Abstract

A radiometric method has been developed, suitable for both total power and flux density profile measurement of concentrated solar radiation. The high-flux density radiation is collected by a first optical cavity, integrated, and driven to a second optical cavity, where, attenuated, it is measured by a conventional radiometer operating under a stationary irradiation regime. The attenuation factor is regulated by properly selecting the aperture areas in the two cavities. The radiometer has been calibrated by a pulsed solar simulator at concentration levels of hundreds of suns. An optical model and a ray-tracing study have also been developed and validated, by which the potentialities of the radiometer have been largely explored.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (2)

Yu. Vorobiev, J. González-Hernández, P. Vorobiev, and L. Bulat, "Thermal-photovoltaic solar hybrid system for efficient solar energy conversion," Sol. Energy 80, 170-176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Parretta, C. Privato, G. Nenna, A. Antonini, and M. Stefancich, "Monitoring of concentrated radiation beam for photovoltaic and thermal solar energy conversion applications," Appl. Opt. 45, 7885-7897 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

A. Parretta, C. Privato, A. Maccari, and G. Nenna, "Integrating sphere apparatus for attenuating radiation," World patent WO 2006/082474 A1 (22 December 2005).

A. Steinfeld, "Solar thermochemical production of hydrogen--a review," Sol. Energy 78, 603-615 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Agrafiotis, M. Roeb, A. G. Konstandopoulos, L. Nalbandian, V. T. Zaspalis, C. Sattler, P. Stabbe, and A. M. Steele, "Solar water splitting for hydrogen production with monolithic production," Sol. Energy 79, 409-421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Coventry, "Performance of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal solar collector," Sol. Energy 78, 211-222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Adsten, A. Helgesson, and B. Karlsson, "Evaluation of CPC-collector designs for stand-alone, roof- or wall installation," Sol. Energy 79, 638-647 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

T. Osinga, U. Frommherz, A. Steinfeld, and C. Wieckert, "Experimental investigation of the solar carbothermic reduction of ZnO using a two-cavity solar reactor," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 633-637 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Adinberg, M. Epstein, and J. Karni, "Solar gasification of biomass: a molten salt pyrolysis study," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 850-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Rubin, J. Karni, and J. Yeheskel, "Chemical kinetics simulation of high temperature hydrocarbons reforming in a solar reactor," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 858-866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Biryukov, "Determining the optical properties of PETAL, the 400 m2 parabolic dish at Sede Boqer," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 827-832 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

I. Antón, D. Pachón, and G. Sala, "Characterization of optical collectors for concentration photovoltaic applications," Prog. Photovoltaics 11, 387-405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Arqueros, A. Jiménez, and A. Valverde, "A novel procedure for the optical characterization of solar concentrators," Sol. Energy 75, 135-142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Ferriere and B. Rivoire, "An instrument for measuring concentrated solar radiation: a photo-sensor interfaced with an integrating sphere," Sol. Energy 72, 187-193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Franklin and J. S. Coventry, "Effects of highly non-uniform illumination distribution on electrical performance of solar cells," in Proceedings of the 40th Annual Conference for the Australian New Zealand Solar Energy Society (ANZSES, 2002).

2000 (2)

R. M. Swanson, "The promise of concentrators," Prog. Photovoltaics 8, 93-111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

1999 (4)

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Optics Commun. 172, 139-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferriere, C. Faillat, S. Galasso, R. Barallier, and J. E. Masse, "Surface hardening of steel using highly concentrated solar energy process," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 21, 36-39 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Douale, S. Serror, R. M. Pradeilles Duval, J. J. Serra, and E. Felder, "Thermal shocks on an electrolytic chromium coating in a solar furnace," J. Phys. IV 9, 429-434 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. García, J. Sánchez Olías, and A. J. Vázquez, "A new method for materials synthesis: solar energy concentrated by Fresnel lens," J. Phys. IV 9, 435-440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

I. García, J. Sánchez Olías, J. J. De Damborenea, and A. J. Vázquez, "Sintesis de nitruro de titanio mediante láser y energia solar concentrada," Rev. Metal. Madrid 34, 109-113 (1998).

A. Yogev, A. Kribus, M. Epstein, and A. Kogan, "Solar tower reflector systems: a new approach for high-temperature solar plants," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 23, 239-245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Shortis and G. Johnston, "Photogrammetry: an available surface characterization tool for solar concentrators, Part II: Assessments of surfaces," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 119, 286-291 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Luque, G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, T. Bruton, D. Cunningham, and N. Mason, "Some results of the EUCLIDES photovoltaic concentrator prototype," Prog. Photovoltaics 5, 195-212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Shortis and G. Johnston, "Photogrammetry: an available surface characterization tool for solar concentrators, Part I: Measurements of Surfaces," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 118, 146-150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. Lewandowski, "Deposition of diamond-like carbon films and other materials processes using a solar furnace," Mat. Tech. 8, 237-240 (1993).

Addonizio, L.

L. Addonizio, L. Gentilin, A. Mitiga, A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, A. Romano, and M. Tucci, Caratterizzazione e Calibrazione di Celle Fotovoltaiche a Concentrazione, Internal Technical Report ENEA N. RT/2003/52/ENE (ENEA, 2003).

Adinberg, R.

R. Adinberg, M. Epstein, and J. Karni, "Solar gasification of biomass: a molten salt pyrolysis study," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 850-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adsten, M.

M. Adsten, A. Helgesson, and B. Karlsson, "Evaluation of CPC-collector designs for stand-alone, roof- or wall installation," Sol. Energy 79, 638-647 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Agrafiotis, C.

C. Agrafiotis, M. Roeb, A. G. Konstandopoulos, L. Nalbandian, V. T. Zaspalis, C. Sattler, P. Stabbe, and A. M. Steele, "Solar water splitting for hydrogen production with monolithic production," Sol. Energy 79, 409-421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Antón, I.

