Abstract

A particular version of a spectral integrator has been designed. It consists of a xenon lamp whose light is dispersed into a color spectrum by dispersing prisms. Using a transmissive LCD panel controlled by a computer, certain fractions of the light in different parts of the spectrum are masked out. The remaining transmitted light is integrated and projected onto a translucent diffusing plate. A spectroradiometer that measures the generated light is also attached to the computer, thus making the spectral integrator a closed-loop system. An algorithm for generating the light of a specified spectral power distribution has been developed. The resulting measured spectra differ from the specified ones with relative rms errors in the range of 1%–20% depending on the shape of the spectral power distribution.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Hauta-Kasari, K. Miyazawa, S. Toyooka, and J. Parkkinen, "Spectral vision system for measuring color images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2352-2362 (1999).
  2. M. Gasser, H. Bilger, H.-D. Hofmann, and K. Miescher, "Spektraler Farbintegrator," Experientia 15, 52-53 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Weisenhorn, "Der Spektrale Farbintegrator und seine Entwicklung," in Proceedings of the International Color Conference (Luzern, 1965), pp. 415-420.
  4. A. Valberg, Spektraler Farbintegrator, Kompendium (Universität Basel, 1966).
  5. I. Østby, "Konstruktion, Bau und Eichung eines Spektralintegrators für visuelle Farbenmessung," Master's thesis (University of Oslo, 1972).
  6. A. Valberg, T. Seim, and P. Sällström, "Colour rendering and the three-band flourescent lamp," in Proceedings of the 19th Session of the CIE (Bureau Central de la CIE, Paris, 1979), pp. 218-223.
  7. H. H. Razavi, "Using liquid crystal display (LCD) to modulate the visual spectrum," Master's thesis (University of Oslo, 2000).
  8. T. Seim and H. H. Razavi, "Color generation through complete spectral control," in Colour Between Art and Science, Proceedings of the Oslo International Colour Conference, E. Wessel, ed. (Institute of Colour, Norwegian College of Arts and Design, Oslo, 1998), pp. 166-167.
  9. T. Søndrol, L. E. Hoel, T. Aspelund, and J. Skjerven, "Styringsprogram for spektralintegrator (Executive software for a spectral integrator)," B.S. thesis (Gjøvik University College, Norway, 2003).
  10. I. Farup, T. Seim, J. H. Wold, and J. Y. Hardeberg, "Generating stimuli of arbitrary spectral power distributions for vision and imaging research," in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging IX, Proc. SPIE 5292, 69-79 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Blum and A. Roli, "Metaheuristics in combinatorial optimization: overview and conceptual comparison," ACM Comput. Surv. 35, 268-308 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. W. Floyd and L. Steinberg, "An adaptive algorithm for spatial grayscale," in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (SID, San Jose, 1976), Vol. 17, pp. 75-77.
  13. W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "Interim report to the Commision Internationale de l'Eclairage, Zurich, 1955, on the National Physical Laboratory's investigation of colour-matching (1955)," Opt. Acta 2, 168-181 (1955).
  14. W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "N.P.L. colour-matching investigation: final report (1958)," Opt. Acta 6, 1-26 (1959).
  15. W. A. Thornton, "Toward a more accurate and extensible colorimetry, Part I: Introduction. The visual colorimeter-spectroradiometer. Experimental results," Color Res. Appl. 17, 79-122 (1992).
  16. W. A. Thornton, "Toward a more accurate and extensible colorimetry, Part II: Discussion," Color Res. Appl. 17, 162-186 (1992).
  17. W. A. Thornton, "Toward a more accurate and extensible colorimetry, Part III: Discussion (continued)," Color Res. Appl. 17, 240-262 (1992).
  18. Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, Volunteer Labs Sought to Test Foundations of Colorimetry, Activity Report for TC1-56 Improved Colour Matching Functions (CIE, 2001).
  19. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 1982).
  20. M. D. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models (Addison-Wesley, 1997).
  21. J. von Kries, "Theoretische Studien über die Umstimmung des Sehorgans," in Festschrift der Albrecht-Ludwigs-Universität in Freiburg zum fünfzigjährigen Regierungs-Jubiläum Seiner Königlichen Hoheit des Grossherzogs Friedrich (C. A. Wagner's Universitäts-Buchdruckerei, Freiburg i. Br., 1902), pp. 143-158.
  22. C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. G. Hunt, "CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000," Color Res. Appl. 27, 49-58 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, "The CIECAM02 color appearance model," in Proceedings of the Society for Imaging Science and Technology and the Society for Information Display's 10th Color Imaging Conference: Color Science and Engineering: Systems, Technologies, Applications (IS&T, Springfield, 2002), pp. 23-27.
  24. J. Y. Hardeberg, Acquisition and Reproduction of Color Images: Colorimetric and Multispectral Approaches (dissertation.com, Parkland, Fla. 2001).
  25. J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, "Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Y. Hardeberg, H. Brettel, and F. Schmitt, "Spectral characterization of electronic cameras," in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in Color, Proc. SPIE 3409, 100-109 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Sugiura, T. Kuno, and H. Ikeda, "Methods of measurement for colour reproduction of digital cameras," in Digital Solid State Cameras: Designs and Applications, Proc. SPIE 3302, 113-122 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

