Abstract

Past research on the all-dielectric nonpolarizing beam splitter is reviewed. With the aid of the needle thin-film synthesis method and the conjugate graduate refine method, three different split ratio nonpolarizing parallel-plate beam splitters over a 200  nm spectral range centered at 550  nm with incidence angles of 45° are designed. The chosen materials component and the initial stack are based on the Costich and Thelen theories. The results of design and analysis show that the designs maintain a very low polarization ratio in the working range of the spectrum and has a reasonable angular field.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. J. Refermat and A. F. Turner, "Polarization free beam divider," U.S. patent 3,559,090 (26 January 1971).
  2. S. Itoh and M. Sawamura, "Achromatized beam splitter of low polarization," U.S. patent 4,415,233 (15 November 1983).
  3. L. Y. Chang and S. H. Mo, "Design of nonpolarizing prism beam splitter," in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1988), pp. 381-384.
  4. H. A. Macleod and Z. Milanovic, "Immersed beam splitters--an old problem," in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1992), pp. 28-30.
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  6. V. R. Costich, "Reduction of polarization effects in interference coatings," Appl. Opt. 9, 866-870 (1970).
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  8. H. F. Mahlein, "Nonpolarizing beam splitters," Opt. Acta 21, 577-583 (1974).
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  10. Z. Knittl and H. Houserkova, "Equivalent layers in oblique incidence: the problem of unsplit admittances and depolarization of partial reflectors," Appl. Opt. 21, 2055-2068 (1982).
  11. Z. Knittl, "Applications of thin films in optics and the principles and methods of their design," in Thin Film Technologies, J. R. Jacobsson, ed., Proc. SPIE 401, 2-18 (1983).
  12. C. M. de Sterke, C. J. van der Laan, and H. J. Frankena, "Nonpolarizing beam splitter design," Appl. Opt. 22, 595-601 (1983).
  13. A. R. Henderson, "The design of nonpolarizing beam splitters," Thin Solid Films 51, 339-347 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Zukic and K. H. Guenther, "Design of nonpolarizing beam splitters with dielectric multilayer coatings," Opt. Eng. 28, 165-171 (1989).
  15. M. Gilo, "Design of a nonpolarizing beam splitter inside a glass cube," Appl. Opt. 31, 5345-5349 (1992).
  16. J. Ciosek, "Nonpolarizing beam splitter inside a glass cube," in Gradient Index Optics in Science and Engineering, M. Pluta, ed., Proc. SPIE 2943, 179-183 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. V. Tikhonravov and M. K. Trubetskov, "Development of the needle optimization technique and new feature of optilayer design software," in Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE 2253, 10-20 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and G. W. DeBell, "Application of the needle optimization technique to the design of optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 35, 5493-5508 (1996).
  19. J. Ciosek, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. A. Clarke, and G. Laframboise, "Design and manufacture of all-dielectric nonpolarizing beam splitters," Appl. Opt. 38, 1244-1250 (1999).
  20. P. Ma, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, and F. Lin, "All-dielectric front-surface nonpolarizing beam splitters," in 46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2003), pp. 328-331.

1999

1996

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and G. W. DeBell, "Application of the needle optimization technique to the design of optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 35, 5493-5508 (1996).

J. Ciosek, "Nonpolarizing beam splitter inside a glass cube," in Gradient Index Optics in Science and Engineering, M. Pluta, ed., Proc. SPIE 2943, 179-183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. V. Tikhonravov and M. K. Trubetskov, "Development of the needle optimization technique and new feature of optilayer design software," in Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE 2253, 10-20 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

1989

M. Zukic and K. H. Guenther, "Design of nonpolarizing beam splitters with dielectric multilayer coatings," Opt. Eng. 28, 165-171 (1989).

1983

Z. Knittl, "Applications of thin films in optics and the principles and methods of their design," in Thin Film Technologies, J. R. Jacobsson, ed., Proc. SPIE 401, 2-18 (1983).

C. M. de Sterke, C. J. van der Laan, and H. J. Frankena, "Nonpolarizing beam splitter design," Appl. Opt. 22, 595-601 (1983).

1982

1981

1978

A. R. Henderson, "The design of nonpolarizing beam splitters," Thin Solid Films 51, 339-347 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976

1974

H. F. Mahlein, "Nonpolarizing beam splitters," Opt. Acta 21, 577-583 (1974).

1970

1961

P. Baumeister, "The transmission and degree of polarization of quarter-wave stacks at nonnormal incidence," Opt. Acta 8, 5-119 (1961).

Baumeister, P.

P. Baumeister, "The transmission and degree of polarization of quarter-wave stacks at nonnormal incidence," Opt. Acta 8, 5-119 (1961).

Chang, L. Y.

L. Y. Chang and S. H. Mo, "Design of nonpolarizing prism beam splitter," in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1988), pp. 381-384.

Ciosek, J.

J. Ciosek, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. A. Clarke, and G. Laframboise, "Design and manufacture of all-dielectric nonpolarizing beam splitters," Appl. Opt. 38, 1244-1250 (1999).

J. Ciosek, "Nonpolarizing beam splitter inside a glass cube," in Gradient Index Optics in Science and Engineering, M. Pluta, ed., Proc. SPIE 2943, 179-183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, G. A.

Costich, V. R.

de Sterke, C. M.

DeBell, G. W.

Dobrowolski, J. A.

J. Ciosek, J. A. Dobrowolski, G. A. Clarke, and G. Laframboise, "Design and manufacture of all-dielectric nonpolarizing beam splitters," Appl. Opt. 38, 1244-1250 (1999).

P. Ma, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, and F. Lin, "All-dielectric front-surface nonpolarizing beam splitters," in 46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2003), pp. 328-331.

