Abstract

A new fiber sensor system designed for spectroscopic analysis and on-line quality assurance of arc-welding processes is presented here. Although several different approaches have been considered for the optical capture of plasma emission in arc-welding processes, they tend to be invasive and make use of optical devices such as collimators or photodiodes. The solution proposed here is based on the arrangement of an optical fiber, which is used at the same time as the optical capturing device and also to deliver the optical information to a spectrometer, embedded within an arc-welding torch. It will be demonstrated that, by using the shielding gas as a protection for the fiber end, the plasma light emission is efficiently collected, forming a sensor system completely transparent and noninvasive for the welding operator. The feasibility of the proposed sensor designed to be used as the input optics of a welding quality-assurance system based on plasma spectroscopy will be demonstrated by means of several welding tests.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. S. Wu, M. Ushio, and M. Tanaka, "Analysis of the TIG welding arc behaviour," Comput. Mater. Sci. 7, 308-314 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Luo, H. Zeng, L. Hu, X. Hu, and Z. Zhou, "Application of artificial neural network in laser welding defect diagnosis," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 170, 403-411 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Grad, J. Grum, I. Polajnar, and J. M. Slabe, "Feasibility study of acoustic signals for on-line monitoring in short circuit gas metal are welding," Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 44, 555-561 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. C. Wilke III, S. Kottilingam, R. H. Zee, and B. A. Chin, "Infrared sensing techniques for penetration depth control of the submerged arc welding process," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 113, 228-233 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Al-Habaibeh and R. Parkin, "An autonomous low-cost infrared system for the on-line monitoring of manufacturing processes using novelty detection," Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 22, 249-258 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. J. Li and M. Zhang, "Analysis of an arc light mechanism and its application in sensing of the GTAW process," Weld. J. 79, 252-260 (2000).
  7. A. Ancona, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugara, and M. Ferrara, "Optical sensor for real-time monitoring of CO2 laser welding process," Appl. Opt. 40, 6019-6025 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Cobo, F. Bardin, J. Mirapeix, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Optoelectronic device for non-invasive focal point measurement and control of the laser welding process," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, N1-N6 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Sung-Hoon, K. Min-Suk, P. Seong-Kyu, C. Chin-Man, K. Cheol-Jung, and K. Kwang-Jung, "Auto-focus control and weld process monitoring of laser welding using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1772-1777 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. M. Haran, D. P. Hand, C. Peters, and J. D. C. Jones, "Focus control system for laser welding," Appl. Opt. 36, 5246-5251 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. R. Griem, Principles of Plasma Spectroscopy (Cambridge University Press, 1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Lochte-Holtgreven, Plasma Diagnostics (North-Holland, 1968).
  13. A. Ancona, P. M. Lugara, F. Ottonelli, and I. M. Catalano, "A sensing torch for the on-line monitoring of the gas tungsten arc welding process of steel pipes," Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 2412-2418 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. L. Blyler, F. V. DiMarcello, J. R. Simpson, E. A. Sigety, A. C. Hart, and V. A. Foertmeyer, "UV-radiation induced losses in optical fibers and their control," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 38-39, 165-170 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Gombert, M. Ziegler, J. Assmus, K. F. Klein, G. Nelson, J. Clarkin, H. Pross, and J. Kiefer, "Radiation-damage of all-silica fibers in the UV-region," Proc. SPIE 3596, 124-132 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. Luo, H. Zeng, L. Hu, X. Hu, and Z. Zhou, "Application of artificial neural network in laser welding defect diagnosis," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 170, 403-411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cobo, F. Bardin, J. Mirapeix, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Optoelectronic device for non-invasive focal point measurement and control of the laser welding process," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, N1-N6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

L. Grad, J. Grum, I. Polajnar, and J. M. Slabe, "Feasibility study of acoustic signals for on-line monitoring in short circuit gas metal are welding," Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 44, 555-561 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ancona, P. M. Lugara, F. Ottonelli, and I. M. Catalano, "A sensing torch for the on-line monitoring of the gas tungsten arc welding process of steel pipes," Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 2412-2418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Al-Habaibeh and R. Parkin, "An autonomous low-cost infrared system for the on-line monitoring of manufacturing processes using novelty detection," Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 22, 249-258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