I. Farup, T. Seim, J. H. Wold, and J. Y. Hardeberg, "Generating stimuli of arbitrary spectral power distributions for vision and imaging research," in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging IX, Proc. SPIE 5292, 69-79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. Blum and A. Roli, "Metaheuristics in combinatorial optimization: overview and conceptual comparison," ACM Comput. Surv. 35, 268-308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. G. Hunt, "CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000," Color Res. Appl. 27, 49-58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, "Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

J. Y. Hardeberg, H. Brettel, and F. Schmitt, "Spectral characterization of electronic cameras," in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in Color, Proc. SPIE 3409, 100-109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Sugiura, T. Kuno, and H. Ikeda, "Methods of measurement for colour reproduction of digital cameras," in Digital Solid State Cameras: Designs and Applications, Proc. SPIE 3302, 113-122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1959 (2)

M. Gasser, H. Bilger, H.-D. Hofmann, and K. Miescher, "Spektraler Farbintegrator," Experientia 15, 52-53 (1959).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "N.P.L. colour-matching investigation: final report (1958)," Opt. Acta 6, 1-26 (1959).

1955 (1)

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "Interim report to the Commision Internationale de l'Eclairage, Zurich, 1955, on the National Physical Laboratory's investigation of colour-matching (1955)," Opt. Acta 2, 168-181 (1955).

Aspelund, T.

T. Søndrol, L. E. Hoel, T. Aspelund, and J. Skjerven, "Styringsprogram for spektralintegrator (Executive software for a spectral integrator)," B.S. thesis (Gjøvik University College, Norway, 2003).

Bilger, H.

M. Gasser, H. Bilger, H.-D. Hofmann, and K. Miescher, "Spektraler Farbintegrator," Experientia 15, 52-53 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Blum, C.

C. Blum and A. Roli, "Metaheuristics in combinatorial optimization: overview and conceptual comparison," ACM Comput. Surv. 35, 268-308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brettel, H.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, "Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Hardeberg, H. Brettel, and F. Schmitt, "Spectral characterization of electronic cameras," in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in Color, Proc. SPIE 3409, 100-109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burch, J. M.

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "N.P.L. colour-matching investigation: final report (1958)," Opt. Acta 6, 1-26 (1959).

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "Interim report to the Commision Internationale de l'Eclairage, Zurich, 1955, on the National Physical Laboratory's investigation of colour-matching (1955)," Opt. Acta 2, 168-181 (1955).

Fairchild, M. D.

M. D. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models (Addison-Wesley, 1997).

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, "The CIECAM02 color appearance model," in Proceedings of the Society for Imaging Science and Technology and the Society for Information Display's 10th Color Imaging Conference: Color Science and Engineering: Systems, Technologies, Applications (IS&T, Springfield, 2002), pp. 23-27.

Farup, I.

I. Farup, T. Seim, J. H. Wold, and J. Y. Hardeberg, "Generating stimuli of arbitrary spectral power distributions for vision and imaging research," in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging IX, Proc. SPIE 5292, 69-79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Floyd, R. W.

