Abstract

As excimer lasers extend to deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet wavelengths at 193 and 157nm, optical coatings experience the challenge of eliminating possible environmental contamination, reducing scattering loss, and increasing laser irradiation durability. Wide bandgap metal fluorides become the materials of choice for the laser optics applications. To understand the optical properties of nanostructure fluoride films, thin GdF3 films grown on CaF2 (111) substrates were evaluated by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. An effective medium approximation model was used to determine both the film porosity and the surface roughness. Structural evolution of the GdF3 film was revealed with improved ellipsometric modeling, suggesting the existence of multilayer structure, a densified bottom layer, middle layers with increasing porosity, and a rough surface. The nanostructure of the film and the surface roughness were confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The attraction of the nanostructure to environmental contamination was experimentally demonstrated.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2005

C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Characterization of AIF3 thin films at 193 nm by thermal evaporation," Appl. Opt. 44, 7333-7338 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, H. Uhlig, A. Duparré, and N. Kaiser, "Nanostructure and optical properties of fluoride films for high-quality DUV/VUV optical components," Proc. SPIE 5963, 231-240 (2005).

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, H. Uhlig, and N. Kaiser, "Optical, structural and mechanical properties of gadolinium tri-fluoride thin films grown on amorphous substrates," Proc. SPIE 5963, 211-222 (2005).

R. Götzelmann, H. Hagedorn, A. Zöller, A. Kobik, and W. Klug, "Oxide and fluoride coatings for the excimer wavelength 193 nm," Proc. SPIE 5963, 59630L (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, H. Uhlig, and N. Kaiser, "Development of mechanical stress in fluoride multi-layers for UV-applications," Proc. SPIE 5250, 127-136 (2004).

L. Sun and P. Hou, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry study on e-beam deposited titanium dioxide films," Thin Solid Films 455-456, 525-529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Choi, S. Ghosh, J. Lim, and C. M. Lee, "Removal efficiency of organic contaminations on Si wafer by dry cleaning using UV/O3 and ECR plasma," Appl. Surf. Sci. 206, 355-364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, M. Switkes, N. N. Efremow, Jr., S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Recent trends in optical lithography," Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 221-236 (2003).

2002

2001

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tonova and A. A. Konova, "Characterization of inhomogeneous dielectric coatings with arbitrary refractive index profiles by multiple angle of incidence ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 17-23 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

1992

1990

Abelès, F.

Biro, R.

S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, and K. Sone, "Development of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography. I. Coating materials," Appl. Opt. 41, 3242-3247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Biro, K. Sone, S. Niisaka, M. Otania, Y. Suzuki, C. Ouchi, T. Saito, M. Hasegawa, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, and A. Matsumoto, "Development of low-loss optical coatings for 157 nm lithography," Proc. SPIE 4691, 1625-1634 (2002).

Bloomstein, T. M.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, M. Switkes, N. N. Efremow, Jr., S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Recent trends in optical lithography," Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 221-236 (2003).

T. M. Bloomstein, Controlled Contamination and Cleaning at 157 nm (LITJ217) Annual Report, International SEMATECH Technology Transfer 01104175A-ENG (2001).

Bosch, S.

Bungay, C. L.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carniglia, C. K.

Choi, K.

K. Choi, S. Ghosh, J. Lim, and C. M. Lee, "Removal efficiency of organic contaminations on Si wafer by dry cleaning using UV/O3 and ECR plasma," Appl. Surf. Sci. 206, 355-364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Conwell, R.

R. Conwell, "Investigation of fluoride thin-films for reflective coatings at 157 nm," Proc. SPIE 3268, 351-356 (1998).

de Larivière, G. Parjadis

Duparré, A.

S. Schröder, H. Uhlig, A. Duparré, and N. Kaiser, "Nanostructure and optical properties of fluoride films for high-quality DUV/VUV optical components," Proc. SPIE 5963, 231-240 (2005).

