Abstract

An optical fiber liquid-level sensor based on an extrinsic Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity is proposed and demonstrated. The FP cavity consists of the end of the single-mode optical fiber and the elastic silicon layer. Liquid pressures act on the mechanical construction to change the cavity length, resulting in differential phase shifts that may be observed as variations of the output signal intensity. Self-compensated steps have been taken to obtain high accuracy and long-term stability in realistic circumstances. Experimental results indicate that accuracy of 2 mm over a full scale of 3.5 m (water) is obtained under ambient temperature 10-38 °C. The sensor can be used to measure liquid levels continuously and accurately in explosive and flammable environments.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2005 (1)

H. W. Rong, G. Y. Jun, and L. Z. Lin, "The temperature compensation design of an optical fiber liquid-level sensor with Fabry-Perot cavity," Acta Photon. Sin. 34, 1810-1813 (2005).

2004 (3)

G. J. Zhang, Q. X. Yu, and S. D. Song, "An investigation of interference/intensity demodulated fiber-optic Fabry-Perot cavity sensor," Sens. Actuators A 116, 33-38 (2004).

H. Golnabi, "Design and operation of a fiber optic sensor for liquid level detection," Opt. Lasers Eng. 41, 801-812 (2004).

C. S. Perez, A. G. Valenzuela, and G. E. S. Romero, "Technique for referencing of fiber-optic intensity-modulated sensors by use of counterpropagating signals," Opt. Lett. 29, 1467-1469 (2004).

2003 (5)

V. E. Sakharov, S. A. Kuznetsov, B. D. Zaitsev, I. E. Kuznetsova, and S. G. Joshi, "Liquid level sensor using ultrasonic lamb waves," Ultrasonics 41, 319-322 (2003).

A. Poghossian, J. W. Schultze, and M. J. Schoning, "Application of a (bio-)chemical sensor (ISFET) for the detection of physical parameters in liquids," Electrochim. Acta 48, 3289-3297 (2003).

E. Musayev and S. E. Karlik, "A novel liquid level detection method and its implementation," Sens. Actuators A 109, 21-24 (2003).

S. H. Kim and J. J. Lee, "Phase-shifted transmission/reflection-type hybrid extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric optical fiber sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 797-804 (2003).

S. H. Kim and J. J. Lee, "Phase-shifted transmission/reflection-type hybrid extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric optical fiber sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 797-804 (2003).

2002 (1)

2001 (4)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

T. Y. Wang, S. X. Zheng, and Z. G. Yang, "A high precision displacement sensor using a low-finesse fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer," Sens. Actuators A 69, 134-138 (1998).

1992 (1)

T. A. Tran, W. V. Miller, K. A. Murphy, and Ashish, "Stabilized extrinsic fiber-optic Fizeau sensor for surface acoustic wave detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1499-1506 (1992).

1991 (2)

C. E. Lee and H. F. Taylor, "Fiber-optic Fabry-Perot temperature sensor using a low-coherence light source," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 129-134 (1991).

K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, A. M. Vengsarkar, and R. O. Claus, "Quadrature phase-shifted, extrinsic Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensors," Opt. Lett. 16, 273-275 (1991).

Chen, S. P.

C. N. Yang, S. P. Chen, and G. G. Yang, "Fiber optical liquid level sensor under cryogenic environment," Sens. Actuators A 94, 69-75 (2001).

Claus, R. O.

Furstenau, N.

Golnabi, H.

H. Golnabi, "Design and operation of a fiber optic sensor for liquid level detection," Opt. Lasers Eng. 41, 801-812 (2004).

Gunther, M. F.

James, S. W.

Joshi, S. G.

V. E. Sakharov, S. A. Kuznetsov, B. D. Zaitsev, I. E. Kuznetsova, and S. G. Joshi, "Liquid level sensor using ultrasonic lamb waves," Ultrasonics 41, 319-322 (2003).

Jun, G. Y.