I. Antón, D. Pachón, and G. Sala, "Characterization of optical collectors for concentration photovoltaic applications," Prog. Photovoltaics 11, 387-405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The Euclides-Thermie concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (ETA, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

I. Antón, G. Sala, and J. C. Arboiro, "Effect of the optical performance on the output power of the EUCLIDES array," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2225-2228.

Antonini, A.

A. Parretta, C. Privato, G. Nenna, A. Antonini, and M. Stefancich, "Monitoring of concentrated radiation beam for photovoltaic and thermal solar energy conversion applications," Appl. Opt. 45, 7885-7897 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, A. Antonini, M. Armani, "Characterization of concentrated light beams with applications to solar concentrators. Part B: Radiometric methods," presented at the First International School on Concentrated Photovoltaics, Ferrara, Italy, 2-6 September 2006.

Apicella, F.

A. Sarno, F. Apicella, L. Dirozzi, M. Pellegrino, C. Privato, and F. Roca, "The status of the PhoCUS project: Preliminary results," presented at the International Solar Concentrator Conference (SC2) for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen, Alice Springs, Australia, 10-14 November 2003.

Arboiro, J. C.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

A. Luque, G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, T. Bruton, D. Cunningham, and N. Mason, "Some results of the EUCLIDES photovoltaic concentrator prototype," Prog. Photovoltaics 5, 195-212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Antón, G. Sala, and J. C. Arboiro, "Effect of the optical performance on the output power of the EUCLIDES array," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2225-2228.

Armani, M.

A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, A. Antonini, M. Armani, "Characterization of concentrated light beams with applications to solar concentrators. Part B: Radiometric methods," presented at the First International School on Concentrated Photovoltaics, Ferrara, Italy, 2-6 September 2006.

Arqueros, F.

F. Arqueros, A. Jiménez, and A. Valverde, "A novel procedure for the optical characterization of solar concentrators," Sol. Energy 75, 135-142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Avitabile, M.

M. Avitabile, C. Cancro, G. Contento, R. Fucci, F. Roca, C. Privato, A. Sarno, F. Ferrazza, M. Zarcone, and M. Checcherini, "The first prototype of the PhoCUS project: design and preliminary performance analysis," presented at the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris, 7-11 June 2004.

Barallier, R.

A. Ferriere, C. Faillat, S. Galasso, R. Barallier, and J. E. Masse, "Surface hardening of steel using highly concentrated solar energy process," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 21, 36-39 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barnham, K. W. J.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, M. Schleusener, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, and K. W. J. Barnham, "The luminescent concentrator: a bright idea for spectrum conversion?" in Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain, 6-10 June 2005.

Benítez, P.

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier-Academic, 2005).

Biryukov, S.

S. Biryukov, "Determining the optical properties of PETAL, the 400 m2 parabolic dish at Sede Boqer," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 827-832 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bolognesi, S.

A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, G. Flaminio, S. Bolognesi, and G. Nenna, "Radiometer for concentrated solar radiation," in Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, CCIB (WIP-Renewable Energies, 2005), pp. 216-219.

Brogren, M.

M. Brogren, "Optical efficiency of low-concentrating solar energy systems with parabolic reflectors," in Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Sciences and Technology 934 (Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala, 2004).
[PubMed]

Bruton, T.

A. Luque, G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, T. Bruton, D. Cunningham, and N. Mason, "Some results of the EUCLIDES photovoltaic concentrator prototype," Prog. Photovoltaics 5, 195-212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Büchtemann, A.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, M. Schleusener, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, and K. W. J. Barnham, "The luminescent concentrator: a bright idea for spectrum conversion?" in Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain, 6-10 June 2005.

Bulat, L.

Yu. Vorobiev, J. González-Hernández, P. Vorobiev, and L. Bulat, "Thermal-photovoltaic solar hybrid system for efficient solar energy conversion," Sol. Energy 80, 170-176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burgers, A. R.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, M. Schleusener, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, and K. W. J. Barnham, "The luminescent concentrator: a bright idea for spectrum conversion?" in Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain, 6-10 June 2005.

Camblor, E.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The Euclides-Thermie concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (ETA, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

Cancro, C.

M. Avitabile, C. Cancro, G. Contento, R. Fucci, F. Roca, C. Privato, A. Sarno, F. Ferrazza, M. Zarcone, and M. Checcherini, "The first prototype of the PhoCUS project: design and preliminary performance analysis," presented at the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris, 7-11 June 2004.

Cendagorta, M.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The Euclides-Thermie concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (ETA, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

Chatten, A. J.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, M. Schleusener, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, and K. W. J. Barnham, "The luminescent concentrator: a bright idea for spectrum conversion?" in Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain, 6-10 June 2005.

Checcherini, M.

M. Avitabile, C. Cancro, G. Contento, R. Fucci, F. Roca, C. Privato, A. Sarno, F. Ferrazza, M. Zarcone, and M. Checcherini, "The first prototype of the PhoCUS project: design and preliminary performance analysis," presented at the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris, 7-11 June 2004.

Contento, G.

M. Avitabile, C. Cancro, G. Contento, R. Fucci, F. Roca, C. Privato, A. Sarno, F. Ferrazza, M. Zarcone, and M. Checcherini, "The first prototype of the PhoCUS project: design and preliminary performance analysis," presented at the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris, 7-11 June 2004.

Coventry, J. S.

J. S. Coventry, "Performance of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal solar collector," Sol. Energy 78, 211-222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Franklin and J. S. Coventry, "Effects of highly non-uniform illumination distribution on electrical performance of solar cells," in Proceedings of the 40th Annual Conference for the Australian New Zealand Solar Energy Society (ANZSES, 2002).

Cunningham, D.

A. Luque, G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, T. Bruton, D. Cunningham, and N. Mason, "Some results of the EUCLIDES photovoltaic concentrator prototype," Prog. Photovoltaics 5, 195-212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Danz, R.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, M. Schleusener, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, and K. W. J. Barnham, "The luminescent concentrator: a bright idea for spectrum conversion?" in Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain, 6-10 June 2005.