Frankena, H. J.

Gilo, M.

Guenther, K. H.

M. Zukic and K. H. Guenther, "Design of nonpolarizing beam splitters with dielectric multilayer coatings," Opt. Eng. 28, 165-171 (1989).

Henderson, A. R.

A. R. Henderson, "The design of nonpolarizing beam splitters," Thin Solid Films 51, 339-347 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Houserkova, H.

Itoh, S.

S. Itoh and M. Sawamura, "Achromatized beam splitter of low polarization," U.S. patent 4,415,233 (15 November 1983).

Knittl, Z.

Laframboise, G.

Lin, F.

P. Ma, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, and F. Lin, "All-dielectric front-surface nonpolarizing beam splitters," in 46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2003), pp. 328-331.

Ma, P.

P. Ma, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, and F. Lin, "All-dielectric front-surface nonpolarizing beam splitters," in 46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2003), pp. 328-331.

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod and Z. Milanovic, "Immersed beam splitters--an old problem," in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1992), pp. 28-30.

Mahlein, H. F.

H. F. Mahlein, "Nonpolarizing beam splitters," Opt. Acta 21, 577-583 (1974).

Milanovic, Z.

H. A. Macleod and Z. Milanovic, "Immersed beam splitters--an old problem," in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1992), pp. 28-30.

Mo, S. H.

L. Y. Chang and S. H. Mo, "Design of nonpolarizing prism beam splitter," in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1988), pp. 381-384.

Refermat, S. J.

S. J. Refermat and A. F. Turner, "Polarization free beam divider," U.S. patent 3,559,090 (26 January 1971).

Sawamura, M.

S. Itoh and M. Sawamura, "Achromatized beam splitter of low polarization," U.S. patent 4,415,233 (15 November 1983).

Thelen, A.

Tikhonravov, A. V.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and G. W. DeBell, "Application of the needle optimization technique to the design of optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 35, 5493-5508 (1996).

A. V. Tikhonravov and M. K. Trubetskov, "Development of the needle optimization technique and new feature of optilayer design software," in Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE 2253, 10-20 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Trubetskov, M. K.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and G. W. DeBell, "Application of the needle optimization technique to the design of optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 35, 5493-5508 (1996).

A. V. Tikhonravov and M. K. Trubetskov, "Development of the needle optimization technique and new feature of optilayer design software," in Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE 2253, 10-20 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. F.

S. J. Refermat and A. F. Turner, "Polarization free beam divider," U.S. patent 3,559,090 (26 January 1971).

van der Laan, C. J.

Verly, P. G.

P. Ma, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, and F. Lin, "All-dielectric front-surface nonpolarizing beam splitters," in 46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2003), pp. 328-331.

Zukic, M.

M. Zukic and K. H. Guenther, "Design of nonpolarizing beam splitters with dielectric multilayer coatings," Opt. Eng. 28, 165-171 (1989).

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Acta

P. Baumeister, "The transmission and degree of polarization of quarter-wave stacks at nonnormal incidence," Opt. Acta 8, 5-119 (1961).

H. F. Mahlein, "Nonpolarizing beam splitters," Opt. Acta 21, 577-583 (1974).

Opt. Eng.

M. Zukic and K. H. Guenther, "Design of nonpolarizing beam splitters with dielectric multilayer coatings," Opt. Eng. 28, 165-171 (1989).

Proc. SPIE

J. Ciosek, "Nonpolarizing beam splitter inside a glass cube," in Gradient Index Optics in Science and Engineering, M. Pluta, ed., Proc. SPIE 2943, 179-183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tikhonravov and M. K. Trubetskov, "Development of the needle optimization technique and new feature of optilayer design software," in Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE 2253, 10-20 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Knittl, "Applications of thin films in optics and the principles and methods of their design," in Thin Film Technologies, J. R. Jacobsson, ed., Proc. SPIE 401, 2-18 (1983).

Thin Solid Films

A. R. Henderson, "The design of nonpolarizing beam splitters," Thin Solid Films 51, 339-347 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Ma, P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, and F. Lin, "All-dielectric front-surface nonpolarizing beam splitters," in 46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2003), pp. 328-331.

S. J. Refermat and A. F. Turner, "Polarization free beam divider," U.S. patent 3,559,090 (26 January 1971).

S. Itoh and M. Sawamura, "Achromatized beam splitter of low polarization," U.S. patent 4,415,233 (15 November 1983).

L. Y. Chang and S. H. Mo, "Design of nonpolarizing prism beam splitter," in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1988), pp. 381-384.

H. A. Macleod and Z. Milanovic, "Immersed beam splitters--an old problem," in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1992), pp. 28-30.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A 72-layer three-material design with R:T = 30 : 70 : (a) reflectance at 45° and (b) index profile at 550   nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A 93-layer three-material design with R:T = 40 : 60 : (a) reflectance at 45° and (b) index profile at 550   nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A 114-layer three-material design with R:T = 50 : 50 : (a) reflectance at 45° and (b) Index profile at 550 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated reflectance of the design result in Fig. 1 with the incident angle at 43°, 45°, and 47°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated reflectance of the design result in Fig. 2 with the incident angle at 43°, 45°, and 47°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated reflectance of the design result in Fig. 3 with the incident angle at 43°, 45°, and 47°.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Refractive Indices Used in the Calculations

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Table 2 Data of Coating Designs

Equations (2)

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MF = 1 2 L i = 1 L [ ( R i , s D R i , s M ) 2 σ i , s 2 + ( R i , p D R i , p M ) 2 σ i , p 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
Δ H Δ L Δ M 2 = 1.3544 × 1.1026 1.2181 2 = 1.0065.

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