H. C. Wilke III, S. Kottilingam, R. H. Zee, and B. A. Chin, "Infrared sensing techniques for penetration depth control of the submerged arc welding process," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 113, 228-233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ancona, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugara, and M. Ferrara, "Optical sensor for real-time monitoring of CO2 laser welding process," Appl. Opt. 40, 6019-6025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

B. Sung-Hoon, K. Min-Suk, P. Seong-Kyu, C. Chin-Man, K. Cheol-Jung, and K. Kwang-Jung, "Auto-focus control and weld process monitoring of laser welding using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1772-1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Li and M. Zhang, "Analysis of an arc light mechanism and its application in sensing of the GTAW process," Weld. J. 79, 252-260 (2000).

1999 (1)

J. Gombert, M. Ziegler, J. Assmus, K. F. Klein, G. Nelson, J. Clarkin, H. Pross, and J. Kiefer, "Radiation-damage of all-silica fibers in the UV-region," Proc. SPIE 3596, 124-132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

F. M. Haran, D. P. Hand, C. Peters, and J. D. C. Jones, "Focus control system for laser welding," Appl. Opt. 36, 5246-5251 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Wu, M. Ushio, and M. Tanaka, "Analysis of the TIG welding arc behaviour," Comput. Mater. Sci. 7, 308-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

L. L. Blyler, F. V. DiMarcello, J. R. Simpson, E. A. Sigety, A. C. Hart, and V. A. Foertmeyer, "UV-radiation induced losses in optical fibers and their control," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 38-39, 165-170 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Al-Habaibeh, A.

A. Al-Habaibeh and R. Parkin, "An autonomous low-cost infrared system for the on-line monitoring of manufacturing processes using novelty detection," Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 22, 249-258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ancona, A.

A. Ancona, P. M. Lugara, F. Ottonelli, and I. M. Catalano, "A sensing torch for the on-line monitoring of the gas tungsten arc welding process of steel pipes," Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 2412-2418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ancona, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugara, and M. Ferrara, "Optical sensor for real-time monitoring of CO2 laser welding process," Appl. Opt. 40, 6019-6025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Assmus, J.

J. Gombert, M. Ziegler, J. Assmus, K. F. Klein, G. Nelson, J. Clarkin, H. Pross, and J. Kiefer, "Radiation-damage of all-silica fibers in the UV-region," Proc. SPIE 3596, 124-132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bardin, F.

A. Cobo, F. Bardin, J. Mirapeix, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Optoelectronic device for non-invasive focal point measurement and control of the laser welding process," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, N1-N6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blyler, L. L.

L. L. Blyler, F. V. DiMarcello, J. R. Simpson, E. A. Sigety, A. C. Hart, and V. A. Foertmeyer, "UV-radiation induced losses in optical fibers and their control," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 38-39, 165-170 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Catalano, I. M.

A. Ancona, P. M. Lugara, F. Ottonelli, and I. M. Catalano, "A sensing torch for the on-line monitoring of the gas tungsten arc welding process of steel pipes," Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 2412-2418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheol-Jung, K.

B. Sung-Hoon, K. Min-Suk, P. Seong-Kyu, C. Chin-Man, K. Cheol-Jung, and K. Kwang-Jung, "Auto-focus control and weld process monitoring of laser welding using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1772-1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chin, B. A.

H. C. Wilke III, S. Kottilingam, R. H. Zee, and B. A. Chin, "Infrared sensing techniques for penetration depth control of the submerged arc welding process," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 113, 228-233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chin-Man, C.

B. Sung-Hoon, K. Min-Suk, P. Seong-Kyu, C. Chin-Man, K. Cheol-Jung, and K. Kwang-Jung, "Auto-focus control and weld process monitoring of laser welding using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1772-1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clarkin, J.

J. Gombert, M. Ziegler, J. Assmus, K. F. Klein, G. Nelson, J. Clarkin, H. Pross, and J. Kiefer, "Radiation-damage of all-silica fibers in the UV-region," Proc. SPIE 3596, 124-132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cobo, A.

