. Bauer, F. Weissörtel, P. Bröms, A. Andersson, and W. R. Salaneck, "Solid-state amplified spontaneous emission in some spiro-type molecules: a new concept for the design of solid-state lasing molecules," Adv. Mater. 10, 1137-1141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. M. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035-7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Faloss, M. Canva, P. Georger, A. Brun, F. Chaput, and J. P. Boilot, "Towards millions of laser pulses with pyrromethene- and perylene-doped xerogels," Appl. Opt. 36, 6760-6763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Rahn, T. A. King, A. A. Gorman, and I. Hamblett, "Photostability enhancement of Pyrromethene 567 and Perylene Orange in oxygen-free liquid and solid dye lasers," Appl. Opt. 36, 5862-5871 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices," Nature 389, 362-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, "Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer," Nature 389, 466-469 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymers and titanium dioxide nanocrystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 424-430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, "Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials," Science 273, 1833-1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, "Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities," Nature 382, 695-697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Canva, P. Georges, J. P. Perelgritz, A. Brun, F. Chaput, and J. P. Boilot, "Perylene- and pyrromethene-doped xerogel for a pulsed laser," Appl. Opt. 34, 428-431 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Langhals, "Cyclic carboxylic imide structures as structure elements of high stability. Novel developments in perylene dye chemistry," Heterocycles 40, 477-500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Langhals, S. Sprenger, and M. T. Brandherm, "Perylenamidine-imide dyes," Liebigs Ann. 481-486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

C. Burgdorff, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, and R. Reisfeld, "A perylene dye in sol-gel matrices: photophysical properties of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4:9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide) in glasses and thin films," Chem. Phys. Lett. 197, 358-363 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sadrai, L. Hadel, R. R. Sauers, S. Husain, K. Krogh-Jespersen, J. D. Westbrook, and G. R. Bird, "Lasing action in a family of perylene derivatives: singlet absorption and emission spectra, triplet absorption and oxygen quenching constants, and molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7988-7996 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. Langhals, St. Demming, and Th. Potrawa, "The relation between packing effects and solid state fluorescence of dyes," J. Prakt. Chem. 333, 733-748 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

R. Reisfeld and G. Seybold, "Solid-state tunable lasers in the visible, based on luminescent photoresistant heterocyclic colorants," Chimia 44, 295-297 (1990).

1989

H.-G. Löhmannsröben and H. Langhals, "Laser performance of perylenebis(dicarboximide) dyes with long secondary alkyl chains," Appl. Phys. B 48, 449-452 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Salbeck, H. Kunkely, H. Langhals, R. W. Saalfrank, and J. Daub, "Electron-transfer (ET) behaviour of fluorescent dyes studied in perylenebisdicarboximides and dioxaindenoindenedione using cyclovoltammetry and UV/VIS spectroelectrochemistry," Chimia 43, 6-9 (1989).

1988

E.-Z. M. Ebeid, S. A. El-Daly, and H. Langhals, "Emission characteristics and photostability of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4:9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide)," J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4565-4568 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984

M. Sadrai and G. R. Bird, "A new laser dye with potential for high stability and a broad band of lasing action: perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid-bis-N,N′(2′,6′xylidyl)diimide," Opt. Commun. 51, 62-64 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, A.

N. Johansson, J. Salbeck, J. Bauer, F. Weissörtel, P. Bröms, A. Andersson, and W. R. Salaneck, "Solid-state amplified spontaneous emission in some spiro-type molecules: a new concept for the design of solid-state lasing molecules," Adv. Mater. 10, 1137-1141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M.

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, "Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials," Science 273, 1833-1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anni, M.

M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, M. Zavelani-Rossi, C. Gadermaier, G. Lanzani, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, "Amplified spontaneous emission from a soluble thiophene-based oligomer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2679-2681 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bacher, A.

A. K. Sheridan, A. R. Buckley, A. M. Fox, A. Bacher, D. D. C. Bradley, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Efficient energy transfer in organic thin-films implications for organic lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6367-6371 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Z.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, "Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer," Nature 389, 466-469 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barashkov, N.