R. W. Floyd and L. Steinberg, "An adaptive algorithm for spatial grayscale," in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (SID, San Jose, 1976), Vol. 17, pp. 75-77.

Gasser, M.

M. Gasser, H. Bilger, H.-D. Hofmann, and K. Miescher, "Spektraler Farbintegrator," Experientia 15, 52-53 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Hardeberg, J. Y.

I. Farup, T. Seim, J. H. Wold, and J. Y. Hardeberg, "Generating stimuli of arbitrary spectral power distributions for vision and imaging research," in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging IX, Proc. SPIE 5292, 69-79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, "Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Hardeberg, H. Brettel, and F. Schmitt, "Spectral characterization of electronic cameras," in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in Color, Proc. SPIE 3409, 100-109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Hardeberg, Acquisition and Reproduction of Color Images: Colorimetric and Multispectral Approaches (dissertation.com, Parkland, Fla. 2001).

Hauta-Kasari, M.

Hoel, L. E.

T. Søndrol, L. E. Hoel, T. Aspelund, and J. Skjerven, "Styringsprogram for spektralintegrator (Executive software for a spectral integrator)," B.S. thesis (Gjøvik University College, Norway, 2003).

Hofmann, H.-D.

M. Gasser, H. Bilger, H.-D. Hofmann, and K. Miescher, "Spektraler Farbintegrator," Experientia 15, 52-53 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, R. W. G.

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. G. Hunt, "CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000," Color Res. Appl. 27, 49-58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, "The CIECAM02 color appearance model," in Proceedings of the Society for Imaging Science and Technology and the Society for Information Display's 10th Color Imaging Conference: Color Science and Engineering: Systems, Technologies, Applications (IS&T, Springfield, 2002), pp. 23-27.

Ikeda, H.

H. Sugiura, T. Kuno, and H. Ikeda, "Methods of measurement for colour reproduction of digital cameras," in Digital Solid State Cameras: Designs and Applications, Proc. SPIE 3302, 113-122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuno, T.

H. Sugiura, T. Kuno, and H. Ikeda, "Methods of measurement for colour reproduction of digital cameras," in Digital Solid State Cameras: Designs and Applications, Proc. SPIE 3302, 113-122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. G. Hunt, "CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000," Color Res. Appl. 27, 49-58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, "The CIECAM02 color appearance model," in Proceedings of the Society for Imaging Science and Technology and the Society for Information Display's 10th Color Imaging Conference: Color Science and Engineering: Systems, Technologies, Applications (IS&T, Springfield, 2002), pp. 23-27.

Luo, M. R.

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. G. Hunt, "CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000," Color Res. Appl. 27, 49-58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, "The CIECAM02 color appearance model," in Proceedings of the Society for Imaging Science and Technology and the Society for Information Display's 10th Color Imaging Conference: Color Science and Engineering: Systems, Technologies, Applications (IS&T, Springfield, 2002), pp. 23-27.

Miescher, K.

M. Gasser, H. Bilger, H.-D. Hofmann, and K. Miescher, "Spektraler Farbintegrator," Experientia 15, 52-53 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, K.

Moroney, N.

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, "The CIECAM02 color appearance model," in Proceedings of the Society for Imaging Science and Technology and the Society for Information Display's 10th Color Imaging Conference: Color Science and Engineering: Systems, Technologies, Applications (IS&T, Springfield, 2002), pp. 23-27.

Newman, T.

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, "The CIECAM02 color appearance model," in Proceedings of the Society for Imaging Science and Technology and the Society for Information Display's 10th Color Imaging Conference: Color Science and Engineering: Systems, Technologies, Applications (IS&T, Springfield, 2002), pp. 23-27.

Østby, I.

I. Østby, "Konstruktion, Bau und Eichung eines Spektralintegrators für visuelle Farbenmessung," Master's thesis (University of Oslo, 1972).

Parkkinen, J.

Razavi, H. H.

T. Seim and H. H. Razavi, "Color generation through complete spectral control," in Colour Between Art and Science, Proceedings of the Oslo International Colour Conference, E. Wessel, ed. (Institute of Colour, Norwegian College of Arts and Design, Oslo, 1998), pp. 166-167.