De Damborenea, J. J.

I. García, J. Sánchez Olías, J. J. De Damborenea, and A. J. Vázquez, "Sintesis de nitruro de titanio mediante láser y energia solar concentrada," Rev. Metal. Madrid 34, 109-113 (1998).

Dirozzi, L.

A. Sarno, F. Apicella, L. Dirozzi, M. Pellegrino, C. Privato, and F. Roca, "The status of the PhoCUS project: Preliminary results," presented at the International Solar Concentrator Conference (SC2) for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen, Alice Springs, Australia, 10-14 November 2003.

Dobón, F.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

Douale, P.

P. Douale, S. Serror, R. M. Pradeilles Duval, J. J. Serra, and E. Felder, "Thermal shocks on an electrolytic chromium coating in a solar furnace," J. Phys. IV 9, 429-434 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duval, R. M. Pradeilles

P. Douale, S. Serror, R. M. Pradeilles Duval, J. J. Serra, and E. Felder, "Thermal shocks on an electrolytic chromium coating in a solar furnace," J. Phys. IV 9, 429-434 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Epstein, M.

R. Adinberg, M. Epstein, and J. Karni, "Solar gasification of biomass: a molten salt pyrolysis study," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 850-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Yogev, A. Kribus, M. Epstein, and A. Kogan, "Solar tower reflector systems: a new approach for high-temperature solar plants," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 23, 239-245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Faillat, C.

A. Ferriere, C. Faillat, S. Galasso, R. Barallier, and J. E. Masse, "Surface hardening of steel using highly concentrated solar energy process," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 21, 36-39 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, D.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, M. Schleusener, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, and K. W. J. Barnham, "The luminescent concentrator: a bright idea for spectrum conversion?" in Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain, 6-10 June 2005.

Felder, E.

P. Douale, S. Serror, R. M. Pradeilles Duval, J. J. Serra, and E. Felder, "Thermal shocks on an electrolytic chromium coating in a solar furnace," J. Phys. IV 9, 429-434 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferrazza, F.

M. Avitabile, C. Cancro, G. Contento, R. Fucci, F. Roca, C. Privato, A. Sarno, F. Ferrazza, M. Zarcone, and M. Checcherini, "The first prototype of the PhoCUS project: design and preliminary performance analysis," presented at the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris, 7-11 June 2004.

Ferriere, A.

A. Ferriere and B. Rivoire, "An instrument for measuring concentrated solar radiation: a photo-sensor interfaced with an integrating sphere," Sol. Energy 72, 187-193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferriere, C. Faillat, S. Galasso, R. Barallier, and J. E. Masse, "Surface hardening of steel using highly concentrated solar energy process," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 21, 36-39 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferriere, J.-F. Robert, J. Kaluza, and A. Neumann, "Concentrated solar flux measurements: results of the second SolarPACES fluxmeter intercomparison campaign," in Proceedings of the 10th SolarPACES International Symposium on Solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies, Sydney, H. Kreetz, ed. (Australian National University, 2000), pp. 247-254.

A. Ferriere and B. Rivoire, "Measurement of concentrated solar radiation: The asterix calorimeter," in Proceedings of the 10th SolarPACES International Symposium on Solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies, Sydney, H. Kreetz, ed. (Australian National University, 2000), pp. 233-240.

Flaminio, G.

A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, G. Flaminio, S. Bolognesi, and G. Nenna, "Radiometer for concentrated solar radiation," in Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, CCIB (WIP-Renewable Energies, 2005), pp. 216-219.

Franklin, E. T.

E. T. Franklin and J. S. Coventry, "Effects of highly non-uniform illumination distribution on electrical performance of solar cells," in Proceedings of the 40th Annual Conference for the Australian New Zealand Solar Energy Society (ANZSES, 2002).

Friend, M. P.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The Euclides-Thermie concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (ETA, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

Frommherz, U.

T. Osinga, U. Frommherz, A. Steinfeld, and C. Wieckert, "Experimental investigation of the solar carbothermic reduction of ZnO using a two-cavity solar reactor," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 633-637 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fucci, R.

M. Avitabile, C. Cancro, G. Contento, R. Fucci, F. Roca, C. Privato, A. Sarno, F. Ferrazza, M. Zarcone, and M. Checcherini, "The first prototype of the PhoCUS project: design and preliminary performance analysis," presented at the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris, 7-11 June 2004.

Galasso, S.

A. Ferriere, C. Faillat, S. Galasso, R. Barallier, and J. E. Masse, "Surface hardening of steel using highly concentrated solar energy process," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 21, 36-39 (1999).
[CrossRef]

García, I.

I. García, J. Sánchez Olías, and A. J. Vázquez, "A new method for materials synthesis: solar energy concentrated by Fresnel lens," J. Phys. IV 9, 435-440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. García, J. Sánchez Olías, J. J. De Damborenea, and A. J. Vázquez, "Sintesis de nitruro de titanio mediante láser y energia solar concentrada," Rev. Metal. Madrid 34, 109-113 (1998).

Gasson, M. P.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

Gentilin, L.

L. Addonizio, L. Gentilin, A. Mitiga, A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, A. Romano, and M. Tucci, Caratterizzazione e Calibrazione di Celle Fotovoltaiche a Concentrazione, Internal Technical Report ENEA N. RT/2003/52/ENE (ENEA, 2003).

Geyer, M.

C. E. Tyner, G. J. Kolb, M. Geyer, and M. Romero, "Concentrating solar power in 2001--an IEA/SolarPACES summary of present status and future prospects" (SolarPACES, 2001), www.solarpaces.org.

González, S.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

González-Hernández, J.