Barbarella, G.

M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, M. Zavelani-Rossi, C. Gadermaier, G. Lanzani, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, "Amplified spontaneous emission from a soluble thiophene-based oligomer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2679-2681 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, J.

N. Johansson, J. Salbeck, J. Bauer, F. Weissörtel, P. Bröms, A. Andersson, and W. R. Salaneck, "Solid-state amplified spontaneous emission in some spiro-type molecules: a new concept for the design of solid-state lasing molecules," Adv. Mater. 10, 1137-1141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bäuerle, P.

J. L. Segura, R. Gómez, R. Blanco, E. Reinold, and P. Bäuerle, "Synthesis and electronic properties of anthraquinone-, tetracyanoanthraquinodimethane-, and perylenetetracarboxylic diimide-functionalized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenes)," Chem. Mater. 18, 2834-2847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Becker, E.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorenone derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, M.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, "Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer," Nature 389, 466-469 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bird, G. R.

M. Sadrai, L. Hadel, R. R. Sauers, S. Husain, K. Krogh-Jespersen, J. D. Westbrook, and G. R. Bird, "Lasing action in a family of perylene derivatives: singlet absorption and emission spectra, triplet absorption and oxygen quenching constants, and molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7988-7996 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sadrai and G. R. Bird, "A new laser dye with potential for high stability and a broad band of lasing action: perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid-bis-N,N′(2′,6′xylidyl)diimide," Opt. Commun. 51, 62-64 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, R.

J. L. Segura, R. Gómez, R. Blanco, E. Reinold, and P. Bäuerle, "Synthesis and electronic properties of anthraquinone-, tetracyanoanthraquinodimethane-, and perylenetetracarboxylic diimide-functionalized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenes)," Chem. Mater. 18, 2834-2847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boilot, J. P.

Boj, P.

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, "Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522-1-063522-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boj, P. G.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, "Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides," Org. Electron. 7, 319-329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

A. K. Sheridan, A. R. Buckley, A. M. Fox, A. Bacher, D. D. C. Bradley, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Efficient energy transfer in organic thin-films implications for organic lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6367-6371 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brandherm, M. T.

H. Langhals, S. Sprenger, and M. T. Brandherm, "Perylenamidine-imide dyes," Liebigs Ann. 481-486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bröms, P.

N. Johansson, J. Salbeck, J. Bauer, F. Weissörtel, P. Bröms, A. Andersson, and W. R. Salaneck, "Solid-state amplified spontaneous emission in some spiro-type molecules: a new concept for the design of solid-state lasing molecules," Adv. Mater. 10, 1137-1141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brun, A.

Buckley, A. R.

A. K. Sheridan, A. R. Buckley, A. M. Fox, A. Bacher, D. D. C. Bradley, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Efficient energy transfer in organic thin-films implications for organic lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6367-6371 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices," Nature 389, 362-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burgdorff, C.

C. Burgdorff, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, and R. Reisfeld, "A perylene dye in sol-gel matrices: photophysical properties of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4:9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide) in glasses and thin films," Chem. Phys. Lett. 197, 358-363 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices," Nature 389, 362-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Calzado, E. M.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, "Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides," Org. Electron. 7, 319-329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, "Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522-1-063522-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Canva, M.

Chaput, F.

Cingolani, R.

M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, M. Zavelani-Rossi, C. Gadermaier, G. Lanzani, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, "Amplified spontaneous emission from a soluble thiophene-based oligomer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2679-2681 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Daub, J.

J. Salbeck, H. Kunkely, H. Langhals, R. W. Saalfrank, and J. Daub, "Electron-transfer (ET) behaviour of fluorescent dyes studied in perylenebisdicarboximides and dioxaindenoindenedione using cyclovoltammetry and UV/VIS spectroelectrochemistry," Chimia 43, 6-9 (1989).