H. W. Rong, G. Y. Jun, and L. Z. Lin, "The temperature compensation design of an optical fiber liquid-level sensor with Fabry-Perot cavity," Acta Photon. Sin. 34, 1810-1813 (2005).

Karlik, S. E.

E. Musayev and S. E. Karlik, "A novel liquid level detection method and its implementation," Sens. Actuators A 109, 21-24 (2003).

Khaliq, S.

Kim, S. H.

Kuznetsov, S. A.

V. E. Sakharov, S. A. Kuznetsov, B. D. Zaitsev, I. E. Kuznetsova, and S. G. Joshi, "Liquid level sensor using ultrasonic lamb waves," Ultrasonics 41, 319-322 (2003).

Kuznetsova, I. E.

V. E. Sakharov, S. A. Kuznetsov, B. D. Zaitsev, I. E. Kuznetsova, and S. G. Joshi, "Liquid level sensor using ultrasonic lamb waves," Ultrasonics 41, 319-322 (2003).

Lee, C. E.

C. E. Lee and H. F. Taylor, "Fiber-optic Fabry-Perot temperature sensor using a low-coherence light source," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 129-134 (1991).

Lee, J. J.

Lin, L. Z.

H. W. Rong, G. Y. Jun, and L. Z. Lin, "The temperature compensation design of an optical fiber liquid-level sensor with Fabry-Perot cavity," Acta Photon. Sin. 34, 1810-1813 (2005).

May, R. G.

Miller, W. V.

T. A. Tran, W. V. Miller, K. A. Murphy, and Ashish, "Stabilized extrinsic fiber-optic Fizeau sensor for surface acoustic wave detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1499-1506 (1992).

Murphy, K. A.

T. A. Tran, W. V. Miller, K. A. Murphy, and Ashish, "Stabilized extrinsic fiber-optic Fizeau sensor for surface acoustic wave detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1499-1506 (1992).

K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, A. M. Vengsarkar, and R. O. Claus, "Quadrature phase-shifted, extrinsic Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensors," Opt. Lett. 16, 273-275 (1991).

Musayev, E.

E. Musayev and S. E. Karlik, "A novel liquid level detection method and its implementation," Sens. Actuators A 109, 21-24 (2003).

Perez, C. S.

Poghossian, A.

A. Poghossian, J. W. Schultze, and M. J. Schoning, "Application of a (bio-)chemical sensor (ISFET) for the detection of physical parameters in liquids," Electrochim. Acta 48, 3289-3297 (2003).

Rees, N. D.

Romero, G. E. S.

Rong, H. W.

H. W. Rong, G. Y. Jun, and L. Z. Lin, "The temperature compensation design of an optical fiber liquid-level sensor with Fabry-Perot cavity," Acta Photon. Sin. 34, 1810-1813 (2005).

Sakharov, V. E.

V. E. Sakharov, S. A. Kuznetsov, B. D. Zaitsev, I. E. Kuznetsova, and S. G. Joshi, "Liquid level sensor using ultrasonic lamb waves," Ultrasonics 41, 319-322 (2003).

Schmidt, M.

Schoning, M. J.

A. Poghossian, J. W. Schultze, and M. J. Schoning, "Application of a (bio-)chemical sensor (ISFET) for the detection of physical parameters in liquids," Electrochim. Acta 48, 3289-3297 (2003).

Schultze, J. W.

A. Poghossian, J. W. Schultze, and M. J. Schoning, "Application of a (bio-)chemical sensor (ISFET) for the detection of physical parameters in liquids," Electrochim. Acta 48, 3289-3297 (2003).

Song, S. D.

G. J. Zhang, Q. X. Yu, and S. D. Song, "An investigation of interference/intensity demodulated fiber-optic Fabry-Perot cavity sensor," Sens. Actuators A 116, 33-38 (2004).

Staines, S. E.

Tatam, R. P.

Taylor, H. F.

