Abstract

Atmospheric aerosols have been profiled using a simple, imaging, bistatic lidar system. A vertical laser beam is imaged onto a charge-coupled-device camera from the ground to the zenith with a wide-angle lens (CLidar). The altitudes are derived geometrically from the position of the camera and laser with submeter resolution near the ground. The system requires no overlap correction needed in monostatic lidar systems and needs a much smaller dynamic range. Nighttime measurements of both molecular and aerosol scattering were made at Mauna Loa Observatory. The CLidar aerosol total scatter compares very well with a nephelometer measuring at 10 m above the ground. The results build on earlier work that compared purely molecular scattered light to theory, and detail instrument improvements.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, "Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols," Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Miiller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, "Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Welton, "NASA micropulse lidar network," http://mplnet.gsfc.nasa.gov/.
  4. A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, and C. Weitkamp, "Mearurements of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar," Opt. Lett. 15, 746-748 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, and B. M. Herman, "Bistatic lidar: a tool for characterizing atmospheric particulates: part 1-the remote sensing problem," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-20, 229-235 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, and B. M. Herman, "Bistatic lidar: a tool for characterizing atmospheric particulates: part 2-the inverse problem," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-20, 236-243 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. J. Novitsky and C. R. Philbrick, "Multistatic lidar profiling of urban atmospheric aerosols," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D07S11 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott III, and I. H. Hwang, "Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observations at atmospheric radiation measurement sites: instruments and data processing," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 431-442 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Halldorsson and J. Langerhoic, "Geometrical form factors for the lidar function," Appl. Opt. 17, 240-244 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Harms, "Lidar return signals for coaxial and noncoaxial systems with central obstruction," Appl. Opt. 18, 1559-1566 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. F. Hurst, P. S. Bakwin, R. C. Myers, and J. W. Elkins, "Behavior of trace gases mixing ratios on a very tall tower in North Carolina," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8825-8835 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. E. Barnes, S. Bronner, R. Beck, and N. C. Parikh, "Boundary layer scattering measurements with a charge-coupled device camera lidar," Appl. Opt. 42, 2647-2652 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Meiki, K. Yamaguchi, X. Li, Y. Sato, and A. Nomura, "Range-resolved bistatic imaging lidar for the measurement of the lower atmosphere," Opt. Lett. 21, 1318-1320 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. V. Kalashnikova and I. Sokolik, "Importance of shapes and compositions of wind-blown dust particles for remote sensing at solar wavelengths," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2002GL014947 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Zhou, W. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Ma, X. Zhang, Y. Byun, W. Chen, and J. Chen, "Modeling the CCD undersampling effect in the BATC photometric system," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 86-93 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Holben, "NASA aeronet," http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/.
  17. O. V. Dubovik, T. V. Lapyonok, and S. L. Oshchepkov, "Improved technique for data inversion: optical sizing of multicomponent aerosols," Appl. Opt. 34, 8422-8436 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. F. Marshall, D. S. Covert, and R. J. Charlson, "Relationship between asymmetry parameter and hemispheric backscatter ratio: implications for climate forcing by aerosols," Appl. Opt. 34, 6306-6311 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. McComiskey, E. Andrews, D. Jackson, A. Jefferson, S. W. Kim, J. Ogren, P. Sheridan, and J. Wendell, "Aerosol and radiation," in Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Summary Report No. 27, R. Schnell, A. M. Buggle, and R. M. Rossen, eds. (Department of Commerce, 2004), p. 62.
  20. J. E. Barnes and D. J. Hofmann, "Variability in the stratospheric background aerosol over Mauna Loa Observatory," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2895-2898 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

E. J. Novitsky and C. R. Philbrick, "Multistatic lidar profiling of urban atmospheric aerosols," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D07S11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, W. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Ma, X. Zhang, Y. Byun, W. Chen, and J. Chen, "Modeling the CCD undersampling effect in the BATC photometric system," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 86-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

O. V. Kalashnikova and I. Sokolik, "Importance of shapes and compositions of wind-blown dust particles for remote sensing at solar wavelengths," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2002GL014947 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott III, and I. H. Hwang, "Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observations at atmospheric radiation measurement sites: instruments and data processing," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 431-442 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. E. Barnes and D. J. Hofmann, "Variability in the stratospheric background aerosol over Mauna Loa Observatory," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2895-2898 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Miiller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, "Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. F. Hurst, P. S. Bakwin, R. C. Myers, and J. W. Elkins, "Behavior of trace gases mixing ratios on a very tall tower in North Carolina," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8825-8835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

1992 (1)

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, "Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols," Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1982 (2)

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, and B. M. Herman, "Bistatic lidar: a tool for characterizing atmospheric particulates: part 1-the remote sensing problem," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-20, 229-235 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, and B. M. Herman, "Bistatic lidar: a tool for characterizing atmospheric particulates: part 2-the inverse problem," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-20, 236-243 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

Althausen, D.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Miiller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, "Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, E.