Denton, G. J.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, "Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities," Nature 382, 695-697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Díaz-García, M. A.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, "Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides," Org. Electron. 7, 319-329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, "Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522-1-063522-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. M. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035-7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, "Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials," Science 273, 1833-1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymers and titanium dioxide nanocrystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 424-430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dobbertin, T.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorenone derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, "Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer," Nature 389, 466-469 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duarte, F. J.

F. J. Duarte and L. W. Hillman, Dye Laser Principles with Applications (Academic, 1990).

Ebeid, E.-Z. M.

E.-Z. M. Ebeid, S. A. El-Daly, and H. Langhals, "Emission characteristics and photostability of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4:9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide)," J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4565-4568 (1988).
[CrossRef]

El-Daly, S. A.

E.-Z. M. Ebeid, S. A. El-Daly, and H. Langhals, "Emission characteristics and photostability of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4:9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide)," J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4565-4568 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Faloss, M.

Fan, X.

Y. Yang, M. Wang, G. Qian, Z. Wang, and X. Fan, "Laser properties and photostabilities of laser dyes doped in ORMOSILs," Opt. Mater. 24, 621-628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Favaretto, L.

M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, M. Zavelani-Rossi, C. Gadermaier, G. Lanzani, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, "Amplified spontaneous emission from a soluble thiophene-based oligomer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2679-2681 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Forest, S. R.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices," Nature 389, 362-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fox, A. M.

A. K. Sheridan, A. R. Buckley, A. M. Fox, A. Bacher, D. D. C. Bradley, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Efficient energy transfer in organic thin-films implications for organic lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6367-6371 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, "Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities," Nature 382, 695-697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gadermaier, C.

M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, M. Zavelani-Rossi, C. Gadermaier, G. Lanzani, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, "Amplified spontaneous emission from a soluble thiophene-based oligomer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2679-2681 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Georger, P.

Georges, P.

Gerhard, A.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorenone derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Giacalone, F.

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, "Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522-1-063522-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gigli, G.

M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, M. Zavelani-Rossi, C. Gadermaier, G. Lanzani, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, "Amplified spontaneous emission from a soluble thiophene-based oligomer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2679-2681 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gómez, R.

J. L. Segura, R. Gómez, R. Blanco, E. Reinold, and P. Bäuerle, "Synthesis and electronic properties of anthraquinone-, tetracyanoanthraquinodimethane-, and perylenetetracarboxylic diimide-functionalized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenes)," Chem. Mater. 18, 2834-2847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gorman, A. A.

Gupta, R.

M. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. M. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035-7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hadel, L.

M. Sadrai, L. Hadel, R. R. Sauers, S. Husain, K. Krogh-Jespersen, J. D. Westbrook, and G. R. Bird, "Lasing action in a family of perylene derivatives: singlet absorption and emission spectra, triplet absorption and oxygen quenching constants, and molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7988-7996 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hamblett, I.

Heath, J.

Heeger, A. J.

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, "Semiconducting (Conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers," Adv. Mater. 12, 1655-1668 (2000) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. M. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035-7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, "Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials," Science 273, 1833-1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymers and titanium dioxide nanocrystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 424-430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hide, F.

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, "Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials," Science 273, 1833-1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymers and titanium dioxide nanocrystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 424-430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, L. W.

F. J. Duarte and L. W. Hillman, Dye Laser Principles with Applications (Academic, 1990).

Hinze, P.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorenone derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holzer, W.

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, and H.-H. Hörhold, "Travelling-wave lasing of TPD solutions and neat films," Synth. Met. 113, 281-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hörhold, H.-H.

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, and H.-H. Hörhold, "Travelling-wave lasing of TPD solutions and neat films," Synth. Met. 113, 281-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Husain, S.

M. Sadrai, L. Hadel, R. R. Sauers, S. Husain, K. Krogh-Jespersen, J. D. Westbrook, and G. R. Bird, "Lasing action in a family of perylene derivatives: singlet absorption and emission spectra, triplet absorption and oxygen quenching constants, and molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7988-7996 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Johannes, H.-H.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorenone derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, N.