Yu. Vorobiev, J. González-Hernández, P. Vorobiev, and L. Bulat, "Thermal-photovoltaic solar hybrid system for efficient solar energy conversion," Sol. Energy 80, 170-176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grossman, J.

J. Grossman, "Development of a 2f optical performance measurement system," in Proceedings of the ASME International Solar Engineering Conference (ASME, 1994), pp. 25-32.

Helgesson, A.

M. Adsten, A. Helgesson, and B. Karlsson, "Evaluation of CPC-collector designs for stand-alone, roof- or wall installation," Sol. Energy 79, 638-647 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiménez, A.

F. Arqueros, A. Jiménez, and A. Valverde, "A novel procedure for the optical characterization of solar concentrators," Sol. Energy 75, 135-142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, G.

M. Shortis and G. Johnston, "Photogrammetry: an available surface characterization tool for solar concentrators, Part II: Assessments of surfaces," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 119, 286-291 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Shortis and G. Johnston, "Photogrammetry: an available surface characterization tool for solar concentrators, Part I: Measurements of Surfaces," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 118, 146-150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, G. J.

T. J. Wendelin, G. J. Jorgensen, and R. L. Wood, "SHOT: a method for characterizing the surface figure and optical performance of point focus solar concentrators," in Proceedings of the ASME-JSES-JSME International Solar Energy Conference (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1991), pp. 555-560.

Kaluza, J.

A. Ferriere, J.-F. Robert, J. Kaluza, and A. Neumann, "Concentrated solar flux measurements: results of the second SolarPACES fluxmeter intercomparison campaign," in Proceedings of the 10th SolarPACES International Symposium on Solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies, Sydney, H. Kreetz, ed. (Australian National University, 2000), pp. 247-254.

Karlsson, B.

M. Adsten, A. Helgesson, and B. Karlsson, "Evaluation of CPC-collector designs for stand-alone, roof- or wall installation," Sol. Energy 79, 638-647 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karni, J.

R. Rubin, J. Karni, and J. Yeheskel, "Chemical kinetics simulation of high temperature hydrocarbons reforming in a solar reactor," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 858-866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Adinberg, M. Epstein, and J. Karni, "Solar gasification of biomass: a molten salt pyrolysis study," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 850-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kinderman, R.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, M. Schleusener, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, and K. W. J. Barnham, "The luminescent concentrator: a bright idea for spectrum conversion?" in Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain, 6-10 June 2005.

Kogan, A.

A. Yogev, A. Kribus, M. Epstein, and A. Kogan, "Solar tower reflector systems: a new approach for high-temperature solar plants," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 23, 239-245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kolb, G. J.

C. E. Tyner, G. J. Kolb, M. Geyer, and M. Romero, "Concentrating solar power in 2001--an IEA/SolarPACES summary of present status and future prospects" (SolarPACES, 2001), www.solarpaces.org.

Konstandopoulos, A. G.

C. Agrafiotis, M. Roeb, A. G. Konstandopoulos, L. Nalbandian, V. T. Zaspalis, C. Sattler, P. Stabbe, and A. M. Steele, "Solar water splitting for hydrogen production with monolithic production," Sol. Energy 79, 409-421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kribus, A.

A. Yogev, A. Kribus, M. Epstein, and A. Kogan, "Solar tower reflector systems: a new approach for high-temperature solar plants," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 23, 239-245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lewandowski, A.

A. Lewandowski, "Deposition of diamond-like carbon films and other materials processes using a solar furnace," Mat. Tech. 8, 237-240 (1993).

Lide, D. R.

D. R. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 80th ed. (CRC, 1999), pp. 12-132.

Luque, A.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

A. Luque, G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, T. Bruton, D. Cunningham, and N. Mason, "Some results of the EUCLIDES photovoltaic concentrator prototype," Prog. Photovoltaics 5, 195-212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maccari, A.

A. Parretta, C. Privato, A. Maccari, and G. Nenna, "Integrating sphere apparatus for attenuating radiation," World patent WO 2006/082474 A1 (22 December 2005).

Maddalena, P.

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Optics Commun. 172, 139-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mason, N.

A. Luque, G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, T. Bruton, D. Cunningham, and N. Mason, "Some results of the EUCLIDES photovoltaic concentrator prototype," Prog. Photovoltaics 5, 195-212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Masse, J. E.

A. Ferriere, C. Faillat, S. Galasso, R. Barallier, and J. E. Masse, "Surface hardening of steel using highly concentrated solar energy process," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 21, 36-39 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mera, E.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The Euclides-Thermie concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (ETA, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

Miñano, J. C.

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier-Academic, 2005).

Mitiga, A.

L. Addonizio, L. Gentilin, A. Mitiga, A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, A. Romano, and M. Tucci, Caratterizzazione e Calibrazione di Celle Fotovoltaiche a Concentrazione, Internal Technical Report ENEA N. RT/2003/52/ENE (ENEA, 2003).

Monedero, J.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The Euclides-Thermie concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (ETA, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

Nalbandian, L.

C. Agrafiotis, M. Roeb, A. G. Konstandopoulos, L. Nalbandian, V. T. Zaspalis, C. Sattler, P. Stabbe, and A. M. Steele, "Solar water splitting for hydrogen production with monolithic production," Sol. Energy 79, 409-421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nenna, G.

A. Parretta, C. Privato, G. Nenna, A. Antonini, and M. Stefancich, "Monitoring of concentrated radiation beam for photovoltaic and thermal solar energy conversion applications," Appl. Opt. 45, 7885-7897 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Parretta, C. Privato, A. Maccari, and G. Nenna, "Integrating sphere apparatus for attenuating radiation," World patent WO 2006/082474 A1 (22 December 2005).

A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, G. Flaminio, S. Bolognesi, and G. Nenna, "Radiometer for concentrated solar radiation," in Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, CCIB (WIP-Renewable Energies, 2005), pp. 216-219.

Neumann, A.