H. H. Razavi, "Using liquid crystal display (LCD) to modulate the visual spectrum," Master's thesis (University of Oslo, 2000).

Rigg, B.

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. G. Hunt, "CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000," Color Res. Appl. 27, 49-58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roli, A.

C. Blum and A. Roli, "Metaheuristics in combinatorial optimization: overview and conceptual comparison," ACM Comput. Surv. 35, 268-308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sällström, P.

A. Valberg, T. Seim, and P. Sällström, "Colour rendering and the three-band flourescent lamp," in Proceedings of the 19th Session of the CIE (Bureau Central de la CIE, Paris, 1979), pp. 218-223.

Schmitt, F.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, "Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Hardeberg, H. Brettel, and F. Schmitt, "Spectral characterization of electronic cameras," in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in Color, Proc. SPIE 3409, 100-109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seim, T.

I. Farup, T. Seim, J. H. Wold, and J. Y. Hardeberg, "Generating stimuli of arbitrary spectral power distributions for vision and imaging research," in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging IX, Proc. SPIE 5292, 69-79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Valberg, T. Seim, and P. Sällström, "Colour rendering and the three-band flourescent lamp," in Proceedings of the 19th Session of the CIE (Bureau Central de la CIE, Paris, 1979), pp. 218-223.

T. Seim and H. H. Razavi, "Color generation through complete spectral control," in Colour Between Art and Science, Proceedings of the Oslo International Colour Conference, E. Wessel, ed. (Institute of Colour, Norwegian College of Arts and Design, Oslo, 1998), pp. 166-167.

Skjerven, J.

T. Søndrol, L. E. Hoel, T. Aspelund, and J. Skjerven, "Styringsprogram for spektralintegrator (Executive software for a spectral integrator)," B.S. thesis (Gjøvik University College, Norway, 2003).

Søndrol, T.

T. Søndrol, L. E. Hoel, T. Aspelund, and J. Skjerven, "Styringsprogram for spektralintegrator (Executive software for a spectral integrator)," B.S. thesis (Gjøvik University College, Norway, 2003).

Steinberg, L.

R. W. Floyd and L. Steinberg, "An adaptive algorithm for spatial grayscale," in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (SID, San Jose, 1976), Vol. 17, pp. 75-77.

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "N.P.L. colour-matching investigation: final report (1958)," Opt. Acta 6, 1-26 (1959).

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "Interim report to the Commision Internationale de l'Eclairage, Zurich, 1955, on the National Physical Laboratory's investigation of colour-matching (1955)," Opt. Acta 2, 168-181 (1955).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 1982).

Sugiura, H.

H. Sugiura, T. Kuno, and H. Ikeda, "Methods of measurement for colour reproduction of digital cameras," in Digital Solid State Cameras: Designs and Applications, Proc. SPIE 3302, 113-122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, W. A.

W. A. Thornton, "Toward a more accurate and extensible colorimetry, Part I: Introduction. The visual colorimeter-spectroradiometer. Experimental results," Color Res. Appl. 17, 79-122 (1992).

W. A. Thornton, "Toward a more accurate and extensible colorimetry, Part II: Discussion," Color Res. Appl. 17, 162-186 (1992).

W. A. Thornton, "Toward a more accurate and extensible colorimetry, Part III: Discussion (continued)," Color Res. Appl. 17, 240-262 (1992).

Toyooka, S.

Valberg, A.

A. Valberg, T. Seim, and P. Sällström, "Colour rendering and the three-band flourescent lamp," in Proceedings of the 19th Session of the CIE (Bureau Central de la CIE, Paris, 1979), pp. 218-223.

A. Valberg, Spektraler Farbintegrator, Kompendium (Universität Basel, 1966).

von Kries, J.

J. von Kries, "Theoretische Studien über die Umstimmung des Sehorgans," in Festschrift der Albrecht-Ludwigs-Universität in Freiburg zum fünfzigjährigen Regierungs-Jubiläum Seiner Königlichen Hoheit des Grossherzogs Friedrich (C. A. Wagner's Universitäts-Buchdruckerei, Freiburg i. Br., 1902), pp. 143-158.

