Abstract

The method of phase shift with the projection of multiple cyclic patterns enables 3D measurement that is highly accurate, dense, and fast. However, this measurement is only possible for the wrapped phase value, which has ambiguities in its multiples of cycles. Two particular problems are that conventional methods require additional patterns to be projected to determine the absolute phase and that unwrapping the phase tends to fail where depth varies abruptly. Two methods are proposed: the first is to determine the absolute phase without additional patterns being projected by observing the projected pattern with multiple cameras and applying the geometric constraints between them, and the second is to prevent failure in unwrapping the phase by referring to continuities in the relative phases of multiple projected patterns. The proposed methods were achieved with a 3D scanner that can measure approximately a 180° field of view within 0.5 s, with an accuracy of 0.14  mm in depth.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Phillips, P. Flynn, T. Scruggs, K. W. Bowyer, J. Chang, K. Hoffman, J. Marques, J. Min, and W. Worek, "Overview of the face recognition grand challenge," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (IEEE, 2005).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Pages, J. Salvi, R. Garcia, and C. Matabosch, "Overview of coded light projection techniques for automatic 3D profiling," in Proceedings of International Conference on Robotics and Automation (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 133-138.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Asundi and Z. Wensen, "Unified calibration technique and its applications in optical triangular profilometry," Appl. Opt. 38, 3556-3561 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. X. Su and W. Zhou, "Algorithm for the generation of look-up range table in 3-D sensing," Proc. SPIE 1332, 355-357 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (1)

2005 (2)

P. Phillips, P. Flynn, T. Scruggs, K. W. Bowyer, J. Chang, K. Hoffman, J. Marques, J. Min, and W. Worek, "Overview of the face recognition grand challenge," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (IEEE, 2005).

R. Ishiyama, M. Hamanaka, and S. Sakamoto, "An appearance model constructed on 3D surface for robust face recognition against pose and illumination variations," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part C 35, 326-334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

J. Pages, J. Salvi, R. Garcia, and C. Matabosch, "Overview of coded light projection techniques for automatic 3D profiling," in Proceedings of International Conference on Robotics and Automation (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 133-138.

Y. Ikeda, S. Yoneyama, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, "Absolute phase analysis method for three-dimensional surface profilometry using frequency-modulated grating," Opt. Eng. 42, 1249-1256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Saji and H. Nakatani, "Measuring 3-D shapes of a human face using photometric stereo method with color light sources and slit patterns," Opt. Eng. 42, 2727-2733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, "Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods," Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1997 (1)

1994 (2)

W. Zhou and X. Su, "A direct mapping algorithm for phase-measuring profilometry," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 89-94 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Judge and P. J. Bryanston-Cross, "A review of phase unwrapping techniques in fringe analysis," Opt. Lasers Eng. 21, 199-239 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

X. Su and W. Zhou, "Algorithm for the generation of look-up range table in 3-D sensing," Proc. SPIE 1332, 355-357 (1991).

1989 (1)

M. Halioua and H. C. Liu, "Optical three-dimensional sensing by phase measuring profilometry," Opt. Lasers Eng. 11, 185-215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Tsai, "A versatile camera calibration technique for high-accuracy 3D machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV cameras and lenses," IEEE J. Rob. Autom. 3, 323-344 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

N. Aoki, M. Yachida, and S. Tsuji, "3D object measurement using pattern projection with two cameras," IEICE Trans. 68-D/3, 384-391 (1985). (In Japanese.)

1982 (1)

J. L. Posdamer and M. D. Altschuler, "Surface measurement by space-encoded projected beam systems," Comput. Graph. Image Process. 18, 1-17 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Altschuler, M. D.

J. L. Posdamer and M. D. Altschuler, "Surface measurement by space-encoded projected beam systems," Comput. Graph. Image Process. 18, 1-17 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, N.

N. Aoki, M. Yachida, and S. Tsuji, "3D object measurement using pattern projection with two cameras," IEICE Trans. 68-D/3, 384-391 (1985). (In Japanese.)

Asundi, A.

Blais, F.

F. Blais, "Review of 20 years of range sensor development," J. Electron. Imaging 13, 231-240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bowyer, K. W.