A. Ferriere, J.-F. Robert, J. Kaluza, and A. Neumann, "Concentrated solar flux measurements: results of the second SolarPACES fluxmeter intercomparison campaign," in Proceedings of the 10th SolarPACES International Symposium on Solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies, Sydney, H. Kreetz, ed. (Australian National University, 2000), pp. 247-254.

Olías, J. Sánchez

I. García, J. Sánchez Olías, and A. J. Vázquez, "A new method for materials synthesis: solar energy concentrated by Fresnel lens," J. Phys. IV 9, 435-440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. García, J. Sánchez Olías, J. J. De Damborenea, and A. J. Vázquez, "Sintesis de nitruro de titanio mediante láser y energia solar concentrada," Rev. Metal. Madrid 34, 109-113 (1998).

Osinga, T.

T. Osinga, U. Frommherz, A. Steinfeld, and C. Wieckert, "Experimental investigation of the solar carbothermic reduction of ZnO using a two-cavity solar reactor," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 633-637 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pachón, D.

I. Antón, D. Pachón, and G. Sala, "Characterization of optical collectors for concentration photovoltaic applications," Prog. Photovoltaics 11, 387-405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Parretta, A.

A. Parretta, C. Privato, G. Nenna, A. Antonini, and M. Stefancich, "Monitoring of concentrated radiation beam for photovoltaic and thermal solar energy conversion applications," Appl. Opt. 45, 7885-7897 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Parretta, C. Privato, A. Maccari, and G. Nenna, "Integrating sphere apparatus for attenuating radiation," World patent WO 2006/082474 A1 (22 December 2005).

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Optics Commun. 172, 139-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, G. Flaminio, S. Bolognesi, and G. Nenna, "Radiometer for concentrated solar radiation," in Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, CCIB (WIP-Renewable Energies, 2005), pp. 216-219.

A. Parretta is preparing a paper to be called "Spectral effects in integrating spheres."

A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, A. Antonini, M. Armani, "Characterization of concentrated light beams with applications to solar concentrators. Part B: Radiometric methods," presented at the First International School on Concentrated Photovoltaics, Ferrara, Italy, 2-6 September 2006.

A. Parretta, "Characterization of concentrated light beams with applications to solar concentrators. Part A: Light scattering methods," presented at the First International School on Concentrated Photovoltaics, Ferrara, Italy, 2-6 September 2006.

L. Addonizio, L. Gentilin, A. Mitiga, A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, A. Romano, and M. Tucci, Caratterizzazione e Calibrazione di Celle Fotovoltaiche a Concentrazione, Internal Technical Report ENEA N. RT/2003/52/ENE (ENEA, 2003).

Pellegrino, M.

L. Addonizio, L. Gentilin, A. Mitiga, A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, A. Romano, and M. Tucci, Caratterizzazione e Calibrazione di Celle Fotovoltaiche a Concentrazione, Internal Technical Report ENEA N. RT/2003/52/ENE (ENEA, 2003).

A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, A. Antonini, M. Armani, "Characterization of concentrated light beams with applications to solar concentrators. Part B: Radiometric methods," presented at the First International School on Concentrated Photovoltaics, Ferrara, Italy, 2-6 September 2006.

A. Sarno, F. Apicella, L. Dirozzi, M. Pellegrino, C. Privato, and F. Roca, "The status of the PhoCUS project: Preliminary results," presented at the International Solar Concentrator Conference (SC2) for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen, Alice Springs, Australia, 10-14 November 2003.

A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, G. Flaminio, S. Bolognesi, and G. Nenna, "Radiometer for concentrated solar radiation," in Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, CCIB (WIP-Renewable Energies, 2005), pp. 216-219.

Pérez, F.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The Euclides-Thermie concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (ETA, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

Privato, C.

A. Parretta, C. Privato, G. Nenna, A. Antonini, and M. Stefancich, "Monitoring of concentrated radiation beam for photovoltaic and thermal solar energy conversion applications," Appl. Opt. 45, 7885-7897 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Parretta, C. Privato, A. Maccari, and G. Nenna, "Integrating sphere apparatus for attenuating radiation," World patent WO 2006/082474 A1 (22 December 2005).

A. Sarno, F. Apicella, L. Dirozzi, M. Pellegrino, C. Privato, and F. Roca, "The status of the PhoCUS project: Preliminary results," presented at the International Solar Concentrator Conference (SC2) for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen, Alice Springs, Australia, 10-14 November 2003.

M. Avitabile, C. Cancro, G. Contento, R. Fucci, F. Roca, C. Privato, A. Sarno, F. Ferrazza, M. Zarcone, and M. Checcherini, "The first prototype of the PhoCUS project: design and preliminary performance analysis," presented at the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris, 7-11 June 2004.

Rivoire, B.

A. Ferriere and B. Rivoire, "An instrument for measuring concentrated solar radiation: a photo-sensor interfaced with an integrating sphere," Sol. Energy 72, 187-193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferriere and B. Rivoire, "Measurement of concentrated solar radiation: The asterix calorimeter," in Proceedings of the 10th SolarPACES International Symposium on Solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies, Sydney, H. Kreetz, ed. (Australian National University, 2000), pp. 233-240.

Robert, J.-F.

A. Ferriere, J.-F. Robert, J. Kaluza, and A. Neumann, "Concentrated solar flux measurements: results of the second SolarPACES fluxmeter intercomparison campaign," in Proceedings of the 10th SolarPACES International Symposium on Solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies, Sydney, H. Kreetz, ed. (Australian National University, 2000), pp. 247-254.

Roca, F.

A. Sarno, F. Apicella, L. Dirozzi, M. Pellegrino, C. Privato, and F. Roca, "The status of the PhoCUS project: Preliminary results," presented at the International Solar Concentrator Conference (SC2) for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen, Alice Springs, Australia, 10-14 November 2003.