A. Cobo, F. Bardin, J. Mirapeix, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Optoelectronic device for non-invasive focal point measurement and control of the laser welding process," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, N1-N6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DiMarcello, F. V.

L. L. Blyler, F. V. DiMarcello, J. R. Simpson, E. A. Sigety, A. C. Hart, and V. A. Foertmeyer, "UV-radiation induced losses in optical fibers and their control," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 38-39, 165-170 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ferrara, M.

Foertmeyer, V. A.

L. L. Blyler, F. V. DiMarcello, J. R. Simpson, E. A. Sigety, A. C. Hart, and V. A. Foertmeyer, "UV-radiation induced losses in optical fibers and their control," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 38-39, 165-170 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, J.

J. Gombert, M. Ziegler, J. Assmus, K. F. Klein, G. Nelson, J. Clarkin, H. Pross, and J. Kiefer, "Radiation-damage of all-silica fibers in the UV-region," Proc. SPIE 3596, 124-132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grad, L.

L. Grad, J. Grum, I. Polajnar, and J. M. Slabe, "Feasibility study of acoustic signals for on-line monitoring in short circuit gas metal are welding," Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 44, 555-561 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Griem, H. R.

H. R. Griem, Principles of Plasma Spectroscopy (Cambridge University Press, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Grum, J.

L. Grad, J. Grum, I. Polajnar, and J. M. Slabe, "Feasibility study of acoustic signals for on-line monitoring in short circuit gas metal are welding," Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 44, 555-561 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

A. Cobo, F. Bardin, J. Mirapeix, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Optoelectronic device for non-invasive focal point measurement and control of the laser welding process," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, N1-N6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Haran, D. P. Hand, C. Peters, and J. D. C. Jones, "Focus control system for laser welding," Appl. Opt. 36, 5246-5251 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haran, F. M.

Hart, A. C.

L. L. Blyler, F. V. DiMarcello, J. R. Simpson, E. A. Sigety, A. C. Hart, and V. A. Foertmeyer, "UV-radiation induced losses in optical fibers and their control," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 38-39, 165-170 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

H. Luo, H. Zeng, L. Hu, X. Hu, and Z. Zhou, "Application of artificial neural network in laser welding defect diagnosis," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 170, 403-411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

H. Luo, H. Zeng, L. Hu, X. Hu, and Z. Zhou, "Application of artificial neural network in laser welding defect diagnosis," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 170, 403-411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

A. Cobo, F. Bardin, J. Mirapeix, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Optoelectronic device for non-invasive focal point measurement and control of the laser welding process," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, N1-N6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Haran, D. P. Hand, C. Peters, and J. D. C. Jones, "Focus control system for laser welding," Appl. Opt. 36, 5246-5251 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiefer, J.

J. Gombert, M. Ziegler, J. Assmus, K. F. Klein, G. Nelson, J. Clarkin, H. Pross, and J. Kiefer, "Radiation-damage of all-silica fibers in the UV-region," Proc. SPIE 3596, 124-132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klein, K. F.

J. Gombert, M. Ziegler, J. Assmus, K. F. Klein, G. Nelson, J. Clarkin, H. Pross, and J. Kiefer, "Radiation-damage of all-silica fibers in the UV-region," Proc. SPIE 3596, 124-132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kottilingam, S.

H. C. Wilke III, S. Kottilingam, R. H. Zee, and B. A. Chin, "Infrared sensing techniques for penetration depth control of the submerged arc welding process," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 113, 228-233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kwang-Jung, K.

B. Sung-Hoon, K. Min-Suk, P. Seong-Kyu, C. Chin-Man, K. Cheol-Jung, and K. Kwang-Jung, "Auto-focus control and weld process monitoring of laser welding using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1772-1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, P. J.

P. J. Li and M. Zhang, "Analysis of an arc light mechanism and its application in sensing of the GTAW process," Weld. J. 79, 252-260 (2000).

Lochte-Holtgreven, W.

W. Lochte-Holtgreven, Plasma Diagnostics (North-Holland, 1968).

López-Higuera, J. M.

