Abstract

We investigate the capabilities of different instrument concepts for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land. It was found that, if the surface reflection properties are unknown, only multiple-viewing-angle measurements of both intensity and polarization are able to provide the relevant aerosol parameters with sufficient accuracy for climate research. Furthermore, retrieval errors are only little affected when the number of viewing angles is increased at the cost of the number of spectral sampling points and vice versa. This indicates that there is a certain amount of freedom for the instrument design of dedicated aerosol instruments. The final choice on the trade-off between the spectral sampling and the number of viewing angles should be made taking other factors into account, such as instrument complexity and the ability to obtain global coverage.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. Carlson, and L. Travis, "Nonsphericity of dustlike tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077-1980 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. A. Kokhanovsky, "Optical properties of irregularly shaped particles," J. Phys. D 36, 915-923 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  32. O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Linearization of vector radiative transfer with respect to aerosol properties and its use in satellite remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D04203 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  33. O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, "Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. Court, K. Smorenburg, G. Bazalgette Courreges-Lacoste, H. Visser, G. de Leeuw, and R. Decae, "DARE: a dedicated aerosols retrieval instrument," Acta Astron. 55, 239-244 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, "Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (7)

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Linearization of vector radiative transfer with respect to aerosol properties and its use in satellite remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D04203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. M. R. L. C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, "The modis aerosol algorithm, products, and validation," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947-973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Diner, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, B. Pinty, N. Gobron, D. Nelson, and B. Holben, "Using angular and spectral shape similarity constraints to improve MISR aerosol and surface retrievals over land," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 155-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean from multispectral single-viewing-angle measurements of intensity and polarization: retrieval approach, information content, and sensitivity study," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D20207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J.-L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, "Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Miecznik, R. Illing, S. Petroy, and I. N. Sokolik, "Sensitivity metric approach for retrieval of aerosol properties from multiangular and multispectral polarized radiances," Appl. Opt. 44, 4186-4204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, P. Hobbs, G. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russel, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photo-polarimetric observations over the ocean during the clams experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

R. J. D. Spurr, "A new approach to the retrieval of surface properties from earthshine measurements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 83, 15-46 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vanderlei Martins, and E. P. Shettle, "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer , 88, 149-161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Court, K. Smorenburg, G. Bazalgette Courreges-Lacoste, H. Visser, G. de Leeuw, and R. Decae, "DARE: a dedicated aerosols retrieval instrument," Acta Astron. 55, 239-244 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. A. Kokhanovsky, "Optical properties of irregularly shaped particles," J. Phys. D 36, 915-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Martonchik, D. Diner, K. Crean, and M. Bull, "Regional aerosol retrieval results from MISR," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1212-1227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, R. Decae, P. Veefkind, and G. de Leeuw, "Omi aerosol retrieval algorithm," ATBD-OMI-03 47-69 (2001).

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, "Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243-246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, and P. A. Durkee, "Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over land using two-angle view satellite radiometry during TARFOX," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3135-3138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, and D. J. Diner, "Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and to pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32195-32238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, "Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,989-17,013 (1997).

1995 (2)

F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, and M. Herman, "Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487-499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. Carlson, and L. Travis, "Nonsphericity of dustlike tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077-1980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. Mishchenko and L. Travis, "Light scattering by polydispersions of randomly oriented spheroids with sizes comparable to wavelengths of observation," Appl. Opt. 33, 7206-7225 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Sèze, "The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. Rondeaux and M. Herman, "Polarization of light reflected by crop canopies," Remote Sens. Environ. 41, 227-237 (1991).

1988 (2)

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light scattering in planetary atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, P.

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, and D. J. Diner, "Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and to pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32195-32238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F. M.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, and M. Herman, "Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487-499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Sèze, "The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Sèze, "The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bull, M.