M. Avitabile, C. Cancro, G. Contento, R. Fucci, F. Roca, C. Privato, A. Sarno, F. Ferrazza, M. Zarcone, and M. Checcherini, "The first prototype of the PhoCUS project: design and preliminary performance analysis," presented at the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris, 7-11 June 2004.

Roeb, M.

C. Agrafiotis, M. Roeb, A. G. Konstandopoulos, L. Nalbandian, V. T. Zaspalis, C. Sattler, P. Stabbe, and A. M. Steele, "Solar water splitting for hydrogen production with monolithic production," Sol. Energy 79, 409-421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Romano, A.

L. Addonizio, L. Gentilin, A. Mitiga, A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, A. Romano, and M. Tucci, Caratterizzazione e Calibrazione di Celle Fotovoltaiche a Concentrazione, Internal Technical Report ENEA N. RT/2003/52/ENE (ENEA, 2003).

Romero, M.

C. E. Tyner, G. J. Kolb, M. Geyer, and M. Romero, "Concentrating solar power in 2001--an IEA/SolarPACES summary of present status and future prospects" (SolarPACES, 2001), www.solarpaces.org.

Rubin, R.

R. Rubin, J. Karni, and J. Yeheskel, "Chemical kinetics simulation of high temperature hydrocarbons reforming in a solar reactor," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 858-866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sala, G.

I. Antón, D. Pachón, and G. Sala, "Characterization of optical collectors for concentration photovoltaic applications," Prog. Photovoltaics 11, 387-405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

A. Luque, G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, T. Bruton, D. Cunningham, and N. Mason, "Some results of the EUCLIDES photovoltaic concentrator prototype," Prog. Photovoltaics 5, 195-212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The Euclides-Thermie concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (ETA, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

I. Antón, G. Sala, and J. C. Arboiro, "Effect of the optical performance on the output power of the EUCLIDES array," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2225-2228.

Sarno, A.

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Optics Commun. 172, 139-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Avitabile, C. Cancro, G. Contento, R. Fucci, F. Roca, C. Privato, A. Sarno, F. Ferrazza, M. Zarcone, and M. Checcherini, "The first prototype of the PhoCUS project: design and preliminary performance analysis," presented at the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris, 7-11 June 2004.

A. Sarno, F. Apicella, L. Dirozzi, M. Pellegrino, C. Privato, and F. Roca, "The status of the PhoCUS project: Preliminary results," presented at the International Solar Concentrator Conference (SC2) for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen, Alice Springs, Australia, 10-14 November 2003.

Sattler, C.

C. Agrafiotis, M. Roeb, A. G. Konstandopoulos, L. Nalbandian, V. T. Zaspalis, C. Sattler, P. Stabbe, and A. M. Steele, "Solar water splitting for hydrogen production with monolithic production," Sol. Energy 79, 409-421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schleusener, M.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, M. Schleusener, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, and K. W. J. Barnham, "The luminescent concentrator: a bright idea for spectrum conversion?" in Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain, 6-10 June 2005.

Serra, J. J.

P. Douale, S. Serror, R. M. Pradeilles Duval, J. J. Serra, and E. Felder, "Thermal shocks on an electrolytic chromium coating in a solar furnace," J. Phys. IV 9, 429-434 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Serror, S.

P. Douale, S. Serror, R. M. Pradeilles Duval, J. J. Serra, and E. Felder, "Thermal shocks on an electrolytic chromium coating in a solar furnace," J. Phys. IV 9, 429-434 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shortis, M.

M. Shortis and G. Johnston, "Photogrammetry: an available surface characterization tool for solar concentrators, Part II: Assessments of surfaces," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 119, 286-291 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Shortis and G. Johnston, "Photogrammetry: an available surface characterization tool for solar concentrators, Part I: Measurements of Surfaces," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 118, 146-150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Slooff, L. H.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, M. Schleusener, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, and K. W. J. Barnham, "The luminescent concentrator: a bright idea for spectrum conversion?" in Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain, 6-10 June 2005.

Stabbe, P.

C. Agrafiotis, M. Roeb, A. G. Konstandopoulos, L. Nalbandian, V. T. Zaspalis, C. Sattler, P. Stabbe, and A. M. Steele, "Solar water splitting for hydrogen production with monolithic production," Sol. Energy 79, 409-421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steele, A. M.

C. Agrafiotis, M. Roeb, A. G. Konstandopoulos, L. Nalbandian, V. T. Zaspalis, C. Sattler, P. Stabbe, and A. M. Steele, "Solar water splitting for hydrogen production with monolithic production," Sol. Energy 79, 409-421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stefancich, M.

Steinfeld, A.

A. Steinfeld, "Solar thermochemical production of hydrogen--a review," Sol. Energy 78, 603-615 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Osinga, U. Frommherz, A. Steinfeld, and C. Wieckert, "Experimental investigation of the solar carbothermic reduction of ZnO using a two-cavity solar reactor," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 633-637 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, R. M.

R. M. Swanson, "The promise of concentrators," Prog. Photovoltaics 8, 93-111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tortora, P.

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Optics Commun. 172, 139-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tucci, M.

L. Addonizio, L. Gentilin, A. Mitiga, A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, A. Romano, and M. Tucci, Caratterizzazione e Calibrazione di Celle Fotovoltaiche a Concentrazione, Internal Technical Report ENEA N. RT/2003/52/ENE (ENEA, 2003).

Tyner, C. E.

C. E. Tyner, G. J. Kolb, M. Geyer, and M. Romero, "Concentrating solar power in 2001--an IEA/SolarPACES summary of present status and future prospects" (SolarPACES, 2001), www.solarpaces.org.

Valera, P.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The Euclides-Thermie concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (ETA, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

Valverde, A.

F. Arqueros, A. Jiménez, and A. Valverde, "A novel procedure for the optical characterization of solar concentrators," Sol. Energy 75, 135-142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Roosmalen, J. A. M.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, M. Schleusener, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, and K. W. J. Barnham, "The luminescent concentrator: a bright idea for spectrum conversion?" in Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain, 6-10 June 2005.