A. Cobo, F. Bardin, J. Mirapeix, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Optoelectronic device for non-invasive focal point measurement and control of the laser welding process," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, N1-N6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lugara, P. M.

A. Ancona, P. M. Lugara, F. Ottonelli, and I. M. Catalano, "A sensing torch for the on-line monitoring of the gas tungsten arc welding process of steel pipes," Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 2412-2418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ancona, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugara, and M. Ferrara, "Optical sensor for real-time monitoring of CO2 laser welding process," Appl. Opt. 40, 6019-6025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

H. Luo, H. Zeng, L. Hu, X. Hu, and Z. Zhou, "Application of artificial neural network in laser welding defect diagnosis," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 170, 403-411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Min-Suk, K.

B. Sung-Hoon, K. Min-Suk, P. Seong-Kyu, C. Chin-Man, K. Cheol-Jung, and K. Kwang-Jung, "Auto-focus control and weld process monitoring of laser welding using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1772-1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mirapeix, J.

A. Cobo, F. Bardin, J. Mirapeix, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Optoelectronic device for non-invasive focal point measurement and control of the laser welding process," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, N1-N6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, G.

J. Gombert, M. Ziegler, J. Assmus, K. F. Klein, G. Nelson, J. Clarkin, H. Pross, and J. Kiefer, "Radiation-damage of all-silica fibers in the UV-region," Proc. SPIE 3596, 124-132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ottonelli, F.

A. Ancona, P. M. Lugara, F. Ottonelli, and I. M. Catalano, "A sensing torch for the on-line monitoring of the gas tungsten arc welding process of steel pipes," Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 2412-2418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parkin, R.

A. Al-Habaibeh and R. Parkin, "An autonomous low-cost infrared system for the on-line monitoring of manufacturing processes using novelty detection," Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 22, 249-258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peters, C.

Polajnar, I.

L. Grad, J. Grum, I. Polajnar, and J. M. Slabe, "Feasibility study of acoustic signals for on-line monitoring in short circuit gas metal are welding," Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 44, 555-561 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pross, H.

J. Gombert, M. Ziegler, J. Assmus, K. F. Klein, G. Nelson, J. Clarkin, H. Pross, and J. Kiefer, "Radiation-damage of all-silica fibers in the UV-region," Proc. SPIE 3596, 124-132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seong-Kyu, P.

B. Sung-Hoon, K. Min-Suk, P. Seong-Kyu, C. Chin-Man, K. Cheol-Jung, and K. Kwang-Jung, "Auto-focus control and weld process monitoring of laser welding using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1772-1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sigety, E. A.

L. L. Blyler, F. V. DiMarcello, J. R. Simpson, E. A. Sigety, A. C. Hart, and V. A. Foertmeyer, "UV-radiation induced losses in optical fibers and their control," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 38-39, 165-170 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

L. L. Blyler, F. V. DiMarcello, J. R. Simpson, E. A. Sigety, A. C. Hart, and V. A. Foertmeyer, "UV-radiation induced losses in optical fibers and their control," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 38-39, 165-170 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Slabe, J. M.

L. Grad, J. Grum, I. Polajnar, and J. M. Slabe, "Feasibility study of acoustic signals for on-line monitoring in short circuit gas metal are welding," Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 44, 555-561 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spagnolo, V.

Sung-Hoon, B.

B. Sung-Hoon, K. Min-Suk, P. Seong-Kyu, C. Chin-Man, K. Cheol-Jung, and K. Kwang-Jung, "Auto-focus control and weld process monitoring of laser welding using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1772-1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

C. S. Wu, M. Ushio, and M. Tanaka, "Analysis of the TIG welding arc behaviour," Comput. Mater. Sci. 7, 308-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ushio, M.

C. S. Wu, M. Ushio, and M. Tanaka, "Analysis of the TIG welding arc behaviour," Comput. Mater. Sci. 7, 308-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilke, H. C.

H. C. Wilke III, S. Kottilingam, R. H. Zee, and B. A. Chin, "Infrared sensing techniques for penetration depth control of the submerged arc welding process," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 113, 228-233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. S.