N. Johansson, J. Salbeck, J. Bauer, F. Weissörtel, P. Bröms, A. Andersson, and W. R. Salaneck, "Solid-state amplified spontaneous emission in some spiro-type molecules: a new concept for the design of solid-state lasing molecules," Adv. Mater. 10, 1137-1141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

King, T. A.

Kowalsky, W.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorenone derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. G.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices," Nature 389, 362-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kröger, M.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorenone derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krogh-Jespersen, K.

M. Sadrai, L. Hadel, R. R. Sauers, S. Husain, K. Krogh-Jespersen, J. D. Westbrook, and G. R. Bird, "Lasing action in a family of perylene derivatives: singlet absorption and emission spectra, triplet absorption and oxygen quenching constants, and molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7988-7996 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kunkely, H.

J. Salbeck, H. Kunkely, H. Langhals, R. W. Saalfrank, and J. Daub, "Electron-transfer (ET) behaviour of fluorescent dyes studied in perylenebisdicarboximides and dioxaindenoindenedione using cyclovoltammetry and UV/VIS spectroelectrochemistry," Chimia 43, 6-9 (1989).

Langhals, H.

H. Langhals, "Control of the interactions in multichromophores: novel concepts. Perylene bisimides as components for larger functional units," Helv. Chim. Acta 88, 1309-1343 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Langhals, "Cyclic carboxylic imide structures as structure elements of high stability. Novel developments in perylene dye chemistry," Heterocycles 40, 477-500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Langhals, S. Sprenger, and M. T. Brandherm, "Perylenamidine-imide dyes," Liebigs Ann. 481-486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Langhals, St. Demming, and Th. Potrawa, "The relation between packing effects and solid state fluorescence of dyes," J. Prakt. Chem. 333, 733-748 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Salbeck, H. Kunkely, H. Langhals, R. W. Saalfrank, and J. Daub, "Electron-transfer (ET) behaviour of fluorescent dyes studied in perylenebisdicarboximides and dioxaindenoindenedione using cyclovoltammetry and UV/VIS spectroelectrochemistry," Chimia 43, 6-9 (1989).

H.-G. Löhmannsröben and H. Langhals, "Laser performance of perylenebis(dicarboximide) dyes with long secondary alkyl chains," Appl. Phys. B 48, 449-452 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E.-Z. M. Ebeid, S. A. El-Daly, and H. Langhals, "Emission characteristics and photostability of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4:9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide)," J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4565-4568 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lanzani, G.

M. Anni, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, M. Zavelani-Rossi, C. Gadermaier, G. Lanzani, G. Barbarella, and L. Favaretto, "Amplified spontaneous emission from a soluble thiophene-based oligomer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2679-2681 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Löhmannsröben, H.-G.

C. Burgdorff, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, and R. Reisfeld, "A perylene dye in sol-gel matrices: photophysical properties of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4:9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide) in glasses and thin films," Chem. Phys. Lett. 197, 358-363 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H.-G. Löhmannsröben and H. Langhals, "Laser performance of perylenebis(dicarboximide) dyes with long secondary alkyl chains," Appl. Phys. B 48, 449-452 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Martín, N.

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, "Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522-1-063522-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mattern, D. L.

L. D. Wescott and D. L. Mattern, "Donor-σ-acceptor molecules incorporating a nonadecyl-swallowtailed perylenediimide acceptor," J. Org. Chem. 68, 10058-10066 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGehee, M.

M. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. M. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035-7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, "Semiconducting (Conjugated) polymers as materials for solid-state lasers," Adv. Mater. 12, 1655-1668 (2000) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Miller, E. M.

M. McGehee, R. Gupta, S. Veenstra, E. M. Miller, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Amplified spontaneous emission from photopumped films of a conjugated polymer," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7035-7039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pei, Q.

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, "Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials," Science 273, 1833-1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Penzkofer, A.

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, and H.-H. Hörhold, "Travelling-wave lasing of TPD solutions and neat films," Synth. Met. 113, 281-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perelgritz, J. P.

