Abstract

An imaging lidar instrument with the capability of measuring the frequency response of a backscattered return signal up to 3.6kHz is demonstrated. The instrument uses a commercial microchip frequency-doubled pulsed Nd:YAG laser with a 7.2kHz pulse repetition rate, a pulse duration of less than 1 ns, and a pulse energy of greater than 10μJ. A 15.2cm commercial telescope is used to collect the backscattered signal, and a photomultiplier tube is used to monitor the scattered light. This instrument is designed for range- and angle-resolved optical detection of honeybees for explosives and land-mine detection. The instrument is capable of distinguishing between the scattered light from honeybees and other sources through the frequency content of the return signal caused by the wing-beat modulation of the backscattered light. Detection of honeybees near a bee hive and spatial mapping of honeybee densities near feeders are demonstrated.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Landmine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.
  2. J. M. Phelan and J. L. Barnett, "Chemical sensing thresholds for mine detection dogs," in Proc. SPIE 4742, 532-543 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. C. Smith, J. J. Bromenshenck, D. C. Jones, and G. H. Alnasseer, "Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in beehive atmospheres," in Honey Bees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals, J. Devillars and M. -H. Pham-Delegue, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), Chap. 2, pp. 12-41.
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Hendersen, and G. C. Smith, Biological Systems: Alternatives for Landmine Detection, RAND Science and Technology Institute for Office of Sciences and Technology Policy Report, J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, C. Rappaport, W. R. Scott, and R. Weaver, eds. (RAND Corp., 2003), available at http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608.
  5. J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?" J. Mine Action 7.3, (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.
  6. J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlesten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).
  7. S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Smith, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowsky, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, Tracking Honey Bees Using LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) (Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. A. Shaw, N. Seldomridge, D. L. Dunkle, P. W. Nugent, L. Spangler, J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, J. H. Churnside, and J. J. Wilson, "Polarization measurements of honeybees in flight for locating landmines," Opt. Express 13, 5853-5863 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. C. Reed, C. M. Williams, and L. E. Chadwick, "Frequency of wing-beat as a character for separating species races and geographic varieties of drosphila," Genetics 27, 349-361 (1942).
    [PubMed]
  10. D. M. Unwin and C. P. Ellington, "An optical tachometer for measurement of the wing-beat frequency of free-flying insects," J. Exp. Biol. 82, 377-378 (1979).
  11. A. Moore and R. H. Miller, "Automated identification of optically sensed aphid (homoptera: Aphidae) wing beat forms," Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 95, 1-8 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, R. Scheppele, C. Melton, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, "Optical detection of honeybees by use of wing-beat modulation of scattered laser light for locating explosives and land mines," Appl. Opt. 45, 1839-1843 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and S. H. Nawab, Signals and Systems, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, 1997), pp. 514-581.

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?" J. Mine Action 7.3, (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

2002 (2)

J. M. Phelan and J. L. Barnett, "Chemical sensing thresholds for mine detection dogs," in Proc. SPIE 4742, 532-543 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Moore and R. H. Miller, "Automated identification of optically sensed aphid (homoptera: Aphidae) wing beat forms," Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 95, 1-8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

D. M. Unwin and C. P. Ellington, "An optical tachometer for measurement of the wing-beat frequency of free-flying insects," J. Exp. Biol. 82, 377-378 (1979).

1942 (1)

S. C. Reed, C. M. Williams, and L. E. Chadwick, "Frequency of wing-beat as a character for separating species races and geographic varieties of drosphila," Genetics 27, 349-361 (1942).
[PubMed]

Alnasseer, G. H.

G. C. Smith, J. J. Bromenshenck, D. C. Jones, and G. H. Alnasseer, "Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in beehive atmospheres," in Honey Bees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals, J. Devillars and M. -H. Pham-Delegue, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), Chap. 2, pp. 12-41.
[CrossRef]

Altshuler, T.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Landmine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Balch, T.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlesten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

Barnett, J. L.

J. M. Phelan and J. L. Barnett, "Chemical sensing thresholds for mine detection dogs," in Proc. SPIE 4742, 532-543 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bender, G. L.

S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Smith, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowsky, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, Tracking Honey Bees Using LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) (Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Bender, S.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlesten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

Bender, S. F.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?" J. Mine Action 7.3, (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

Bender, S. F. A.

S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Smith, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowsky, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, Tracking Honey Bees Using LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) (Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Broach, T.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Landmine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Bromenshenck, J. J.