D. Ristau, S. Günster, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, J. Ferré-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, "Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coating deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation," Appl. Opt. 41, 3196-3204 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, and E. Quesnel, "Roughness and light scattering of ion-beam-sputtered fluoride coating for 193 nm," Appl. Opt. 39, 5854-5864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Efremow, N. N.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, M. Switkes, N. N. Efremow, Jr., S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Recent trends in optical lithography," Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 221-236 (2003).

Etoh, K. K.

Fedynyshyn, T. H.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, M. Switkes, N. N. Efremow, Jr., S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Recent trends in optical lithography," Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 221-236 (2003).

Ferré-Borrull, J.

Frigerio, J. M.

Ghosh, S.

K. Choi, S. Ghosh, J. Lim, and C. M. Lee, "Removal efficiency of organic contaminations on Si wafer by dry cleaning using UV/O3 and ECR plasma," Appl. Surf. Sci. 206, 355-364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Götzelmann, R.

R. Götzelmann, H. Hagedorn, A. Zöller, A. Kobik, and W. Klug, "Oxide and fluoride coatings for the excimer wavelength 193 nm," Proc. SPIE 5963, 59630L (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grenville, A.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, M. Switkes, N. N. Efremow, Jr., S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Recent trends in optical lithography," Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 221-236 (2003).

Günster, S.

Hagedorn, H.

R. Götzelmann, H. Hagedorn, A. Zöller, A. Kobik, and W. Klug, "Oxide and fluoride coatings for the excimer wavelength 193 nm," Proc. SPIE 5963, 59630L (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, D. E.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, M. Switkes, N. N. Efremow, Jr., S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Recent trends in optical lithography," Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 221-236 (2003).

Hasegawa, M.

S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, and K. Sone, "Development of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography. I. Coating materials," Appl. Opt. 41, 3242-3247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Biro, K. Sone, S. Niisaka, M. Otania, Y. Suzuki, C. Ouchi, T. Saito, M. Hasegawa, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, and A. Matsumoto, "Development of low-loss optical coatings for 157 nm lithography," Proc. SPIE 4691, 1625-1634 (2002).

Heber, J.

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, H. Uhlig, and N. Kaiser, "Optical, structural and mechanical properties of gadolinium tri-fluoride thin films grown on amorphous substrates," Proc. SPIE 5963, 211-222 (2005).

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, H. Uhlig, and N. Kaiser, "Development of mechanical stress in fluoride multi-layers for UV-applications," Proc. SPIE 5250, 127-136 (2004).

Herzinger, C. M.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hilfiker, J. N.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hou, P.

L. Sun and P. Hou, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry study on e-beam deposited titanium dioxide films," Thin Solid Films 455-456, 525-529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

John, B.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

S. Schröder, H. Uhlig, A. Duparré, and N. Kaiser, "Nanostructure and optical properties of fluoride films for high-quality DUV/VUV optical components," Proc. SPIE 5963, 231-240 (2005).

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, H. Uhlig, and N. Kaiser, "Optical, structural and mechanical properties of gadolinium tri-fluoride thin films grown on amorphous substrates," Proc. SPIE 5963, 211-222 (2005).

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, H. Uhlig, and N. Kaiser, "Development of mechanical stress in fluoride multi-layers for UV-applications," Proc. SPIE 5250, 127-136 (2004).

Kaneko, M.

Kasaaki, M.

Kiriakidis, G.

Klug, W.

R. Götzelmann, H. Hagedorn, A. Zöller, A. Kobik, and W. Klug, "Oxide and fluoride coatings for the excimer wavelength 193 nm," Proc. SPIE 5963, 59630L (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kobik, A.

R. Götzelmann, H. Hagedorn, A. Zöller, A. Kobik, and W. Klug, "Oxide and fluoride coatings for the excimer wavelength 193 nm," Proc. SPIE 5963, 59630L (2005).
[CrossRef]

Konova, A. A.