P. Phillips, P. Flynn, T. Scruggs, K. W. Bowyer, J. Chang, K. Hoffman, J. Marques, J. Min, and W. Worek, "Overview of the face recognition grand challenge," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (IEEE, 2005).

Brown, G. M.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, "Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods," Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bryanston-Cross, P. J.

T. R. Judge and P. J. Bryanston-Cross, "A review of phase unwrapping techniques in fringe analysis," Opt. Lasers Eng. 21, 199-239 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carocci, M.

Chang, J.

P. Phillips, P. Flynn, T. Scruggs, K. W. Bowyer, J. Chang, K. Hoffman, J. Marques, J. Min, and W. Worek, "Overview of the face recognition grand challenge," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (IEEE, 2005).

Chen, F.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, "Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods," Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

Flynn, P.

P. Phillips, P. Flynn, T. Scruggs, K. W. Bowyer, J. Chang, K. Hoffman, J. Marques, J. Min, and W. Worek, "Overview of the face recognition grand challenge," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (IEEE, 2005).

Fujigaki, M.

Y. Ikeda, S. Yoneyama, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, "Absolute phase analysis method for three-dimensional surface profilometry using frequency-modulated grating," Opt. Eng. 42, 1249-1256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, R.

J. Pages, J. Salvi, R. Garcia, and C. Matabosch, "Overview of coded light projection techniques for automatic 3D profiling," in Proceedings of International Conference on Robotics and Automation (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 133-138.

Gu, Q.

Guo, H.

Halioua, M.

M. Halioua and H. C. Liu, "Optical three-dimensional sensing by phase measuring profilometry," Opt. Lasers Eng. 11, 185-215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hamanaka, M.

R. Ishiyama, M. Hamanaka, and S. Sakamoto, "An appearance model constructed on 3D surface for robust face recognition against pose and illumination variations," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part C 35, 326-334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, K.

K. Hasegawa, K. Hattori and Y. Sato, "A high speed face measurement system," presented at Vision Interface '99, Trois-Riviéres, Quebec, 19-21 May 1999, pp. 196-202.

Hattori, K.

K. Hasegawa, K. Hattori and Y. Sato, "A high speed face measurement system," presented at Vision Interface '99, Trois-Riviéres, Quebec, 19-21 May 1999, pp. 196-202.

He, H.

Hoffman, K.

P. Phillips, P. Flynn, T. Scruggs, K. W. Bowyer, J. Chang, K. Hoffman, J. Marques, J. Min, and W. Worek, "Overview of the face recognition grand challenge," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (IEEE, 2005).

Ikeda, Y.

Y. Ikeda, S. Yoneyama, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, "Absolute phase analysis method for three-dimensional surface profilometry using frequency-modulated grating," Opt. Eng. 42, 1249-1256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishiyama, R.

R. Ishiyama, M. Hamanaka, and S. Sakamoto, "An appearance model constructed on 3D surface for robust face recognition against pose and illumination variations," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part C 35, 326-334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Judge, T. R.

T. R. Judge and P. J. Bryanston-Cross, "A review of phase unwrapping techniques in fringe analysis," Opt. Lasers Eng. 21, 199-239 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, M.

Li, W.

Liu, H. C.

M. Halioua and H. C. Liu, "Optical three-dimensional sensing by phase measuring profilometry," Opt. Lasers Eng. 11, 185-215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Marques, J.

P. Phillips, P. Flynn, T. Scruggs, K. W. Bowyer, J. Chang, K. Hoffman, J. Marques, J. Min, and W. Worek, "Overview of the face recognition grand challenge," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (IEEE, 2005).

Matabosch, C.

J. Pages, J. Salvi, R. Garcia, and C. Matabosch, "Overview of coded light projection techniques for automatic 3D profiling," in Proceedings of International Conference on Robotics and Automation (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 133-138.

Min, J.

P. Phillips, P. Flynn, T. Scruggs, K. W. Bowyer, J. Chang, K. Hoffman, J. Marques, J. Min, and W. Worek, "Overview of the face recognition grand challenge," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (IEEE, 2005).

Morimoto, Y.

Y. Ikeda, S. Yoneyama, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, "Absolute phase analysis method for three-dimensional surface profilometry using frequency-modulated grating," Opt. Eng. 42, 1249-1256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakatani, H.