Potrawa, Th.

H. Langhals, St. Demming, and Th. Potrawa, "The relation between packing effects and solid state fluorescence of dyes," J. Prakt. Chem. 333, 733-748 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Qian, G.

Y. Yang, M. Wang, G. Qian, Z. Wang, and X. Fan, "Laser properties and photostabilities of laser dyes doped in ORMOSILs," Opt. Mater. 24, 621-628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quintana, J. A.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, "Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides," Org. Electron. 7, 319-329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, "Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522-1-063522-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rabe, T.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorenone derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, M. D.

Reinold, E.

J. L. Segura, R. Gómez, R. Blanco, E. Reinold, and P. Bäuerle, "Synthesis and electronic properties of anthraquinone-, tetracyanoanthraquinodimethane-, and perylenetetracarboxylic diimide-functionalized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenes)," Chem. Mater. 18, 2834-2847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reisfeld, R.

C. Burgdorff, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, and R. Reisfeld, "A perylene dye in sol-gel matrices: photophysical properties of N,N′-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4:9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide) in glasses and thin films," Chem. Phys. Lett. 197, 358-363 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld and G. Seybold, "Solid-state tunable lasers in the visible, based on luminescent photoresistant heterocyclic colorants," Chimia 44, 295-297 (1990).

Riedl, T.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorenone derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saalfrank, R. W.

J. Salbeck, H. Kunkely, H. Langhals, R. W. Saalfrank, and J. Daub, "Electron-transfer (ET) behaviour of fluorescent dyes studied in perylenebisdicarboximides and dioxaindenoindenedione using cyclovoltammetry and UV/VIS spectroelectrochemistry," Chimia 43, 6-9 (1989).

Sadrai, M.

M. Sadrai, L. Hadel, R. R. Sauers, S. Husain, K. Krogh-Jespersen, J. D. Westbrook, and G. R. Bird, "Lasing action in a family of perylene derivatives: singlet absorption and emission spectra, triplet absorption and oxygen quenching constants, and molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7988-7996 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sadrai and G. R. Bird, "A new laser dye with potential for high stability and a broad band of lasing action: perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid-bis-N,N′(2′,6′xylidyl)diimide," Opt. Commun. 51, 62-64 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Salaneck, W. R.

N. Johansson, J. Salbeck, J. Bauer, F. Weissörtel, P. Bröms, A. Andersson, and W. R. Salaneck, "Solid-state amplified spontaneous emission in some spiro-type molecules: a new concept for the design of solid-state lasing molecules," Adv. Mater. 10, 1137-1141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salbeck, J.

N. Johansson, J. Salbeck, J. Bauer, F. Weissörtel, P. Bröms, A. Andersson, and W. R. Salaneck, "Solid-state amplified spontaneous emission in some spiro-type molecules: a new concept for the design of solid-state lasing molecules," Adv. Mater. 10, 1137-1141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Salbeck, H. Kunkely, H. Langhals, R. W. Saalfrank, and J. Daub, "Electron-transfer (ET) behaviour of fluorescent dyes studied in perylenebisdicarboximides and dioxaindenoindenedione using cyclovoltammetry and UV/VIS spectroelectrochemistry," Chimia 43, 6-9 (1989).

Samuel, I. D. W.

I. D. W. Samuel and C. A. Turnbull, "Polymer lasers: recent advances," Mater. Today 7, 28-35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sheridan, A. R. Buckley, A. M. Fox, A. Bacher, D. D. C. Bradley, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Efficient energy transfer in organic thin-films implications for organic lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6367-6371 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sauers, R. R.

M. Sadrai, L. Hadel, R. R. Sauers, S. Husain, K. Krogh-Jespersen, J. D. Westbrook, and G. R. Bird, "Lasing action in a family of perylene derivatives: singlet absorption and emission spectra, triplet absorption and oxygen quenching constants, and molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital calculations," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7988-7996 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorenone derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schölz, R.