J. Martonchik, D. Diner, K. Crean, and M. Bull, "Regional aerosol retrieval results from MISR," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1212-1227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burg, R.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vanderlei Martins, and E. P. Shettle, "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer , 88, 149-161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buriez, J. C.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Sèze, "The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, P. Hobbs, G. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russel, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photo-polarimetric observations over the ocean during the clams experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vanderlei Martins, and E. P. Shettle, "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer , 88, 149-161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, "Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243-246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, and A. A. Lacis, "Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data: sensitivity analysis and preliminary results," Appl. Opt. 38, 7325-7341 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, B.

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. Carlson, and L. Travis, "Nonsphericity of dustlike tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077-1980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, 1960).

Chowdhary, J.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, P. Hobbs, G. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russel, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photo-polarimetric observations over the ocean during the clams experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, "Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243-246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, "Multiple scattering of polarized light in atmosphere-ocean systems: application to sensitivity analyses of aerosol polarimetry," Ph.D. dissertation (Columbia University, 1999).

Chu, D.

L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. M. R. L. C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, "The modis aerosol algorithm, products, and validation," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947-973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cota, G.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, P. Hobbs, G. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russel, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photo-polarimetric observations over the ocean during the clams experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Courreges-Lacoste, G. Bazalgette

A. Court, K. Smorenburg, G. Bazalgette Courreges-Lacoste, H. Visser, G. de Leeuw, and R. Decae, "DARE: a dedicated aerosols retrieval instrument," Acta Astron. 55, 239-244 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Court, A.

A. Court, K. Smorenburg, G. Bazalgette Courreges-Lacoste, H. Visser, G. de Leeuw, and R. Decae, "DARE: a dedicated aerosols retrieval instrument," Acta Astron. 55, 239-244 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crean, K.

J. Martonchik, D. Diner, K. Crean, and M. Bull, "Regional aerosol retrieval results from MISR," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1212-1227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

d'Almeida, G.

G. d'Almeida, P. Koepke, and E. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols: Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak Publishing, 1991).

de Leeuw, G.

A. Court, K. Smorenburg, G. Bazalgette Courreges-Lacoste, H. Visser, G. de Leeuw, and R. Decae, "DARE: a dedicated aerosols retrieval instrument," Acta Astron. 55, 239-244 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, R. Decae, P. Veefkind, and G. de Leeuw, "Omi aerosol retrieval algorithm," ATBD-OMI-03 47-69 (2001).

J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, and P. A. Durkee, "Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over land using two-angle view satellite radiometry during TARFOX," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3135-3138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Decae, R.

A. Court, K. Smorenburg, G. Bazalgette Courreges-Lacoste, H. Visser, G. de Leeuw, and R. Decae, "DARE: a dedicated aerosols retrieval instrument," Acta Astron. 55, 239-244 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, R. Decae, P. Veefkind, and G. de Leeuw, "Omi aerosol retrieval algorithm," ATBD-OMI-03 47-69 (2001).

Deschamps, P. Y.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Sèze, "The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deuzé, J. L.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deuzé, J.-L.

M. Herman, J.-L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, "Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, C.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Diner, D.

D. Diner, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, B. Pinty, N. Gobron, D. Nelson, and B. Holben, "Using angular and spectral shape similarity constraints to improve MISR aerosol and surface retrievals over land," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 155-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Martonchik, D. Diner, K. Crean, and M. Bull, "Regional aerosol retrieval results from MISR," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1212-1227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Diner, D. J.

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, and D. J. Diner, "Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and to pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32195-32238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, "Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Durkee, P. A.

J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, and P. A. Durkee, "Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over land using two-angle view satellite radiometry during TARFOX," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3135-3138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T.

L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. M. R. L. C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, "The modis aerosol algorithm, products, and validation," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947-973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, "Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geogdzhayev, I. V.

Gobron, N.

D. Diner, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, B. Pinty, N. Gobron, D. Nelson, and B. Holben, "Using angular and spectral shape similarity constraints to improve MISR aerosol and surface retrievals over land," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 155-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goloub, P.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. E.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vanderlei Martins, and E. P. Shettle, "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer , 88, 149-161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light scattering in planetary atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hasekamp, O. P.