Vázquez, A. J.

I. García, J. Sánchez Olías, and A. J. Vázquez, "A new method for materials synthesis: solar energy concentrated by Fresnel lens," J. Phys. IV 9, 435-440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. García, J. Sánchez Olías, J. J. De Damborenea, and A. J. Vázquez, "Sintesis de nitruro de titanio mediante láser y energia solar concentrada," Rev. Metal. Madrid 34, 109-113 (1998).

Vorobiev, P.

Yu. Vorobiev, J. González-Hernández, P. Vorobiev, and L. Bulat, "Thermal-photovoltaic solar hybrid system for efficient solar energy conversion," Sol. Energy 80, 170-176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vorobiev, Yu.

Yu. Vorobiev, J. González-Hernández, P. Vorobiev, and L. Bulat, "Thermal-photovoltaic solar hybrid system for efficient solar energy conversion," Sol. Energy 80, 170-176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Optics Commun. 172, 139-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wendelin, T. J.

T. J. Wendelin, G. J. Jorgensen, and R. L. Wood, "SHOT: a method for characterizing the surface figure and optical performance of point focus solar concentrators," in Proceedings of the ASME-JSES-JSME International Solar Energy Conference (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1991), pp. 555-560.

Wieckert, C.

T. Osinga, U. Frommherz, A. Steinfeld, and C. Wieckert, "Experimental investigation of the solar carbothermic reduction of ZnO using a two-cavity solar reactor," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 633-637 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winston, R.

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier-Academic, 2005).

Wood, R. L.

T. J. Wendelin, G. J. Jorgensen, and R. L. Wood, "SHOT: a method for characterizing the surface figure and optical performance of point focus solar concentrators," in Proceedings of the ASME-JSES-JSME International Solar Energy Conference (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1991), pp. 555-560.

Yakubu, H.

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Optics Commun. 172, 139-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yeheskel, J.

R. Rubin, J. Karni, and J. Yeheskel, "Chemical kinetics simulation of high temperature hydrocarbons reforming in a solar reactor," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 858-866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yogev, A.

A. Yogev, A. Kribus, M. Epstein, and A. Kogan, "Solar tower reflector systems: a new approach for high-temperature solar plants," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 23, 239-245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zarcone, M.

M. Avitabile, C. Cancro, G. Contento, R. Fucci, F. Roca, C. Privato, A. Sarno, F. Ferrazza, M. Zarcone, and M. Checcherini, "The first prototype of the PhoCUS project: design and preliminary performance analysis," presented at the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris, 7-11 June 2004.

Zaspalis, V. T.

C. Agrafiotis, M. Roeb, A. G. Konstandopoulos, L. Nalbandian, V. T. Zaspalis, C. Sattler, P. Stabbe, and A. M. Steele, "Solar water splitting for hydrogen production with monolithic production," Sol. Energy 79, 409-421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Optics Commun. 172, 139-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. (7)

T. Osinga, U. Frommherz, A. Steinfeld, and C. Wieckert, "Experimental investigation of the solar carbothermic reduction of ZnO using a two-cavity solar reactor," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 633-637 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Adinberg, M. Epstein, and J. Karni, "Solar gasification of biomass: a molten salt pyrolysis study," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 850-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Rubin, J. Karni, and J. Yeheskel, "Chemical kinetics simulation of high temperature hydrocarbons reforming in a solar reactor," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 858-866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferriere, C. Faillat, S. Galasso, R. Barallier, and J. E. Masse, "Surface hardening of steel using highly concentrated solar energy process," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 21, 36-39 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shortis and G. Johnston, "Photogrammetry: an available surface characterization tool for solar concentrators, Part I: Measurements of Surfaces," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 118, 146-150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Shortis and G. Johnston, "Photogrammetry: an available surface characterization tool for solar concentrators, Part II: Assessments of surfaces," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 119, 286-291 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Biryukov, "Determining the optical properties of PETAL, the 400 m2 parabolic dish at Sede Boqer," ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng. 126, 827-832 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (1)

A. Yogev, A. Kribus, M. Epstein, and A. Kogan, "Solar tower reflector systems: a new approach for high-temperature solar plants," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 23, 239-245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. IV (2)

P. Douale, S. Serror, R. M. Pradeilles Duval, J. J. Serra, and E. Felder, "Thermal shocks on an electrolytic chromium coating in a solar furnace," J. Phys. IV 9, 429-434 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. García, J. Sánchez Olías, and A. J. Vázquez, "A new method for materials synthesis: solar energy concentrated by Fresnel lens," J. Phys. IV 9, 435-440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mat. Tech. (1)

A. Lewandowski, "Deposition of diamond-like carbon films and other materials processes using a solar furnace," Mat. Tech. 8, 237-240 (1993).

Optics Commun. (1)

A. Parretta, A. Sarno, P. Tortora, H. Yakubu, P. Maddalena, J. Zhao, and A. Wang, "Angle-dependent reflectance and transmittance measurements on photovoltaic materials and solar cells," Optics Commun. 172, 139-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovoltaics (3)

I. Antón, D. Pachón, and G. Sala, "Characterization of optical collectors for concentration photovoltaic applications," Prog. Photovoltaics 11, 387-405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Swanson, "The promise of concentrators," Prog. Photovoltaics 8, 93-111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Luque, G. Sala, J. C. Arboiro, T. Bruton, D. Cunningham, and N. Mason, "Some results of the EUCLIDES photovoltaic concentrator prototype," Prog. Photovoltaics 5, 195-212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Metal. Madrid (1)

I. García, J. Sánchez Olías, J. J. De Damborenea, and A. J. Vázquez, "Sintesis de nitruro de titanio mediante láser y energia solar concentrada," Rev. Metal. Madrid 34, 109-113 (1998).