A. McComiskey, E. Andrews, D. Jackson, A. Jefferson, S. W. Kim, J. Ogren, P. Sheridan, and J. Wendell, "Aerosol and radiation," in Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Summary Report No. 27, R. Schnell, A. M. Buggle, and R. M. Rossen, eds. (Department of Commerce, 2004), p. 62.

Ansmann, A.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Miiller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, "Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, and C. Weitkamp, "Mearurements of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar," Opt. Lett. 15, 746-748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakwin, P. S.

D. F. Hurst, P. S. Bakwin, R. C. Myers, and J. W. Elkins, "Behavior of trace gases mixing ratios on a very tall tower in North Carolina," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8825-8835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. E.

J. E. Barnes, S. Bronner, R. Beck, and N. C. Parikh, "Boundary layer scattering measurements with a charge-coupled device camera lidar," Appl. Opt. 42, 2647-2652 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Barnes and D. J. Hofmann, "Variability in the stratospheric background aerosol over Mauna Loa Observatory," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2895-2898 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beck, R.

Bronner, S.

Byrne, D. M.

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, and B. M. Herman, "Bistatic lidar: a tool for characterizing atmospheric particulates: part 2-the inverse problem," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-20, 236-243 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, and B. M. Herman, "Bistatic lidar: a tool for characterizing atmospheric particulates: part 1-the remote sensing problem," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-20, 229-235 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Byun, Y.

X. Zhou, W. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Ma, X. Zhang, Y. Byun, W. Chen, and J. Chen, "Modeling the CCD undersampling effect in the BATC photometric system," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 86-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. R.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott III, and I. H. Hwang, "Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observations at atmospheric radiation measurement sites: instruments and data processing," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 431-442 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cess, R. D.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, "Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols," Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charlson, R. J.

S. F. Marshall, D. S. Covert, and R. J. Charlson, "Relationship between asymmetry parameter and hemispheric backscatter ratio: implications for climate forcing by aerosols," Appl. Opt. 34, 6306-6311 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, "Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols," Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

X. Zhou, W. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Ma, X. Zhang, Y. Byun, W. Chen, and J. Chen, "Modeling the CCD undersampling effect in the BATC photometric system," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 86-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

X. Zhou, W. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Ma, X. Zhang, Y. Byun, W. Chen, and J. Chen, "Modeling the CCD undersampling effect in the BATC photometric system," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 86-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coakley, J. A.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, "Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols," Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Covert, D. S.

Dubovik, O. V.

Elkins, J. W.

D. F. Hurst, P. S. Bakwin, R. C. Myers, and J. W. Elkins, "Behavior of trace gases mixing ratios on a very tall tower in North Carolina," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8825-8835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flynn, C. J.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott III, and I. H. Hwang, "Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observations at atmospheric radiation measurement sites: instruments and data processing," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 431-442 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Franke, K.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Miiller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, "Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hales, J. M.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, "Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols," Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halldorsson, T.

Hansen, J. E.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, "Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols," Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harms, J.

Heintzenberg, J.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Miiller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, "Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, and B. M. Herman, "Bistatic lidar: a tool for characterizing atmospheric particulates: part 1-the remote sensing problem," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-20, 229-235 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, and B. M. Herman, "Bistatic lidar: a tool for characterizing atmospheric particulates: part 2-the inverse problem," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-20, 236-243 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hlavka, D. L.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott III, and I. H. Hwang, "Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observations at atmospheric radiation measurement sites: instruments and data processing," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 431-442 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

J. E. Barnes and D. J. Hofmann, "Variability in the stratospheric background aerosol over Mauna Loa Observatory," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2895-2898 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, "Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols," Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holben, B.

B. Holben, "NASA aeronet," http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

Hurst, D. F.

D. F. Hurst, P. S. Bakwin, R. C. Myers, and J. W. Elkins, "Behavior of trace gases mixing ratios on a very tall tower in North Carolina," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8825-8835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, I. H.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott III, and I. H. Hwang, "Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observations at atmospheric radiation measurement sites: instruments and data processing," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 431-442 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D.

A. McComiskey, E. Andrews, D. Jackson, A. Jefferson, S. W. Kim, J. Ogren, P. Sheridan, and J. Wendell, "Aerosol and radiation," in Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Summary Report No. 27, R. Schnell, A. M. Buggle, and R. M. Rossen, eds. (Department of Commerce, 2004), p. 62.