Weisenhorn, P.

P. Weisenhorn, "Der Spektrale Farbintegrator und seine Entwicklung," in Proceedings of the International Color Conference (Luzern, 1965), pp. 415-420.

Wold, J. H.

I. Farup, T. Seim, J. H. Wold, and J. Y. Hardeberg, "Generating stimuli of arbitrary spectral power distributions for vision and imaging research," in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging IX, Proc. SPIE 5292, 69-79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 1982).

ACM Comput. Surv. (1)

C. Blum and A. Roli, "Metaheuristics in combinatorial optimization: overview and conceptual comparison," ACM Comput. Surv. 35, 268-308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl. (4)

W. A. Thornton, "Toward a more accurate and extensible colorimetry, Part I: Introduction. The visual colorimeter-spectroradiometer. Experimental results," Color Res. Appl. 17, 79-122 (1992).

W. A. Thornton, "Toward a more accurate and extensible colorimetry, Part II: Discussion," Color Res. Appl. 17, 162-186 (1992).

W. A. Thornton, "Toward a more accurate and extensible colorimetry, Part III: Discussion (continued)," Color Res. Appl. 17, 240-262 (1992).

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. G. Hunt, "CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000," Color Res. Appl. 27, 49-58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Experientia (1)

M. Gasser, H. Bilger, H.-D. Hofmann, and K. Miescher, "Spektraler Farbintegrator," Experientia 15, 52-53 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Acta (2)

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "Interim report to the Commision Internationale de l'Eclairage, Zurich, 1955, on the National Physical Laboratory's investigation of colour-matching (1955)," Opt. Acta 2, 168-181 (1955).

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, "N.P.L. colour-matching investigation: final report (1958)," Opt. Acta 6, 1-26 (1959).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, "Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

J. Y. Hardeberg, H. Brettel, and F. Schmitt, "Spectral characterization of electronic cameras," in Electronic Imaging: Processing, Printing, and Publishing in Color, Proc. SPIE 3409, 100-109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Sugiura, T. Kuno, and H. Ikeda, "Methods of measurement for colour reproduction of digital cameras," in Digital Solid State Cameras: Designs and Applications, Proc. SPIE 3302, 113-122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Farup, T. Seim, J. H. Wold, and J. Y. Hardeberg, "Generating stimuli of arbitrary spectral power distributions for vision and imaging research," in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging IX, Proc. SPIE 5292, 69-79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, "The CIECAM02 color appearance model," in Proceedings of the Society for Imaging Science and Technology and the Society for Information Display's 10th Color Imaging Conference: Color Science and Engineering: Systems, Technologies, Applications (IS&T, Springfield, 2002), pp. 23-27.

J. Y. Hardeberg, Acquisition and Reproduction of Color Images: Colorimetric and Multispectral Approaches (dissertation.com, Parkland, Fla. 2001).

R. W. Floyd and L. Steinberg, "An adaptive algorithm for spatial grayscale," in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display (SID, San Jose, 1976), Vol. 17, pp. 75-77.

Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, Volunteer Labs Sought to Test Foundations of Colorimetry, Activity Report for TC1-56 Improved Colour Matching Functions (CIE, 2001).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 1982).

M. D. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models (Addison-Wesley, 1997).

J. von Kries, "Theoretische Studien über die Umstimmung des Sehorgans," in Festschrift der Albrecht-Ludwigs-Universität in Freiburg zum fünfzigjährigen Regierungs-Jubiläum Seiner Königlichen Hoheit des Grossherzogs Friedrich (C. A. Wagner's Universitäts-Buchdruckerei, Freiburg i. Br., 1902), pp. 143-158.

P. Weisenhorn, "Der Spektrale Farbintegrator und seine Entwicklung," in Proceedings of the International Color Conference (Luzern, 1965), pp. 415-420.

A. Valberg, Spektraler Farbintegrator, Kompendium (Universität Basel, 1966).

I. Østby, "Konstruktion, Bau und Eichung eines Spektralintegrators für visuelle Farbenmessung," Master's thesis (University of Oslo, 1972).

