I. Sase, A. Takatsuki, J. Seki, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, "Noncontact backscatter-mode near-infrared time-resolved imaging system: preliminary study for functional brain mapping," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054006 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Xu and M. S. Patterson, "Determination of the optical properties of tissue-simulating phantoms from interstitial frequency domain measurements of relative fluence and phase difference," Opt. Express 14, 6485-6501 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Takatsuki, H. Eda, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, "Absorber's effect projected directly above improves spatial resolution in near-infrared backscattering imaging," Jpn. J. Physiol. 54, 79-86 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, S. Del Bianco, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation for layered diffusive media by the eigenfunction method," Phys. Rev. E. 67, 056623-1-14 (2003).

[CrossRef]

T. Okumura, T. Ishikawa, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, "Optical design of liquid crystal display backlighting with highly scattering optical transmission polymer," J. Opt. A 5, S269-S275 (2003).

[CrossRef]

T. Xu, C. Zhang, X. Wang, L. Zhang, and J. Tian, "Measurement and analysis of light distribution in Intralipid-10% at 650 nm," Appl. Opt. 42, 5777-5784 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Ondoera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, "Imaging of *in vivo* chicken leg using time-resolved near-infrared optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Analytical approximate solutions of the time-domain diffusion equation in layered slabs," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71, 71-80 (2002).

[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. B. Fishkin, O. Coquoz, E. R. Anderson, M. Brenner, and B. J. Tromberg, "Frequency-domain photon migration measurements of normal and malignant tissue optical properties in a human subject," Appl. Opt. 36, 10-20 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Contini, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Photon migration through a turbid slab described by a model based on diffusion approximation. 1. Theory," Appl. Opt. 36, 4587-4599 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Contini, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Photon migration through a turbid slab described by a model based on diffusion approximation. 2. Comparison with Monte Carlo results," Appl. Opt. 36, 4600-4612 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, "Determination of the optical properties of turbid media from a single Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2221-2227 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Mitic, J. Kolzer, J. Otto, E. Piles, G. Solkner, and W. Zinth, "Time-gate transillumination of biological tissues and tissuelike phantoms," Appl. Opt. 33, 6699-6708 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T.-T. Tsay, T.-C. Feng, M. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2727-2741 (1994).

[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, "Frequency-domain optical absorption spectroscopy of finite tissue volumes using diffusion theory," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1157-1180 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties *in vivo*," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical path lengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-1560 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, "Photon-measurement density functions. Part 1: Analytical forms," Appl. Opt. 34, 7395-7409 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge and M. Schwiger, "Photon-measurement density functions. Part 2: Finite-element-method calculations," Appl. Opt. 34, 8026-8037 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical path lengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-1560 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. A. Boas, "Diffuse photon probes of structural and dynamical properties of turbid media: theory and biomedical applications," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Pennsylvania, 1996).

A. G. Yodh and D. A. Boas, "Functional imaging with diffusing light," in *Biomedical Photonics*, T. Vo-Dinh, ed. (CRC, 2003), pp. 21-1-21-45.

J. Brandrup and E. H. Immergut, *Polymer Handbook*, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1989).

D. Contini, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Photon migration through a turbid slab described by a model based on diffusion approximation. 1. Theory," Appl. Opt. 36, 4587-4599 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Contini, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Photon migration through a turbid slab described by a model based on diffusion approximation. 2. Comparison with Monte Carlo results," Appl. Opt. 36, 4600-4612 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical path lengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-1560 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

O. Coquoz, L. O. Svaasand, and B. J. Tromberg, "Optical property measurements of turbid media in a small-volume cuvette with frequency-domain photon migration," Appl. Opt. 40, 6281-6291 (2001).

[CrossRef]

J. B. Fishkin, O. Coquoz, E. R. Anderson, M. Brenner, and B. J. Tromberg, "Frequency-domain photon migration measurements of normal and malignant tissue optical properties in a human subject," Appl. Opt. 36, 10-20 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, S. Del Bianco, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation for layered diffusive media by the eigenfunction method," Phys. Rev. E. 67, 056623-1-14 (2003).

[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical path lengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-1560 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Takatsuki, H. Eda, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, "Absorber's effect projected directly above improves spatial resolution in near-infrared backscattering imaging," Jpn. J. Physiol. 54, 79-86 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties *in vivo*," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Ondoera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, "Imaging of *in vivo* chicken leg using time-resolved near-infrared optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Ondoera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, "Imaging of *in vivo* chicken leg using time-resolved near-infrared optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. D. Klose, V. Ntziachristos, and A. H. Hielscher, "The inverse source problem based on radiative transfer equation in optical molecular imaging," J. Comput. Phys. 202, 323-345 (2005).

[CrossRef]

J. Brandrup and E. H. Immergut, *Polymer Handbook*, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1989).

T. Okumura, T. Ishikawa, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, "Optical design of liquid crystal display backlighting with highly scattering optical transmission polymer," J. Opt. A 5, S269-S275 (2003).