D. A. Tonova and A. A. Konova, "Characterization of inhomogeneous dielectric coatings with arbitrary refractive index profiles by multiple angle of incidence ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 17-23 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krasilnikova, A. V.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and A. V. Krasilnikova, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry of slightly inhomogeneous nonabsorbing thin films with arbitrary refractive-index profiles: theoretical study," Appl. Opt. 37, 5902-5911 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, R. R.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, M. Switkes, N. N. Efremow, Jr., S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Recent trends in optical lithography," Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 221-236 (2003).

Lee, C. C.

Lee, C. M.

K. Choi, S. Ghosh, J. Lim, and C. M. Lee, "Removal efficiency of organic contaminations on Si wafer by dry cleaning using UV/O3 and ECR plasma," Appl. Surf. Sci. 206, 355-364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liberman, V.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, M. Switkes, N. N. Efremow, Jr., S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Recent trends in optical lithography," Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 221-236 (2003).

Lim, J.

K. Choi, S. Ghosh, J. Lim, and C. M. Lee, "Removal efficiency of organic contaminations on Si wafer by dry cleaning using UV/O3 and ECR plasma," Appl. Surf. Sci. 206, 355-364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M. C.

Masetti, E.

D. Ristau, S. Günster, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, J. Ferré-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, "Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coating deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation," Appl. Opt. 41, 3196-3204 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, A.

R. Biro, K. Sone, S. Niisaka, M. Otania, Y. Suzuki, C. Ouchi, T. Saito, M. Hasegawa, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, and A. Matsumoto, "Development of low-loss optical coatings for 157 nm lithography," Proc. SPIE 4691, 1625-1634 (2002).

S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, and K. Sone, "Development of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography. I. Coating materials," Appl. Opt. 41, 3242-3247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muramatsu, K.

Y. Taki and K. Muramatsu, "Hetero-epitaxial growth and optical properties of LaF3 on CaF2," Thin Solid Films 420-421, 30-37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakahira, K.

Niisaka, S.

S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, and K. Sone, "Development of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography. I. Coating materials," Appl. Opt. 41, 3242-3247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Biro, K. Sone, S. Niisaka, M. Otania, Y. Suzuki, C. Ouchi, T. Saito, M. Hasegawa, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, and A. Matsumoto, "Development of low-loss optical coatings for 157 nm lithography," Proc. SPIE 4691, 1625-1634 (2002).

Nishimoto, K.

Otani, M.

Otania, M.

R. Biro, K. Sone, S. Niisaka, M. Otania, Y. Suzuki, C. Ouchi, T. Saito, M. Hasegawa, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, and A. Matsumoto, "Development of low-loss optical coatings for 157 nm lithography," Proc. SPIE 4691, 1625-1634 (2002).

Ouchi, C.

R. Biro, K. Sone, S. Niisaka, M. Otania, Y. Suzuki, C. Ouchi, T. Saito, M. Hasegawa, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, and A. Matsumoto, "Development of low-loss optical coatings for 157 nm lithography," Proc. SPIE 4691, 1625-1634 (2002).

S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, and K. Sone, "Development of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography. I. Coating materials," Appl. Opt. 41, 3242-3247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmacci, S. T.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, M. Switkes, N. N. Efremow, Jr., S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Recent trends in optical lithography," Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 221-236 (2003).

Peiró, F.

Pribil, G. K.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Quesnel, E.

Ristau, D.

D. Ristau, S. Günster, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, J. Ferré-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, "Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coating deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation," Appl. Opt. 41, 3196-3204 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rivory, J.

Rothschild, M.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, M. Switkes, N. N. Efremow, Jr., S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Recent trends in optical lithography," Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 221-236 (2003).

Saito, J.

S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, and K. Sone, "Development of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography. I. Coating materials," Appl. Opt. 41, 3242-3247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Biro, K. Sone, S. Niisaka, M. Otania, Y. Suzuki, C. Ouchi, T. Saito, M. Hasegawa, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, and A. Matsumoto, "Development of low-loss optical coatings for 157 nm lithography," Proc. SPIE 4691, 1625-1634 (2002).

Saito, T.

R. Biro, K. Sone, S. Niisaka, M. Otania, Y. Suzuki, C. Ouchi, T. Saito, M. Hasegawa, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, and A. Matsumoto, "Development of low-loss optical coatings for 157 nm lithography," Proc. SPIE 4691, 1625-1634 (2002).