A. Valberg, T. Seim, and P. Sällström, "Colour rendering and the three-band flourescent lamp," in Proceedings of the 19th Session of the CIE (Bureau Central de la CIE, Paris, 1979), pp. 218-223.

H. H. Razavi, "Using liquid crystal display (LCD) to modulate the visual spectrum," Master's thesis (University of Oslo, 2000).

T. Seim and H. H. Razavi, "Color generation through complete spectral control," in Colour Between Art and Science, Proceedings of the Oslo International Colour Conference, E. Wessel, ed. (Institute of Colour, Norwegian College of Arts and Design, Oslo, 1998), pp. 166-167.

T. Søndrol, L. E. Hoel, T. Aspelund, and J. Skjerven, "Styringsprogram for spektralintegrator (Executive software for a spectral integrator)," B.S. thesis (Gjøvik University College, Norway, 2003).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principal sketch of the spectral integrator: H, lamphouse; M1, concave mirror; L1, aspherical condenser lens; S, water-cooled vertical slit; L2, condensing lens; M2, plane mirror; L3, collimator lens; P1 and P2, equilateral dispersing prisms; B, (optional) biprism; A, circular aperture; L4, condensing lens; P, transmissive LCD panel; L5, condensing lens; M3, plane mirror; D, translucent diffusing plate; R, spectroradiometer; PC, administrative PC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral properties of the spectral integrator. (a) Black spectrum, (b) global white spectrum (solid) and black spectrum (dashed), (c) aperture functions for each of the vertical lines, (d) local white spectra for each of the horizontal lines, (e) global white spectrum (solid) and sum of aperture functions (dashed), and (f) alignment functions (see Subsection 4.A).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Generation of light corresponding to a magenta optimal color. (a) The specified optimal color (dotted), the SPD calculated by running the algorithm given in steps 1–7 in Subsection 3.C (dash–dotted), and the corresponding SPD measured by the spectroradiometer (solid); (b) the numerically determined LCD panel mask; (c) the specified optimal color (dotted) and the SPD of the corresponding approximated light resulting from including the spectral integrator and the spectroradiometer in the optimization loop (solid); and (d) the final optimized LCD panel mask (see Subsection 4.B).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Standard illuminants and SPDs of commercial light sources, as specified (dotted) and as generated (solid). (a) Illuminant A, (b) illuminant C, (c) illuminant D65, (d) illuminant E, (e) SPD of TL84, and (f) SPD of Cool White Deluxe.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SPDs of the Stiles RGB reference stimuli (left) and other Gaussian shaped SPDs (right), as specified (dotted) and as generated (solid). (a) Stiles reference stimulus B, centered at 444.4   nm with a bandwidth of 10   nm ; (c) Stiles reference stimulus G, centered at 525 .3   nm with a bandwidth of 10   nm ; (e) Stiles reference stimulus R, centered at 645 .2   nm with a bandwidth of 10 nm; (b) Gaussian shaped SPD centered at 490   nm with a bandwidth of 5   nm ; (d) Gaussian shaped SPD centered at 500   nm with a bandwidth of 20   nm ; and (f) Gaussian shaped SPD centered at 570   nm with a bandwidth of 50   nm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Bimodal SPD and a green optimal color as specified (dotted) and as measured for the corresponding approximated light generated by the spectral integrator (solid). (a) Bimodal SPD of light synthesized from two components with Gaussian shaped SPDs, and (b) green optimal color.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Relative Spectral rms Error a for the SPD of the Generated Light Before and After Including the Spectral Integrator and the Spectroradiometer in the Optimization Loop

Equations (11)

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a ¯ j = a j b ,
A = [ a ¯ 1   …   a ¯ N ] .
v ¯ i = v i b .
k j = arg max ( a ¯ j ) ,
W i j = ( v ¯ i ) k j .
W ¯ i j = W i j i W i j ,
s i j = W ¯ i j a ¯ j + b
( w m ) j = i = ( M m j ) / 2 ( M m j ) / 2 + m j W ¯ i j ,
s = A w m + b .
s s = s ( A w m + b )
e rms , rel = i = 1 L ( s i s i ) 2 i = 1 L s i 2 ,

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