G. C. Smith, J. J. Bromenshenck, D. C. Jones, and G. H. Alnasseer, "Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in beehive atmospheres," in Honey Bees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals, J. Devillars and M. -H. Pham-Delegue, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), Chap. 2, pp. 12-41.
[CrossRef]

Bromenshenk, J. J.

J. A. Shaw, N. Seldomridge, D. L. Dunkle, P. W. Nugent, L. Spangler, J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, J. H. Churnside, and J. J. Wilson, "Polarization measurements of honeybees in flight for locating landmines," Opt. Express 13, 5853-5863 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?" J. Mine Action 7.3, (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlesten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Hendersen, and G. C. Smith, Biological Systems: Alternatives for Landmine Detection, RAND Science and Technology Institute for Office of Sciences and Technology Policy Report, J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, C. Rappaport, W. R. Scott, and R. Weaver, eds. (RAND Corp., 2003), available at http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608.

Carin, L.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Landmine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Carlesten, J. L.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlesten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

Carlsten, J. L.

Chadwick, L. E.

S. C. Reed, C. M. Williams, and L. E. Chadwick, "Frequency of wing-beat as a character for separating species races and geographic varieties of drosphila," Genetics 27, 349-361 (1942).
[PubMed]

Churnside, J. H.

Dunkle, D. L.

Ellington, C. P.

D. M. Unwin and C. P. Ellington, "An optical tachometer for measurement of the wing-beat frequency of free-flying insects," J. Exp. Biol. 82, 377-378 (1979).

Etter, R. T.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?" J. Mine Action 7.3, (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

Hargis, P. J.

S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Smith, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowsky, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, Tracking Honey Bees Using LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) (Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Harmon, R.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Landmine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Hendersen, C. B.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Hendersen, and G. C. Smith, Biological Systems: Alternatives for Landmine Detection, RAND Science and Technology Institute for Office of Sciences and Technology Policy Report, J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, C. Rappaport, W. R. Scott, and R. Weaver, eds. (RAND Corp., 2003), available at http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608.

Henderson, C. B.

J. A. Shaw, N. Seldomridge, D. L. Dunkle, P. W. Nugent, L. Spangler, J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, J. H. Churnside, and J. J. Wilson, "Polarization measurements of honeybees in flight for locating landmines," Opt. Express 13, 5853-5863 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?" J. Mine Action 7.3, (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlesten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

Johnson, M. S.

S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Smith, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowsky, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, Tracking Honey Bees Using LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) (Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. C.

G. C. Smith, J. J. Bromenshenck, D. C. Jones, and G. H. Alnasseer, "Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in beehive atmospheres," in Honey Bees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals, J. Devillars and M. -H. Pham-Delegue, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), Chap. 2, pp. 12-41.
[CrossRef]

Klarkowsky, J. R.

S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Smith, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowsky, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, Tracking Honey Bees Using LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) (Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Lockwood, J. R.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Landmine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

MacDonald, J.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Landmine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Magee, G. I.

S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Smith, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowsky, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, Tracking Honey Bees Using LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) (Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003).
[CrossRef]

McFee, J.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Landmine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Melton, C.

Miller, R. H.

A. Moore and R. H. Miller, "Automated identification of optically sensed aphid (homoptera: Aphidae) wing beat forms," Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 95, 1-8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moore, A.

A. Moore and R. H. Miller, "Automated identification of optically sensed aphid (homoptera: Aphidae) wing beat forms," Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 95, 1-8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nawab, S. H.

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and S. H. Nawab, Signals and Systems, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, 1997), pp. 514-581.

Nugent, P. W.

Oppenheim, A. V.

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and S. H. Nawab, Signals and Systems, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, 1997), pp. 514-581.

Phelan, J. M.

J. M. Phelan and J. L. Barnett, "Chemical sensing thresholds for mine detection dogs," in Proc. SPIE 4742, 532-543 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rapaport, C.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Landmine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Reed, S. C.

S. C. Reed, C. M. Williams, and L. E. Chadwick, "Frequency of wing-beat as a character for separating species races and geographic varieties of drosphila," Genetics 27, 349-361 (1942).
[PubMed]

Repasky, K. S.

K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, R. Scheppele, C. Melton, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, "Optical detection of honeybees by use of wing-beat modulation of scattered laser light for locating explosives and land mines," Appl. Opt. 45, 1839-1843 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlesten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

Rodacy, P.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlesten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

Rodacy, P. J.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?" J. Mine Action 7.3, (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Smith, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowsky, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, Tracking Honey Bees Using LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) (Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Scheppele, R.