S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, and K. Sone, "Development of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography. I. Coating materials," Appl. Opt. 41, 3242-3247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schröder, S.

S. Schröder, H. Uhlig, A. Duparré, and N. Kaiser, "Nanostructure and optical properties of fluoride films for high-quality DUV/VUV optical components," Proc. SPIE 5963, 231-240 (2005).

Sedlacek, J. H. C.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, M. Switkes, N. N. Efremow, Jr., S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Recent trends in optical lithography," Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 221-236 (2003).

Sekine, K.

Sone, K.

R. Biro, K. Sone, S. Niisaka, M. Otania, Y. Suzuki, C. Ouchi, T. Saito, M. Hasegawa, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, and A. Matsumoto, "Development of low-loss optical coatings for 157 nm lithography," Proc. SPIE 4691, 1625-1634 (2002).

S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, and K. Sone, "Development of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography. I. Coating materials," Appl. Opt. 41, 3242-3247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, L.

L. Sun and P. Hou, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry study on e-beam deposited titanium dioxide films," Thin Solid Films 455-456, 525-529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, and K. Sone, "Development of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography. I. Coating materials," Appl. Opt. 41, 3242-3247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Biro, K. Sone, S. Niisaka, M. Otania, Y. Suzuki, C. Ouchi, T. Saito, M. Hasegawa, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, and A. Matsumoto, "Development of low-loss optical coatings for 157 nm lithography," Proc. SPIE 4691, 1625-1634 (2002).

Switkes, M.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, M. Switkes, N. N. Efremow, Jr., S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Recent trends in optical lithography," Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 221-236 (2003).

Synowicki, R. A.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takano, Y.

Taki, Y.

Y. Taki and K. Muramatsu, "Hetero-epitaxial growth and optical properties of LaF3 on CaF2," Thin Solid Films 420-421, 30-37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, A.

R. Biro, K. Sone, S. Niisaka, M. Otania, Y. Suzuki, C. Ouchi, T. Saito, M. Hasegawa, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, and A. Matsumoto, "Development of low-loss optical coatings for 157 nm lithography," Proc. SPIE 4691, 1625-1634 (2002).

S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, and K. Sone, "Development of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography. I. Coating materials," Appl. Opt. 41, 3242-3247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thielsch, R.

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, H. Uhlig, and N. Kaiser, "Optical, structural and mechanical properties of gadolinium tri-fluoride thin films grown on amorphous substrates," Proc. SPIE 5963, 211-222 (2005).

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, H. Uhlig, and N. Kaiser, "Development of mechanical stress in fluoride multi-layers for UV-applications," Proc. SPIE 5250, 127-136 (2004).

Tikhonravov, A.

Tikhonravov, A. V.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and A. V. Krasilnikova, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry of slightly inhomogeneous nonabsorbing thin films with arbitrary refractive-index profiles: theoretical study," Appl. Opt. 37, 5902-5911 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tiwald, T. E.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tonova, D. A.

D. A. Tonova and A. A. Konova, "Characterization of inhomogeneous dielectric coatings with arbitrary refractive index profiles by multiple angle of incidence ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 17-23 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trubetskov, M. K.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and A. V. Krasilnikova, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry of slightly inhomogeneous nonabsorbing thin films with arbitrary refractive-index profiles: theoretical study," Appl. Opt. 37, 5902-5911 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Uhlig, H.

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, H. Uhlig, and N. Kaiser, "Optical, structural and mechanical properties of gadolinium tri-fluoride thin films grown on amorphous substrates," Proc. SPIE 5963, 211-222 (2005).

S. Schröder, H. Uhlig, A. Duparré, and N. Kaiser, "Nanostructure and optical properties of fluoride films for high-quality DUV/VUV optical components," Proc. SPIE 5963, 231-240 (2005).

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, H. Uhlig, and N. Kaiser, "Development of mechanical stress in fluoride multi-layers for UV-applications," Proc. SPIE 5250, 127-136 (2004).