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Linearization of vector radiative transfer with respect to aerosol properties and its use in satellite remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D04203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean from multispectral single-viewing-angle measurements of intensity and polarization: retrieval approach, information content, and sensitivity study," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D20207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

M. Herman, J.-L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, "Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, and M. Herman, "Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487-499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Rondeaux and M. Herman, "Polarization of light reflected by crop canopies," Remote Sens. Environ. 41, 227-237 (1991).

Hess, M.

Hobbs, P.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, P. Hobbs, G. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russel, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photo-polarimetric observations over the ocean during the clams experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, P. Hobbs, G. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russel, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photo-polarimetric observations over the ocean during the clams experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Diner, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, B. Pinty, N. Gobron, D. Nelson, and B. Holben, "Using angular and spectral shape similarity constraints to improve MISR aerosol and surface retrievals over land," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 155-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. M. R. L. C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, "The modis aerosol algorithm, products, and validation," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947-973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, "Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ichoku, J. M. R. L. C.

L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. M. R. L. C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, "The modis aerosol algorithm, products, and validation," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947-973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Illing, R.

Kahn, R.

D. Diner, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, B. Pinty, N. Gobron, D. Nelson, and B. Holben, "Using angular and spectral shape similarity constraints to improve MISR aerosol and surface retrievals over land," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 155-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, and D. J. Diner, "Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and to pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32195-32238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y.

L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. M. R. L. C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, "The modis aerosol algorithm, products, and validation," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947-973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vanderlei Martins, and E. P. Shettle, "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer , 88, 149-161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kleidman, R.

L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. M. R. L. C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, "The modis aerosol algorithm, products, and validation," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947-973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koepke, P.

P. Koepke and M. Hess, "Scattering functions of tropospheric aerosols: the effect of nonspherical particles," Appl. Opt. 27, 2422-2430 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. d'Almeida, P. Koepke, and E. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols: Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak Publishing, 1991).

Kokhanovsky, A. A.

A. A. Kokhanovsky, "Optical properties of irregularly shaped particles," J. Phys. D 36, 915-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lacis, A.

M. Mishchenko, L. Travis, and A. Lacis, Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).

Lacis, A. A.

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, and A. A. Lacis, "Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data: sensitivity analysis and preliminary results," Appl. Opt. 38, 7325-7341 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. Carlson, and L. Travis, "Nonsphericity of dustlike tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077-1980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lafrance, B.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lallart, P.

M. Herman, J.-L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, "Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Landgraf, J.

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean from multispectral single-viewing-angle measurements of intensity and polarization: retrieval approach, information content, and sensitivity study," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D20207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Linearization of vector radiative transfer with respect to aerosol properties and its use in satellite remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D04203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lapyonok, T.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, "Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lecomte, P.

F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, and M. Herman, "Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487-499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leon, J.-F.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, "Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leroy, M.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Sèze, "The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Levy, R.

L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. M. R. L. C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, "The modis aerosol algorithm, products, and validation," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947-973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maignan, F.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, A.

M. Herman, J.-L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, "Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martonchik, J.

D. Diner, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, B. Pinty, N. Gobron, D. Nelson, and B. Holben, "Using angular and spectral shape similarity constraints to improve MISR aerosol and surface retrievals over land," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 155-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Martonchik, D. Diner, K. Crean, and M. Bull, "Regional aerosol retrieval results from MISR," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1212-1227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mattoo, S.

L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. M. R. L. C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, "The modis aerosol algorithm, products, and validation," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947-973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, D.

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, and D. J. Diner, "Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and to pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32195-32238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miecznik, G.

Mishchenko, M.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, "Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, P. Hobbs, G. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russel, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photo-polarimetric observations over the ocean during the clams experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, "Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243-246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Mishchenko and L. Travis, "Light scattering by polydispersions of randomly oriented spheroids with sizes comparable to wavelengths of observation," Appl. Opt. 33, 7206-7225 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mishchenko, L. Travis, and A. Lacis, Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vanderlei Martins, and E. P. Shettle, "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer , 88, 149-161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, and A. A. Lacis, "Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data: sensitivity analysis and preliminary results," Appl. Opt. 38, 7325-7341 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, "Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,989-17,013 (1997).