Scott, W.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Landmine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Seccomb, R. A.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?" J. Mine Action 7.3, (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

Seldomridge, N.

Seldomridge, N. L.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?" J. Mine Action 7.3, (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

Shaw, J. A.

Shaw, J. H.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlesten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

Smith, G. C.

G. C. Smith, J. J. Bromenshenck, D. C. Jones, and G. H. Alnasseer, "Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in beehive atmospheres," in Honey Bees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals, J. Devillars and M. -H. Pham-Delegue, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), Chap. 2, pp. 12-41.
[CrossRef]

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Hendersen, and G. C. Smith, Biological Systems: Alternatives for Landmine Detection, RAND Science and Technology Institute for Office of Sciences and Technology Policy Report, J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, C. Rappaport, W. R. Scott, and R. Weaver, eds. (RAND Corp., 2003), available at http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608.

Smith, R. L.

S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Smith, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowsky, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, Tracking Honey Bees Using LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) (Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Spangler, L.

Spangler, L. H.

K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, R. Scheppele, C. Melton, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, "Optical detection of honeybees by use of wing-beat modulation of scattered laser light for locating explosives and land mines," Appl. Opt. 45, 1839-1843 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?" J. Mine Action 7.3, (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlesten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

Succomb, R. A.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Succomb, L. H. Spangler, J. H. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlesten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CRDL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S. Department of Defense, 2004).

Unwin, D. M.

D. M. Unwin and C. P. Ellington, "An optical tachometer for measurement of the wing-beat frequency of free-flying insects," J. Exp. Biol. 82, 377-378 (1979).

Weaver, R.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rapaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, Alternatives for Landmine Detection (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Williams, C. M.

S. C. Reed, C. M. Williams, and L. E. Chadwick, "Frequency of wing-beat as a character for separating species races and geographic varieties of drosphila," Genetics 27, 349-361 (1942).
[PubMed]

Willsky, A. S.

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and S. H. Nawab, Signals and Systems, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, 1997), pp. 514-581.

Wilson, J. J.

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. (1)

A. Moore and R. H. Miller, "Automated identification of optically sensed aphid (homoptera: Aphidae) wing beat forms," Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 95, 1-8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Genetics (1)

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Opt. Express (1)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of the imaging lidar instrument for honeybee detection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the two-dimensional array used to store and process the data taken by the instrument shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) False-color image represents the strength of the return signal from a particular range as a function of time. In this figure, a modulated return signal is seen at a range of 23 m, while an unmodulated signal is seen at a range of 33 m. The modulated signal is due to a honeybee, while the unmodulated signal is due to vegetation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of the signal power as a function of frequency is shown for the return signal at a range of 23 m shown in Fig. 3. This plot was generated using a discrete Fourier transform that shows a modulated return signal near 220 Hz . The modulated return signal is generated by the wing-beat modulation of the scattered light, indicating the presence of a honeybee.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of the signal power as a function of frequency is shown for the return signal at a range of 33 m shown in Fig. 3. This plot was generated using a discrete Fourier transform that shows an unmodulated return signal indicating that light was scattered from a stationary object. In this case, the scattering object was observed to be vegetation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) False-color image represents the strength of the return signal from a particular range as a function of time. In this figure, a strong return signal was seen at 35 m, while three shorter return signals were seen at ranges of 23, 25, and 30 m.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plot of the signal power as a function of frequency is shown for the return signal at a range of 25 m shown in Fig. 3. This plot was generated using a discrete Fourier transform. It shows a modulated return signal near 220 Hz . The modulated return signal is generated by the wing-beat modulation of the scattered light and indicates the scattering object was a honeybee. Similar results were found for the scattered light at ranges of 23 and 30 m.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Plot of the signal power as a function of frequency is shown for the return signal at a range of 36 m shown in Fig. 6. This plot was generated using a discrete Fourier transform and shows an unmodulated return signal, indicating that light was scattered from a stationary object. In this case, the scattering object was observed to be vegetation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Plot of the honeybee density as a function of location. The feeders are shown as the dashed circles, while the solid dots represent honeybee density measurements. The area between the two dashed lines indicates the area scanned by the instrument. Good agreement between the measured honeybee density with the expected honeybee density due to the feeders is seen in this figure.

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