Woollam, J. A.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, T.

Zöller, A.

R. Götzelmann, H. Hagedorn, A. Zöller, A. Kobik, and W. Klug, "Oxide and fluoride coatings for the excimer wavelength 193 nm," Proc. SPIE 5963, 59630L (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

G. Parjadis de Larivière, J. M. Frigerio, J. Rivory, and F. Abelès, "Estimate of the degree of inhomogeneity of the refractive index of dielectric films from spectroscopic ellipsometry," Appl. Opt. 31, 6056-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and A. V. Krasilnikova, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry of slightly inhomogeneous nonabsorbing thin films with arbitrary refractive-index profiles: theoretical study," Appl. Opt. 37, 5902-5911 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, and E. Quesnel, "Roughness and light scattering of ion-beam-sputtered fluoride coating for 193 nm," Appl. Opt. 39, 5854-5864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, S. Günster, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, J. Ferré-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, "Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coating deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation," Appl. Opt. 41, 3196-3204 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, and K. Sone, "Development of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography. I. Coating materials," Appl. Opt. 41, 3242-3247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Characterization of AIF3 thin films at 193 nm by thermal evaporation," Appl. Opt. 44, 7333-7338 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kasaaki, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure-related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by a resistive-heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yoshida, K. Nishimoto, K. Sekine, and K. K. Etoh, "Fluoride antireflection coatings for deep ultraviolet optics deposited by ion-beam sputtering," Appl. Opt. 45, 1375-1379 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

K. Choi, S. Ghosh, J. Lim, and C. M. Lee, "Removal efficiency of organic contaminations on Si wafer by dry cleaning using UV/O3 and ECR plasma," Appl. Surf. Sci. 206, 355-364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lincoln Lab. J.

M. Rothschild, T. M. Bloomstein, T. H. Fedynyshyn, R. R. Kunz, V. Liberman, M. Switkes, N. N. Efremow, Jr., S. T. Palmacci, J. H. C. Sedlacek, D. E. Hardy, and A. Grenville, "Recent trends in optical lithography," Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 221-236 (2003).

Proc. SPIE

R. Götzelmann, H. Hagedorn, A. Zöller, A. Kobik, and W. Klug, "Oxide and fluoride coatings for the excimer wavelength 193 nm," Proc. SPIE 5963, 59630L (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

D. A. Tonova and A. A. Konova, "Characterization of inhomogeneous dielectric coatings with arbitrary refractive index profiles by multiple angle of incidence ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 17-23 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Sun and P. Hou, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry study on e-beam deposited titanium dioxide films," Thin Solid Films 455-456, 525-529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Taki and K. Muramatsu, "Hetero-epitaxial growth and optical properties of LaF3 on CaF2," Thin Solid Films 420-421, 30-37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. M. Bloomstein, Controlled Contamination and Cleaning at 157 nm (LITJ217) Annual Report, International SEMATECH Technology Transfer 01104175A-ENG (2001).

R. Conwell, "Investigation of fluoride thin-films for reflective coatings at 157 nm," Proc. SPIE 3268, 351-356 (1998).

S. Schröder, H. Uhlig, A. Duparré, and N. Kaiser, "Nanostructure and optical properties of fluoride films for high-quality DUV/VUV optical components," Proc. SPIE 5963, 231-240 (2005).

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, H. Uhlig, and N. Kaiser, "Optical, structural and mechanical properties of gadolinium tri-fluoride thin films grown on amorphous substrates," Proc. SPIE 5963, 211-222 (2005).

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, H. Uhlig, and N. Kaiser, "Development of mechanical stress in fluoride multi-layers for UV-applications," Proc. SPIE 5250, 127-136 (2004).