[CrossRef]

A. Ishimaru, *Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media* (Oxford U. Press, 1997).

A. D. Klose, V. Ntziachristos, and A. H. Hielscher, "The inverse source problem based on radiative transfer equation in optical molecular imaging," J. Comput. Phys. 202, 323-345 (2005).

[CrossRef]

T. Okumura, T. Ishikawa, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, "Optical design of liquid crystal display backlighting with highly scattering optical transmission polymer," J. Opt. A 5, S269-S275 (2003).

[CrossRef]

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, S. Del Bianco, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation for layered diffusive media by the eigenfunction method," Phys. Rev. E. 67, 056623-1-14 (2003).

[CrossRef]

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Analytical approximate solutions of the time-domain diffusion equation in layered slabs," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71, 71-80 (2002).

[CrossRef]

D. Contini, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Photon migration through a turbid slab described by a model based on diffusion approximation. 2. Comparison with Monte Carlo results," Appl. Opt. 36, 4600-4612 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Contini, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Photon migration through a turbid slab described by a model based on diffusion approximation. 1. Theory," Appl. Opt. 36, 4587-4599 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. D. Klose, V. Ntziachristos, and A. H. Hielscher, "The inverse source problem based on radiative transfer equation in optical molecular imaging," J. Comput. Phys. 202, 323-345 (2005).

[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Ondoera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, "Imaging of *in vivo* chicken leg using time-resolved near-infrared optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. Okumura, T. Ishikawa, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, "Optical design of liquid crystal display backlighting with highly scattering optical transmission polymer," J. Opt. A 5, S269-S275 (2003).

[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Ondoera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, "Imaging of *in vivo* chicken leg using time-resolved near-infrared optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Xu and M. S. Patterson, "Determination of the optical properties of tissue-simulating phantoms from interstitial frequency domain measurements of relative fluence and phase difference," Opt. Express 14, 6485-6501 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, "Determination of the optical properties of turbid media from a single Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2221-2227 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, "Frequency-domain optical absorption spectroscopy of finite tissue volumes using diffusion theory," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1157-1180 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties *in vivo*," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, "Time-resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties," Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, "Frequency-domain optical absorption spectroscopy of finite tissue volumes using diffusion theory," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1157-1180 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

I. Sase, A. Takatsuki, J. Seki, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, "Noncontact backscatter-mode near-infrared time-resolved imaging system: preliminary study for functional brain mapping," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054006 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, S. Del Bianco, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation for layered diffusive media by the eigenfunction method," Phys. Rev. E. 67, 056623-1-14 (2003).

[CrossRef]

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Analytical approximate solutions of the time-domain diffusion equation in layered slabs," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71, 71-80 (2002).

[CrossRef]

I. Sase, A. Takatsuki, J. Seki, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, "Noncontact backscatter-mode near-infrared time-resolved imaging system: preliminary study for functional brain mapping," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054006 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Takatsuki, H. Eda, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, "Absorber's effect projected directly above improves spatial resolution in near-infrared backscattering imaging," Jpn. J. Physiol. 54, 79-86 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

I. Sase, A. Takatsuki, J. Seki, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, "Noncontact backscatter-mode near-infrared time-resolved imaging system: preliminary study for functional brain mapping," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054006 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

O. Coquoz, L. O. Svaasand, and B. J. Tromberg, "Optical property measurements of turbid media in a small-volume cuvette with frequency-domain photon migration," Appl. Opt. 40, 6281-6291 (2001).

[CrossRef]

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T.-T. Tsay, T.-C. Feng, M. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2727-2741 (1994).

[CrossRef]

T. Okumura, T. Ishikawa, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, "Optical design of liquid crystal display backlighting with highly scattering optical transmission polymer," J. Opt. A 5, S269-S275 (2003).

[CrossRef]

I. Sase, A. Takatsuki, J. Seki, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, "Noncontact backscatter-mode near-infrared time-resolved imaging system: preliminary study for functional brain mapping," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054006 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Takatsuki, H. Eda, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, "Absorber's effect projected directly above improves spatial resolution in near-infrared backscattering imaging," Jpn. J. Physiol. 54, 79-86 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Ondoera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, "Imaging of *in vivo* chicken leg using time-resolved near-infrared optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

O. Coquoz, L. O. Svaasand, and B. J. Tromberg, "Optical property measurements of turbid media in a small-volume cuvette with frequency-domain photon migration," Appl. Opt. 40, 6281-6291 (2001).

[CrossRef]

J. B. Fishkin, O. Coquoz, E. R. Anderson, M. Brenner, and B. J. Tromberg, "Frequency-domain photon migration measurements of normal and malignant tissue optical properties in a human subject," Appl. Opt. 36, 10-20 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T.-T. Tsay, T.-C. Feng, M. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2727-2741 (1994).

[CrossRef]

V. Tuchin, *Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis* (SPIE Press, 2000).

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties *in vivo*," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, S. Del Bianco, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation for layered diffusive media by the eigenfunction method," Phys. Rev. E. 67, 056623-1-14 (2003).

[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Ondoera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, "Imaging of *in vivo* chicken leg using time-resolved near-infrared optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Analytical approximate solutions of the time-domain diffusion equation in layered slabs," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71, 71-80 (2002).