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. Carlson, and L. Travis, "Nonsphericity of dustlike tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077-1980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mugnai, A.

Muñoz, O.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, "Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nadal, F.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D.

D. Diner, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, B. Pinty, N. Gobron, D. Nelson, and B. Holben, "Using angular and spectral shape similarity constraints to improve MISR aerosol and surface retrievals over land," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 155-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perry, G.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petroy, S.

Pinty, B.

D. Diner, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, B. Pinty, N. Gobron, D. Nelson, and B. Holben, "Using angular and spectral shape similarity constraints to improve MISR aerosol and surface retrievals over land," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 155-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Podaire, A.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Sèze, "The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Redemann, J.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, P. Hobbs, G. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russel, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photo-polarimetric observations over the ocean during the clams experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Remer, L.

L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. M. R. L. C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, "The modis aerosol algorithm, products, and validation," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947-973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roger, B.

M. Herman, J.-L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, "Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rondeaux, G.

G. Rondeaux and M. Herman, "Polarization of light reflected by crop canopies," Remote Sens. Environ. 41, 227-237 (1991).

Rossow, W. B.

Russel, E.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, P. Hobbs, G. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russel, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photo-polarimetric observations over the ocean during the clams experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rutledge, K.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, P. Hobbs, G. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russel, "Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photo-polarimetric observations over the ocean during the clams experiment," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1093-1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sèze, G.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Sèze, "The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E.

G. d'Almeida, P. Koepke, and E. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols: Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak Publishing, 1991).

Shettle, E. P.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vanderlei Martins, and E. P. Shettle, "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer , 88, 149-161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sinyuk, A.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, "Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, "Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
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Smorenburg, K.

A. Court, K. Smorenburg, G. Bazalgette Courreges-Lacoste, H. Visser, G. de Leeuw, and R. Decae, "DARE: a dedicated aerosols retrieval instrument," Acta Astron. 55, 239-244 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sokolik, I. N.

Sorokin, M.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, "Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
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R. J. D. Spurr, "A new approach to the retrieval of surface properties from earthshine measurements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 83, 15-46 (2004).
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Tanre, D.

L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. M. R. L. C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, "The modis aerosol algorithm, products, and validation," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947-973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, and M. Herman, "Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487-499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Torres, O.

O. Torres, R. Decae, P. Veefkind, and G. de Leeuw, "Omi aerosol retrieval algorithm," ATBD-OMI-03 47-69 (2001).

Travis, L.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, "Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243-246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. Carlson, and L. Travis, "Nonsphericity of dustlike tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077-1980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Mishchenko and L. Travis, "Light scattering by polydispersions of randomly oriented spheroids with sizes comparable to wavelengths of observation," Appl. Opt. 33, 7206-7225 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mishchenko, L. Travis, and A. Lacis, Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vanderlei Martins, and E. P. Shettle, "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer , 88, 149-161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, "Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,989-17,013 (1997).

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light scattering in planetary atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
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L. D. Travis, "Earth observing scanning polarimeter," in Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks, J. Hansen, W. Rossow, and I. Fung (eds.), NASA Conference Publication (1993), Vol. 3234, pp. 40-46.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, 1957).

van der Zande, W. J.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, "Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vanderlei Martins, J.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vanderlei Martins, and E. P. Shettle, "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer , 88, 149-161 (2004).
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J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, and P. A. Durkee, "Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over land using two-angle view satellite radiometry during TARFOX," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3135-3138 (1998).
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Veefkind, P.

O. Torres, R. Decae, P. Veefkind, and G. de Leeuw, "Omi aerosol retrieval algorithm," ATBD-OMI-03 47-69 (2001).

Veihelmann, B.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, "Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. M. R. L. C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, "The modis aerosol algorithm, products, and validation," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947-973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Visser, H.