H. Saji and H. Nakatani, "Measuring 3-D shapes of a human face using photometric stereo method with color light sources and slit patterns," Opt. Eng. 42, 2727-2733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pages, J.

J. Pages, J. Salvi, R. Garcia, and C. Matabosch, "Overview of coded light projection techniques for automatic 3D profiling," in Proceedings of International Conference on Robotics and Automation (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 133-138.

Peng, X.

Phillips, P.

P. Phillips, P. Flynn, T. Scruggs, K. W. Bowyer, J. Chang, K. Hoffman, J. Marques, J. Min, and W. Worek, "Overview of the face recognition grand challenge," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (IEEE, 2005).

Posdamer, J. L.

J. L. Posdamer and M. D. Altschuler, "Surface measurement by space-encoded projected beam systems," Comput. Graph. Image Process. 18, 1-17 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rodella, R.

Saji, H.

H. Saji and H. Nakatani, "Measuring 3-D shapes of a human face using photometric stereo method with color light sources and slit patterns," Opt. Eng. 42, 2727-2733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, S.

R. Ishiyama, M. Hamanaka, and S. Sakamoto, "An appearance model constructed on 3D surface for robust face recognition against pose and illumination variations," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part C 35, 326-334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salvi, J.

J. Pages, J. Salvi, R. Garcia, and C. Matabosch, "Overview of coded light projection techniques for automatic 3D profiling," in Proceedings of International Conference on Robotics and Automation (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 133-138.

Sansoni, G.

Sato, Y.

K. Hasegawa, K. Hattori and Y. Sato, "A high speed face measurement system," presented at Vision Interface '99, Trois-Riviéres, Quebec, 19-21 May 1999, pp. 196-202.

Scruggs, T.

P. Phillips, P. Flynn, T. Scruggs, K. W. Bowyer, J. Chang, K. Hoffman, J. Marques, J. Min, and W. Worek, "Overview of the face recognition grand challenge," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (IEEE, 2005).

Song, M.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, "Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods," Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Strand, J.

Su, X.

W. Li, X. Su, and Z. Liu, "Large-scale three-dimensional object measurement: a practical coordinate mapping and image data-patching method," Appl. Opt. 40, 3326-3333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou and X. Su, "A direct mapping algorithm for phase-measuring profilometry," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 89-94 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. Su and W. Zhou, "Algorithm for the generation of look-up range table in 3-D sensing," Proc. SPIE 1332, 355-357 (1991).

Takahashi, Y.

Takai, H.

Takeda, M.

Taxt, T.

Tian, J.

Tsai, R.

R. Tsai, "A versatile camera calibration technique for high-accuracy 3D machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV cameras and lenses," IEEE J. Rob. Autom. 3, 323-344 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, S.

N. Aoki, M. Yachida, and S. Tsuji, "3D object measurement using pattern projection with two cameras," IEICE Trans. 68-D/3, 384-391 (1985). (In Japanese.)

Wensen, Z.

Worek, W.

P. Phillips, P. Flynn, T. Scruggs, K. W. Bowyer, J. Chang, K. Hoffman, J. Marques, J. Min, and W. Worek, "Overview of the face recognition grand challenge," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (IEEE, 2005).

Yachida, M.

N. Aoki, M. Yachida, and S. Tsuji, "3D object measurement using pattern projection with two cameras," IEICE Trans. 68-D/3, 384-391 (1985). (In Japanese.)

Yoneyama, S.

Y. Ikeda, S. Yoneyama, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, "Absolute phase analysis method for three-dimensional surface profilometry using frequency-modulated grating," Opt. Eng. 42, 1249-1256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

W. Zhou and X. Su, "A direct mapping algorithm for phase-measuring profilometry," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 89-94 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. Su and W. Zhou, "Algorithm for the generation of look-up range table in 3-D sensing," Proc. SPIE 1332, 355-357 (1991).