[CrossRef]

I. Sase, A. Takatsuki, J. Seki, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, "Noncontact backscatter-mode near-infrared time-resolved imaging system: preliminary study for functional brain mapping," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054006 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Takatsuki, H. Eda, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, "Absorber's effect projected directly above improves spatial resolution in near-infrared backscattering imaging," Jpn. J. Physiol. 54, 79-86 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. G. Yodh and D. A. Boas, "Functional imaging with diffusing light," in *Biomedical Photonics*, T. Vo-Dinh, ed. (CRC, 2003), pp. 21-1-21-45.

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, S. Del Bianco, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation for layered diffusive media by the eigenfunction method," Phys. Rev. E. 67, 056623-1-14 (2003).

[CrossRef]

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Analytical approximate solutions of the time-domain diffusion equation in layered slabs," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71, 71-80 (2002).

[CrossRef]

D. Contini, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Photon migration through a turbid slab described by a model based on diffusion approximation. 2. Comparison with Monte Carlo results," Appl. Opt. 36, 4600-4612 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Contini, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Photon migration through a turbid slab described by a model based on diffusion approximation. 1. Theory," Appl. Opt. 36, 4587-4599 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Ondoera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, "Imaging of *in vivo* chicken leg using time-resolved near-infrared optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, "Time-resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties," Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Mitic, J. Kolzer, J. Otto, E. Piles, G. Solkner, and W. Zinth, "Time-gate transillumination of biological tissues and tissuelike phantoms," Appl. Opt. 33, 6699-6708 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. B. Fishkin, O. Coquoz, E. R. Anderson, M. Brenner, and B. J. Tromberg, "Frequency-domain photon migration measurements of normal and malignant tissue optical properties in a human subject," Appl. Opt. 36, 10-20 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Contini, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Photon migration through a turbid slab described by a model based on diffusion approximation. 1. Theory," Appl. Opt. 36, 4587-4599 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Contini, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Photon migration through a turbid slab described by a model based on diffusion approximation. 2. Comparison with Monte Carlo results," Appl. Opt. 36, 4600-4612 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, "Photon-measurement density functions. Part 1: Analytical forms," Appl. Opt. 34, 7395-7409 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge and M. Schwiger, "Photon-measurement density functions. Part 2: Finite-element-method calculations," Appl. Opt. 34, 8026-8037 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

O. Coquoz, L. O. Svaasand, and B. J. Tromberg, "Optical property measurements of turbid media in a small-volume cuvette with frequency-domain photon migration," Appl. Opt. 40, 6281-6291 (2001).

[CrossRef]

T. Xu, C. Zhang, X. Wang, L. Zhang, and J. Tian, "Measurement and analysis of light distribution in Intralipid-10% at 650 nm," Appl. Opt. 42, 5777-5784 (2003).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

I. Sase, A. Takatsuki, J. Seki, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, "Noncontact backscatter-mode near-infrared time-resolved imaging system: preliminary study for functional brain mapping," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054006 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. D. Klose, V. Ntziachristos, and A. H. Hielscher, "The inverse source problem based on radiative transfer equation in optical molecular imaging," J. Comput. Phys. 202, 323-345 (2005).

[CrossRef]

T. Okumura, T. Ishikawa, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, "Optical design of liquid crystal display backlighting with highly scattering optical transmission polymer," J. Opt. A 5, S269-S275 (2003).

[CrossRef]

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Analytical approximate solutions of the time-domain diffusion equation in layered slabs," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71, 71-80 (2002).

[CrossRef]

R. Aronson, "Boundary conditions for diffusion of light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2532-2539 (1995).

[CrossRef]

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T.-T. Tsay, T.-C. Feng, M. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2727-2741 (1994).

[CrossRef]

A. Kienle, "Light diffusion through a turbid parallelepiped," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1883-1888 (2005).

[CrossRef]

A. Takatsuki, H. Eda, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, "Absorber's effect projected directly above improves spatial resolution in near-infrared backscattering imaging," Jpn. J. Physiol. 54, 79-86 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties *in vivo*," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, "Determination of the optical properties of turbid media from a single Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2221-2227 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Ondoera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, "Imaging of *in vivo* chicken leg using time-resolved near-infrared optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, "Frequency-domain optical absorption spectroscopy of finite tissue volumes using diffusion theory," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1157-1180 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical path lengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-1560 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, S. Del Bianco, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation for layered diffusive media by the eigenfunction method," Phys. Rev. E. 67, 056623-1-14 (2003).

[CrossRef]

J. Brandrup and E. H. Immergut, *Polymer Handbook*, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1989).

V. Tuchin, *Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis* (SPIE Press, 2000).

A. Ishimaru, *Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media* (Oxford U. Press, 1997).

D. A. Boas, "Diffuse photon probes of structural and dynamical properties of turbid media: theory and biomedical applications," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Pennsylvania, 1996).

A. G. Yodh and D. A. Boas, "Functional imaging with diffusing light," in *Biomedical Photonics*, T. Vo-Dinh, ed. (CRC, 2003), pp. 21-1-21-45.