C. E. Lee and H. F. Taylor, "Fiber-optic Fabry-Perot temperature sensor using a low-coherence light source," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 129-134 (1991).

Tran, T. A.

T. A. Tran, W. V. Miller, K. A. Murphy, and Ashish, "Stabilized extrinsic fiber-optic Fizeau sensor for surface acoustic wave detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1499-1506 (1992).

Valenzuela, A. G.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Wang, A. B.

Wang, J.

Wang, T. Y.

T. Y. Wang, S. X. Zheng, and Z. G. Yang, "A high precision displacement sensor using a low-finesse fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer," Sens. Actuators A 69, 134-138 (1998).

Wang, Z. Y.

Xiao, H.

Yang, C. N.

C. N. Yang, S. P. Chen, and G. G. Yang, "Fiber optical liquid level sensor under cryogenic environment," Sens. Actuators A 94, 69-75 (2001).

Yang, G. G.

C. N. Yang, S. P. Chen, and G. G. Yang, "Fiber optical liquid level sensor under cryogenic environment," Sens. Actuators A 94, 69-75 (2001).

Yang, Z. G.

T. Y. Wang, S. X. Zheng, and Z. G. Yang, "A high precision displacement sensor using a low-finesse fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer," Sens. Actuators A 69, 134-138 (1998).

Yu, Q. X.

G. J. Zhang, Q. X. Yu, and S. D. Song, "An investigation of interference/intensity demodulated fiber-optic Fabry-Perot cavity sensor," Sens. Actuators A 116, 33-38 (2004).

Yuan, L. B.

Zaitsev, B. D.

V. E. Sakharov, S. A. Kuznetsov, B. D. Zaitsev, I. E. Kuznetsova, and S. G. Joshi, "Liquid level sensor using ultrasonic lamb waves," Ultrasonics 41, 319-322 (2003).

Zhang, G. J.

G. J. Zhang, Q. X. Yu, and S. D. Song, "An investigation of interference/intensity demodulated fiber-optic Fabry-Perot cavity sensor," Sens. Actuators A 116, 33-38 (2004).

Zhao, W.

Zheng, S. X.

T. Y. Wang, S. X. Zheng, and Z. G. Yang, "A high precision displacement sensor using a low-finesse fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer," Sens. Actuators A 69, 134-138 (1998).

Acta Photon. Sin. (1)

H. W. Rong, G. Y. Jun, and L. Z. Lin, "The temperature compensation design of an optical fiber liquid-level sensor with Fabry-Perot cavity," Acta Photon. Sin. 34, 1810-1813 (2005).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electrochim. Acta (1)

A. Poghossian, J. W. Schultze, and M. J. Schoning, "Application of a (bio-)chemical sensor (ISFET) for the detection of physical parameters in liquids," Electrochim. Acta 48, 3289-3297 (2003).

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

H. Golnabi, "Design and operation of a fiber optic sensor for liquid level detection," Opt. Lasers Eng. 41, 801-812 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Sens. Actuators A (4)

C. N. Yang, S. P. Chen, and G. G. Yang, "Fiber optical liquid level sensor under cryogenic environment," Sens. Actuators A 94, 69-75 (2001).

E. Musayev and S. E. Karlik, "A novel liquid level detection method and its implementation," Sens. Actuators A 109, 21-24 (2003).

G. J. Zhang, Q. X. Yu, and S. D. Song, "An investigation of interference/intensity demodulated fiber-optic Fabry-Perot cavity sensor," Sens. Actuators A 116, 33-38 (2004).

T. Y. Wang, S. X. Zheng, and Z. G. Yang, "A high precision displacement sensor using a low-finesse fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer," Sens. Actuators A 69, 134-138 (1998).

Ultrasonics (1)

V. E. Sakharov, S. A. Kuznetsov, B. D. Zaitsev, I. E. Kuznetsova, and S. G. Joshi, "Liquid level sensor using ultrasonic lamb waves," Ultrasonics 41, 319-322 (2003).

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