R. Biro, K. Sone, S. Niisaka, M. Otania, Y. Suzuki, C. Ouchi, T. Saito, M. Hasegawa, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, and A. Matsumoto, "Development of low-loss optical coatings for 157 nm lithography," Proc. SPIE 4691, 1625-1634 (2002).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fitting spectral data of ellipsometric Δ and Ψ with a smooth and homogeneous GdF 3 layer on CaF 2 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fitting experimental data with a rough surface but homogeneous GdF 3 layer on CaF 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fitting experimental data with a rough surface and an inhomogeneous GdF 3 layer on CaF 2 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Material dispersions determined from models A, B, and C for the GdF 3 film grown on CaF 2 (111). The dispersion of CaF 2 is also included for comparison.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Refractive index depth profile of the GdF 3 film grown on CaF 2 (111) according to model C.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) AFM images over 1 μm × 1   μm , 5 μm × 5   μm and 20 μm × 20 μm scanning size with a rms of 1.5, 2.3, and 3.1 nm , respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Grain size analysis of a 5 μm × 5   μm AFM image of the GdF 3 film.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Absorptance of the GdF 3 film at 193 nm as a function of UVO exposure time.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Absorptance of the cleaned GdF 3 film at 193 nm as a function of air exposure time.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Modeling of the Ellipsometric Data Acquired from the GdF3 Film Growth on CaF2 (111)

Equations (141)

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157 nm
G d F 3
CaF 2
G d F 3
157 nm
G d F 3
G d F 3
G d F 3
GdF 3
CaF 2
SiO 2
GdF 3 ( 010 )
CaF 2
193 nm
GdF 3
TiO 2
G d F 3
GdF 3
CaF 2
5 × 10 6
240 ° C
0.1 nm / s
0.01 °
MSE = 1 N M i = 1 N [ ( Ψ i Mod Ψ i Exp σ Ψ i Exp ) 2 + ( Δ i Mod Δ i Exp σ Δ i Exp ) 2 ] ,
250 nm
5 10 nm
20 μm × 20 μm
5 μm × μm
1 μm × 1 μm
256 × 256
r p
r s
ρ = r p r s = tan Ψ e i Δ .
CaF 2
GdF 3
GdF 3
CaF 2
m
f
87.2 nm
GdF 3
( 1378 620 nm )
p 1 n p 2 1 + 2 n p 2 + ( 1 p ) n d 2 n p 2 n d 2 + 2 n p 2 = 0 ,
n p
n d
335 nm
GdF 3
GaF 2
GdF 3
p ( z ) 1 n p ( z ) 2 1 + 2 n p ( z ) 2 + ( 1 p ( z ) ) n d 2 n p ( z ) 2 n d 2 + 2 n p ( z ) 2 = 0 ,
n p
6 eV
210 nm
GdF 3
CaF 2
CaF 2
193 nm
GdF 3
GdF 3
GdF 3
CaF 2
GdF 3
CaF 2
193 nm
10 nm
81.3 nm
193 nm
193 nm
GdF 3
GdF 3
GdF 3
CaF 2
GdF 3
GdF 3
GdF 3
CaF 2
1 μm × 1   μm
5 μm × 5   μm
20 μm × 20   μm
3.1 nm
350 nm
GdF 3
20 μm × 20   μm
3 mm × 6 mm
5 μm × 5   μm
193 nm
GdF 3
CaF 2
5 μm × 5   μm
20 μm × 20   μm
GdF 3
GdF 3
193 nm
253.7 nm
O 3
253.7 nm
2 O 2 184.9 n m O + O 3 ,
O 3 253.7 nm O + O 2 .
CO 2
H 2 O
GdF 3
GdF 3
193 nm
40 min
10 min
GdF 3
193 nm
GdF 3
GdF 3
CaF 2
GdF 3
CaF 2
GdF 3
GdF 3
MgF 2
LaF 3
LaF 3
CaF 2
AIF 3
MgF 2
GdF 3
GdF 3
CaF 2
GdF 3
CaF 2
GdF 3
CaF 2
GdF 3
CaF 2
CaF 2
GdF 3
CaF 2
1 μm × 1   μm
5 μm × 5   μm
20 μm × 20 μm
3.1 nm
5 μm × 5   μm
GdF 3
GdF 3
GdF 3
193 nm

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