C. S. Wu, M. Ushio, and M. Tanaka, "Analysis of the TIG welding arc behaviour," Comput. Mater. Sci. 7, 308-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zee, R. H.

H. C. Wilke III, S. Kottilingam, R. H. Zee, and B. A. Chin, "Infrared sensing techniques for penetration depth control of the submerged arc welding process," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 113, 228-233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

H. Luo, H. Zeng, L. Hu, X. Hu, and Z. Zhou, "Application of artificial neural network in laser welding defect diagnosis," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 170, 403-411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

P. J. Li and M. Zhang, "Analysis of an arc light mechanism and its application in sensing of the GTAW process," Weld. J. 79, 252-260 (2000).

Zhou, Z.

H. Luo, H. Zeng, L. Hu, X. Hu, and Z. Zhou, "Application of artificial neural network in laser welding defect diagnosis," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 170, 403-411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, M.

J. Gombert, M. Ziegler, J. Assmus, K. F. Klein, G. Nelson, J. Clarkin, H. Pross, and J. Kiefer, "Radiation-damage of all-silica fibers in the UV-region," Proc. SPIE 3596, 124-132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Comput. Mater. Sci. (1)

C. S. Wu, M. Ushio, and M. Tanaka, "Analysis of the TIG welding arc behaviour," Comput. Mater. Sci. 7, 308-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. (1)

A. Al-Habaibeh and R. Parkin, "An autonomous low-cost infrared system for the on-line monitoring of manufacturing processes using novelty detection," Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 22, 249-258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. (1)

L. Grad, J. Grum, I. Polajnar, and J. M. Slabe, "Feasibility study of acoustic signals for on-line monitoring in short circuit gas metal are welding," Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 44, 555-561 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Process. Technol. (2)

H. C. Wilke III, S. Kottilingam, R. H. Zee, and B. A. Chin, "Infrared sensing techniques for penetration depth control of the submerged arc welding process," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 113, 228-233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, H. Zeng, L. Hu, X. Hu, and Z. Zhou, "Application of artificial neural network in laser welding defect diagnosis," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 170, 403-411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

L. L. Blyler, F. V. DiMarcello, J. R. Simpson, E. A. Sigety, A. C. Hart, and V. A. Foertmeyer, "UV-radiation induced losses in optical fibers and their control," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 38-39, 165-170 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Tech. (1)

A. Ancona, P. M. Lugara, F. Ottonelli, and I. M. Catalano, "A sensing torch for the on-line monitoring of the gas tungsten arc welding process of steel pipes," Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 2412-2418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

A. Cobo, F. Bardin, J. Mirapeix, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Optoelectronic device for non-invasive focal point measurement and control of the laser welding process," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, N1-N6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Sung-Hoon, K. Min-Suk, P. Seong-Kyu, C. Chin-Man, K. Cheol-Jung, and K. Kwang-Jung, "Auto-focus control and weld process monitoring of laser welding using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1772-1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Gombert, M. Ziegler, J. Assmus, K. F. Klein, G. Nelson, J. Clarkin, H. Pross, and J. Kiefer, "Radiation-damage of all-silica fibers in the UV-region," Proc. SPIE 3596, 124-132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weld. J. (1)

P. J. Li and M. Zhang, "Analysis of an arc light mechanism and its application in sensing of the GTAW process," Weld. J. 79, 252-260 (2000).

Other (2)

H. R. Griem, Principles of Plasma Spectroscopy (Cambridge University Press, 1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Lochte-Holtgreven, Plasma Diagnostics (North-Holland, 1968).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Input optics with collimator scheme and image of the fiber embedded into the TIG torch.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Optical fibers used as embedded sensor within the welding torch.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Spectra captured with collimator and embedded fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Spectral response of the fiber before and after several welding tests.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Examples of weld defect detection by means of the embedded fiber and plasma spectroscopy.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Argon Emission Lines Spectroscopic Data

Equations (4)

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N m = N Z g m exp ( E m κ T e ) ,
I m n = N m A m n h γ m n ,
ln ( I m n λ m n A m n g m ) = ln ( h c N Z ) E m k T e .
N e 1.6 × 10 12 T e 1 / 2 ( Δ E ) 3 ,

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