A. Court, K. Smorenburg, G. Bazalgette Courreges-Lacoste, H. Visser, G. de Leeuw, and R. Decae, "DARE: a dedicated aerosols retrieval instrument," Acta Astron. 55, 239-244 (2004).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Element p 1 (left panels) and signed degree of linear polarization p 5 / p 1 (right panels) of the scattering phase matrix as a function of wavelength and scattering angle for biomass burning aerosols (upper panels) and dust aerosols (lower panels).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Real part (left panel) and imaginary part (right panel) of the refractive index as a function of wavelength. Data taken from d'Almeida et al. [22].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Retrieval errors on τ 550 , as a function of SZA, for measurement types A ( I , q , u ) , A ( I ) , B ( I , q , u ) , and B ( I ) . It is assumed that the surface properties are known in these retrievals. The dust aerosol type was used for this simulations with τ 550 = 0.3 . The relative azimuth angle Δ φ = 60 ° for positive viewing angles and Δ φ = 120 ° for negative viewing angles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retrieval error on τ 550 , as a function of SZA, for measurement types A ( I , q , u ) and A ( I ) . The surface properties are considered as unknown parameters. The biomass burning aerosol type and dust aerosol types were used for these simulations with τ 550 = 0.3 . The relative azimuth angle Δ φ = 60 ° for positive viewing angles and Δ φ = 120 ° for negative viewing angles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Retrieval errors for measurement type A ( I , q , u ) on τ 550 , ω 550 , r eff s , v eff s , r eff l , v eff l , m r s ( 550   nm ) , m r l ( 550   nm ) , m i s ( 550   nm ) , and m i l ( 550   nm ) , as a function of the additional error e pol on q and u, for different additional errors e int on the intensity. The surface properties are considered as unknown parameters. The relative azimuth angle Δ φ = 60 ° for positive viewing angles and Δ φ = 120 ° for negative viewing angles. The calculations were performed for τ 550 = 0.3 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Retrieval errors for measurement type A ( I , q , u ) on τ 550 , ω 550 , r eff s , v eff s , r eff l , v eff l , m r s ( 550   nm ) , m r l ( 550   nm ) , m i s ( 550   nm ) , and m i l ( 550   nm ) , as a function of τ 550 for a solar zenith angle of 50°, and a relative azimuth angle Δ φ = 60 ° (or 120 ° ) and Δ φ = 0 ° (or 180 ° ), for the biomass burning aerosol type and the dust aerosol type. The surface properties are considered as unknown parameters.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Retrieval errors on τ 550 , ω 550 , r eff s , v eff s , r eff l , v eff l , m r ( 550   nm ) , and m i ( 550   nm ) , as a function of the number of viewing angles, where the total number of measurements (number of viewing angles × number of wavelengths × 3) is held (approximately) constant. The surface albedos properties are considered as unknown parameters. The biomass burning (BB) and dust (D) aerosol types of Table 1 were used for these simulations with τ 550 = 0.3 . The SZA = 50 ° and the relative azimuth angle Δ φ = 60 ° for positive viewing angles and Δ φ = 120 ° for negative viewing angles.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Aerosol Types Used to Create Synthetic Measurements of Intensity and Polarization a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Basic Measurement Types Used in this Paper a

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = [ I , Q , U , V ] T ,
P ( θ ) = ( p 1 ( θ ) p 5 ( θ ) 0 0 p 5 ( θ ) p 2 ( θ ) 0 0 0 0 p 3 ( θ ) p 6 ( θ ) 0 0 p 6 ( θ ) p 4 ( θ ) ) ,
R s ( λ , ϑ in , ϑ out , Δ φ ) = A ( λ ) + i = 1 2 f i R i ( ϑ in , ϑ out , Δ φ ) ,
y = F ( x ) + e y ,
x ^ = min x S y 1 / 2 ( F ( x ) y ) 2 ,
F ( x ) F ( x n ) + K [ x x n ] ,
K i j = F i x j ( x n ) .
S x = ( K T S y 1 K ) 1 .
σ τ = i = 1 N j = 1 N S i , j τ x i τ x j ,
ϵ Q = ϵ int / q ,

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