Jefferson, A.

A. McComiskey, E. Andrews, D. Jackson, A. Jefferson, S. W. Kim, J. Ogren, P. Sheridan, and J. Wendell, "Aerosol and radiation," in Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Summary Report No. 27, R. Schnell, A. M. Buggle, and R. M. Rossen, eds. (Department of Commerce, 2004), p. 62.

Jiang, Z.

X. Zhou, W. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Ma, X. Zhang, Y. Byun, W. Chen, and J. Chen, "Modeling the CCD undersampling effect in the BATC photometric system," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 86-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kalashnikova, O. V.

O. V. Kalashnikova and I. Sokolik, "Importance of shapes and compositions of wind-blown dust particles for remote sensing at solar wavelengths," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2002GL014947 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

A. McComiskey, E. Andrews, D. Jackson, A. Jefferson, S. W. Kim, J. Ogren, P. Sheridan, and J. Wendell, "Aerosol and radiation," in Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Summary Report No. 27, R. Schnell, A. M. Buggle, and R. M. Rossen, eds. (Department of Commerce, 2004), p. 62.

Langerhoic, J.

Lapyonok, T. V.

Li, X.

Ma, J.

X. Zhou, W. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Ma, X. Zhang, Y. Byun, W. Chen, and J. Chen, "Modeling the CCD undersampling effect in the BATC photometric system," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 86-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, S. F.

McComiskey, A.

A. McComiskey, E. Andrews, D. Jackson, A. Jefferson, S. W. Kim, J. Ogren, P. Sheridan, and J. Wendell, "Aerosol and radiation," in Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Summary Report No. 27, R. Schnell, A. M. Buggle, and R. M. Rossen, eds. (Department of Commerce, 2004), p. 62.

Meiki, K.

Miiller, D.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Miiller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, "Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Myers, R. C.

D. F. Hurst, P. S. Bakwin, R. C. Myers, and J. W. Elkins, "Behavior of trace gases mixing ratios on a very tall tower in North Carolina," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8825-8835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, A.

Novitsky, E. J.

E. J. Novitsky and C. R. Philbrick, "Multistatic lidar profiling of urban atmospheric aerosols," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D07S11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ogren, J.

A. McComiskey, E. Andrews, D. Jackson, A. Jefferson, S. W. Kim, J. Ogren, P. Sheridan, and J. Wendell, "Aerosol and radiation," in Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Summary Report No. 27, R. Schnell, A. M. Buggle, and R. M. Rossen, eds. (Department of Commerce, 2004), p. 62.

Oshchepkov, S. L.

Parikh, N. C.

Philbrick, C. R.

E. J. Novitsky and C. R. Philbrick, "Multistatic lidar profiling of urban atmospheric aerosols," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D07S11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, and B. M. Herman, "Bistatic lidar: a tool for characterizing atmospheric particulates: part 2-the inverse problem," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-20, 236-243 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, and B. M. Herman, "Bistatic lidar: a tool for characterizing atmospheric particulates: part 1-the remote sensing problem," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-20, 229-235 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Riebesell, M.

Sato, Y.

Schwartz, S. E.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, "Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols," Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, V. S.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott III, and I. H. Hwang, "Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observations at atmospheric radiation measurement sites: instruments and data processing," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 431-442 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sheridan, P.

A. McComiskey, E. Andrews, D. Jackson, A. Jefferson, S. W. Kim, J. Ogren, P. Sheridan, and J. Wendell, "Aerosol and radiation," in Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Summary Report No. 27, R. Schnell, A. M. Buggle, and R. M. Rossen, eds. (Department of Commerce, 2004), p. 62.

Sokolik, I.

O. V. Kalashnikova and I. Sokolik, "Importance of shapes and compositions of wind-blown dust particles for remote sensing at solar wavelengths," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2002GL014947 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, J. D.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott III, and I. H. Hwang, "Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observations at atmospheric radiation measurement sites: instruments and data processing," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 431-442 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

X. Zhou, W. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Ma, X. Zhang, Y. Byun, W. Chen, and J. Chen, "Modeling the CCD undersampling effect in the BATC photometric system," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 86-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turner, D. D.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott III, and I. H. Hwang, "Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observations at atmospheric radiation measurement sites: instruments and data processing," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 431-442 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, F.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Miiller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, "Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Miiller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, "Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

Welton, E. J.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott III, and I. H. Hwang, "Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observations at atmospheric radiation measurement sites: instruments and data processing," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 431-442 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Welton, J.

J. Welton, "NASA micropulse lidar network," http://mplnet.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

Wendell, J.