R. Schölz and M. Schreiber, "Linear optical properties of perylene-based chromophores," Chem. Phys. 325, 9-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, M.

R. Schölz and M. Schreiber, "Linear optical properties of perylene-based chromophores," Chem. Phys. 325, 9-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, B.

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, "Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials," Science 273, 1833-1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Díaz-García, and A. J. Heeger, "Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymers and titanium dioxide nanocrystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 424-430 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Segura, J. L.

J. L. Segura, R. Gómez, R. Blanco, E. Reinold, and P. Bäuerle, "Synthesis and electronic properties of anthraquinone-, tetracyanoanthraquinodimethane-, and perylenetetracarboxylic diimide-functionalized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenes)," Chem. Mater. 18, 2834-2847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Díaz-García, E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. Boj, J. A. Quintana, F. Giacalone, J. L. Segura, and N. Martín, "Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in two oligo-(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063522-1-063522-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seybold, G.

R. Reisfeld and G. Seybold, "Solid-state tunable lasers in the visible, based on luminescent photoresistant heterocyclic colorants," Chimia 44, 295-297 (1990).

Sheridan, A. K.

A. K. Sheridan, A. R. Buckley, A. M. Fox, A. Bacher, D. D. C. Bradley, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Efficient energy transfer in organic thin-films implications for organic lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6367-6371 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sisk, W. N.

Slusher, R. E.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, "Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer," Nature 389, 466-469 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sprenger, S.

H. Langhals, S. Sprenger, and M. T. Brandherm, "Perylenamidine-imide dyes," Liebigs Ann. 481-486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

St. Demming,

H. Langhals, St. Demming, and Th. Potrawa, "The relation between packing effects and solid state fluorescence of dyes," J. Prakt. Chem. 333, 733-748 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stössel, P.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorenone derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, N.

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, "Lasers based on semiconducting organic materials," Adv. Mater. 11, 363-370 (1999) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, "Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities," Nature 382, 695-697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, C. A.

I. D. W. Samuel and C. A. Turnbull, "Polymer lasers: recent advances," Mater. Today 7, 28-35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Veenstra, S.

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E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, "Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides," Org. Electron. 7, 319-329 (2006).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structure of N , N -di (10-nonadecyl)perylene-3,4:9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDI-N).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical absorption (ABS, thin full curve, left axis) and emission spectra (right axis) at low pump intensity ( 5   kW / cm 2 ; dashed curve) and high pump intensity ( 16 kW / cm 2 ; thick full curve) of a 0.75 wt. % PDI-N-doped PS film. The intensity of the spectrum obtained at high pump intensity has been divided by 28 for comparison purposes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission intensity at λ max for a 0.5 wt. % PDI-N-doped PS film as a function of excitation length at various pump intensities: 74 kW / cm 2 (full circles), 60 kW / cm 2 (open triangles), and 26 kW / cm 2 (full squares). Solid curves are fits to data using Eq. (1), from which gains coefficients (g) have been obtained.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output intensity at λ = 579   nm as a function of pump intensity for a 0.25 wt. % PDI-N-doped PS film. Straight lines are linear fits to data. The intercept of the two lines determines the ASE threshold ( I th ) .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

ASE threshold as a function of PDI-N concentration in PS films.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

ASE linewidth (FWHM) as a function of PDI-N concentration in PS films.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wavelength of ASE (full triangles), PL (0-0) (full squares), and PL (0-1) (open circles) emission peaks as a function of PDI-N concentration in PS films.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Intensity of PL(0-0) (full squares) and PL(0-1) (open circles) emission peaks, as a function of PDI-N concentration in PS films.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized ASE intensity versus irradiation time (bottom axis) and versus the number of pump pulses (10 ns, 10 Hz; top axis) for PS films doped with 0.75 wt. % (full squares) and 2 wt. % (full circles) of PDI-N at a pump intensity of 70 and 400 kW / cm 2 , respectively.

Equations (1)

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I ( λ ) = [ A ( λ ) I p g ( λ ) ] { exp [ g ( λ ) l ] 1 } ,

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