Appl. Opt. (7)

Comput. Graph. Image Process. (1)

J. L. Posdamer and M. D. Altschuler, "Surface measurement by space-encoded projected beam systems," Comput. Graph. Image Process. 18, 1-17 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Rob. Autom. (1)

R. Tsai, "A versatile camera calibration technique for high-accuracy 3D machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV cameras and lenses," IEEE J. Rob. Autom. 3, 323-344 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part C (1)

R. Ishiyama, M. Hamanaka, and S. Sakamoto, "An appearance model constructed on 3D surface for robust face recognition against pose and illumination variations," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part C 35, 326-334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

F. Blais, "Review of 20 years of range sensor development," J. Electron. Imaging 13, 231-240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

W. Zhou and X. Su, "A direct mapping algorithm for phase-measuring profilometry," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 89-94 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, "Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods," Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikeda, S. Yoneyama, M. Fujigaki, and Y. Morimoto, "Absolute phase analysis method for three-dimensional surface profilometry using frequency-modulated grating," Opt. Eng. 42, 1249-1256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Saji and H. Nakatani, "Measuring 3-D shapes of a human face using photometric stereo method with color light sources and slit patterns," Opt. Eng. 42, 2727-2733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (2)

T. R. Judge and P. J. Bryanston-Cross, "A review of phase unwrapping techniques in fringe analysis," Opt. Lasers Eng. 21, 199-239 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Halioua and H. C. Liu, "Optical three-dimensional sensing by phase measuring profilometry," Opt. Lasers Eng. 11, 185-215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

N. Aoki, M. Yachida, and S. Tsuji, "3D object measurement using pattern projection with two cameras," IEICE Trans. 68-D/3, 384-391 (1985). (In Japanese.)

X. Su and W. Zhou, "Algorithm for the generation of look-up range table in 3-D sensing," Proc. SPIE 1332, 355-357 (1991).

J. Pages, J. Salvi, R. Garcia, and C. Matabosch, "Overview of coded light projection techniques for automatic 3D profiling," in Proceedings of International Conference on Robotics and Automation (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 133-138.

K. Hasegawa, K. Hattori and Y. Sato, "A high speed face measurement system," presented at Vision Interface '99, Trois-Riviéres, Quebec, 19-21 May 1999, pp. 196-202.

P. Phillips, P. Flynn, T. Scruggs, K. W. Bowyer, J. Chang, K. Hoffman, J. Marques, J. Min, and W. Worek, "Overview of the face recognition grand challenge," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (IEEE, 2005).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of active triangulation by pattern projection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase-to-depth mapping.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distance and shape ambiguities due to phase wrapping.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of measuring object with large variations in depth.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

False continuities of wrapped phase at discontinuous points.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absolute phase determination using multiple cameras.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Three-dimensional scanner for measuring human faces by using proposed methods.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calibration procedures using a reference plane.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Four images of pattern projected by projector 1, observed by camera 1.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Four images of pattern projected by projector 1, observed by camera 2.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Relative phase images of pattern projected by projector 1, observed by cameras 1 and 2 (left and center columns), and result for proposed method of determining absolute phase (right column) for camera 1. White areas indicate their absolute phases were successfully determined.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Left: Relative phase. False continuity appears at chin. Right: Unsuccessfully unwrapped phase image attained by conventional phase unwrapping.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Left: Relative phase image of pattern projected by projector 2, observed by camera 1. Right: Successfully unwrapped phase by proposed method.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Wire frame 3D models measured by right and left cameras.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Three-dimensional model of entire face.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Accuracies of depth measurement at different positions in target volume.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Accuracies of depth measurement with respect to amplitude of observed pattern.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I i = A + B   cos ( Φ + 2 π N i ) .
ϕ = tan 1 i = 0 N 1 I i   sin   2 π N i i = 0 N 1 I i   cos   2 π N i ,
A = 1 N i = 0 N 1 I i ,
B = 2 N ( i = 0 N 1 I i   cos   2 π N i ) 2 + ( i = 0 N 1 I i   sin   2 π N i ) 2 .
A B B P = A B B P 1 Δ h = a + b 1 Δ g ,
a = sin   α ( cot   α + cot β ) l   , b = l   sin   α l   sin   β .
1 Δ z = a + b 1 Δ Φ .
Φ ( u , v ) = ϕ ( 1 ) ( u , v ) + 2 m π .
Δ z = ( a Δ ϕ + b ) 1 Δ ϕ c Δ ϕ ( a Δ ϕ b ) .

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