A. McComiskey, E. Andrews, D. Jackson, A. Jefferson, S. W. Kim, J. Ogren, P. Sheridan, and J. Wendell, "Aerosol and radiation," in Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Summary Report No. 27, R. Schnell, A. M. Buggle, and R. M. Rossen, eds. (Department of Commerce, 2004), p. 62.

Yamaguchi, K.

Zhang, X.

X. Zhou, W. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Ma, X. Zhang, Y. Byun, W. Chen, and J. Chen, "Modeling the CCD undersampling effect in the BATC photometric system," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 86-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, W. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Ma, X. Zhang, Y. Byun, W. Chen, and J. Chen, "Modeling the CCD undersampling effect in the BATC photometric system," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 86-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (3)

J. E. Barnes and D. J. Hofmann, "Variability in the stratospheric background aerosol over Mauna Loa Observatory," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2895-2898 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Miiller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, "Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Kalashnikova and I. Sokolik, "Importance of shapes and compositions of wind-blown dust particles for remote sensing at solar wavelengths," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2002GL014947 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (2)

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, and B. M. Herman, "Bistatic lidar: a tool for characterizing atmospheric particulates: part 1-the remote sensing problem," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-20, 229-235 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, D. M. Byrne, and B. M. Herman, "Bistatic lidar: a tool for characterizing atmospheric particulates: part 2-the inverse problem," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-20, 236-243 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott III, and I. H. Hwang, "Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observations at atmospheric radiation measurement sites: instruments and data processing," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 431-442 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

E. J. Novitsky and C. R. Philbrick, "Multistatic lidar profiling of urban atmospheric aerosols," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D07S11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Hurst, P. S. Bakwin, R. C. Myers, and J. W. Elkins, "Behavior of trace gases mixing ratios on a very tall tower in North Carolina," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8825-8835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

X. Zhou, W. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Ma, X. Zhang, Y. Byun, W. Chen, and J. Chen, "Modeling the CCD undersampling effect in the BATC photometric system," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 86-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, "Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols," Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

B. Holben, "NASA aeronet," http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

J. Welton, "NASA micropulse lidar network," http://mplnet.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

A. McComiskey, E. Andrews, D. Jackson, A. Jefferson, S. W. Kim, J. Ogren, P. Sheridan, and J. Wendell, "Aerosol and radiation," in Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Summary Report No. 27, R. Schnell, A. M. Buggle, and R. M. Rossen, eds. (Department of Commerce, 2004), p. 62.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

CLidar system schematic.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the first- and second-generation CLidar systems using circularly polarized light. Data were taken on 18 April 2006 at 18:30 to 24:38 local time. Molecular models are plotted (dashed curves) with the signals.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CLidar signal and molecular model for 21 December 2005 from 4:26 to 7:40 UT (18:26 to 21:40 local time). Each bin represents an angle of 0.194°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Aerosol phase functions from MLO NASA∕Aeronet instrument for 21 December 2005 UT. Minimum and maximum backscatter refer to the region between 90° and 180°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CLidar total scatter ( km 1 ) measured on 21 December 2005. Local time is UT-10 h and the altitude is measured above the station.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of total scatter of the CLidar (9–11 m) and colocated nephelometer ( 10   m ) for 21 December 2005 UT. The error bars indicate the range of total scatter when the minimum and maximum phase functions are used in the CLidar analysis.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 SBIG ST-237 and Apogee Alta Camera Specifications

Tables Icon

Table 2 Quantities Calculated from the 11 Aeronet Phase Functions for 21 December 2005 UT a

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E r = K E L A T a t m z T a t m R β ( Θ , ϕ , z ) d z / R 2 ,
d z = ( R 2 / D ) tan ( d Θ / 2 ) / ( 1 + ( z / D ) tan ( d Θ / 2 ) ) + ( R   cos ( d Θ / 2 ) + ( z R / D ) sin ( d Θ / 2 ) ) / ( D / ( R   sin ( d Θ / 2 ) ) 1 ) .
f ( x ) = A 0   exp ( ( x A 1 ) 2 / ( 2 A 2 2 ) ) + A 3
SNR first   generation = 15 , 030 ( 0.72 / 0.47 ) / ( 15 , 030 ( 0.72 / 0.47 ) + ( 2 π ) 0.5 ( 3.5 ) ( 0.72 / 0.47 ) ( 162 + 242 + 25 ) ) 0.5 = 136.
SNR second   generation = 40 , 140 ( 1.6 / 0.46 ) / ( 40 , 140 ( 1.6 / 0.46 ) + ( 2 π ) 0.5 ( 1.5 ) ( 1.6 / 0.46 ) ( 399 + 19 + 12.2 ) ) 0.5 = 366.

Metrics