Sol. Energy (7)

J. S. Coventry, "Performance of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal solar collector," Sol. Energy 78, 211-222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Adsten, A. Helgesson, and B. Karlsson, "Evaluation of CPC-collector designs for stand-alone, roof- or wall installation," Sol. Energy 79, 638-647 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Arqueros, A. Jiménez, and A. Valverde, "A novel procedure for the optical characterization of solar concentrators," Sol. Energy 75, 135-142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu. Vorobiev, J. González-Hernández, P. Vorobiev, and L. Bulat, "Thermal-photovoltaic solar hybrid system for efficient solar energy conversion," Sol. Energy 80, 170-176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Steinfeld, "Solar thermochemical production of hydrogen--a review," Sol. Energy 78, 603-615 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Agrafiotis, M. Roeb, A. G. Konstandopoulos, L. Nalbandian, V. T. Zaspalis, C. Sattler, P. Stabbe, and A. M. Steele, "Solar water splitting for hydrogen production with monolithic production," Sol. Energy 79, 409-421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferriere and B. Rivoire, "An instrument for measuring concentrated solar radiation: a photo-sensor interfaced with an integrating sphere," Sol. Energy 72, 187-193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (25)

Labsphere, "A guide to reflectance coatings and materials," www.labsphere.com.

Labsphere, "A guide to Integrating Sphere Theory and Applications," www.labsphere.com.

A. Parretta is preparing a paper to be called "Spectral effects in integrating spheres."

L. Addonizio, L. Gentilin, A. Mitiga, A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, A. Romano, and M. Tucci, Caratterizzazione e Calibrazione di Celle Fotovoltaiche a Concentrazione, Internal Technical Report ENEA N. RT/2003/52/ENE (ENEA, 2003).

A. Sarno, F. Apicella, L. Dirozzi, M. Pellegrino, C. Privato, and F. Roca, "The status of the PhoCUS project: Preliminary results," presented at the International Solar Concentrator Conference (SC2) for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen, Alice Springs, Australia, 10-14 November 2003.

M. Avitabile, C. Cancro, G. Contento, R. Fucci, F. Roca, C. Privato, A. Sarno, F. Ferrazza, M. Zarcone, and M. Checcherini, "The first prototype of the PhoCUS project: design and preliminary performance analysis," presented at the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris, 7-11 June 2004.

Lambda Research, http://www.lambdares.com/products/tracepro/index.phtml.

ECOVIDE, http://www.ecovide.com.

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier-Academic, 2005).

I. Antón, G. Sala, and J. C. Arboiro, "Effect of the optical performance on the output power of the EUCLIDES array," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2225-2228.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. C. Arboiro, A. Luque, E. Camblor, E. Mera, M. P. Gasson, M. Cendagorta, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, J. Monedero, S. González, and F. Dobón, "The 480 kWp EUCLIDES THERMIE power plant: installation, set-up and first results," in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (James & James Science Publishers, 2000), Vol. 3, pp. 2072-2077.

G. Sala, I. Antón, J. Monedero, P. Valera, M. P. Friend, M. Cendagorta, F. Pérez, E. Mera, and E. Camblor, "The Euclides-Thermie concentrator power plant in continuous operation," in Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (ETA, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 488-491.

A. Parretta, "Characterization of concentrated light beams with applications to solar concentrators. Part A: Light scattering methods," presented at the First International School on Concentrated Photovoltaics, Ferrara, Italy, 2-6 September 2006.

A. Ferriere and B. Rivoire, "Measurement of concentrated solar radiation: The asterix calorimeter," in Proceedings of the 10th SolarPACES International Symposium on Solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies, Sydney, H. Kreetz, ed. (Australian National University, 2000), pp. 233-240.

A. Parretta, C. Privato, A. Maccari, and G. Nenna, "Integrating sphere apparatus for attenuating radiation," World patent WO 2006/082474 A1 (22 December 2005).

A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, G. Flaminio, S. Bolognesi, and G. Nenna, "Radiometer for concentrated solar radiation," in Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, CCIB (WIP-Renewable Energies, 2005), pp. 216-219.

A. Parretta, M. Pellegrino, A. Antonini, M. Armani, "Characterization of concentrated light beams with applications to solar concentrators. Part B: Radiometric methods," presented at the First International School on Concentrated Photovoltaics, Ferrara, Italy, 2-6 September 2006.

A. Ferriere, J.-F. Robert, J. Kaluza, and A. Neumann, "Concentrated solar flux measurements: results of the second SolarPACES fluxmeter intercomparison campaign," in Proceedings of the 10th SolarPACES International Symposium on Solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies, Sydney, H. Kreetz, ed. (Australian National University, 2000), pp. 247-254.

E. T. Franklin and J. S. Coventry, "Effects of highly non-uniform illumination distribution on electrical performance of solar cells," in Proceedings of the 40th Annual Conference for the Australian New Zealand Solar Energy Society (ANZSES, 2002).

T. J. Wendelin, G. J. Jorgensen, and R. L. Wood, "SHOT: a method for characterizing the surface figure and optical performance of point focus solar concentrators," in Proceedings of the ASME-JSES-JSME International Solar Energy Conference (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1991), pp. 555-560.

J. Grossman, "Development of a 2f optical performance measurement system," in Proceedings of the ASME International Solar Engineering Conference (ASME, 1994), pp. 25-32.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, M. Schleusener, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, and K. W. J. Barnham, "The luminescent concentrator: a bright idea for spectrum conversion?" in Proceedings of the 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain, 6-10 June 2005.

C. E. Tyner, G. J. Kolb, M. Geyer, and M. Romero, "Concentrating solar power in 2001--an IEA/SolarPACES summary of present status and future prospects" (SolarPACES, 2001), www.solarpaces.org.

M. Brogren, "Optical efficiency of low-concentrating solar energy systems with parabolic reflectors," in Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Sciences and Technology 934 (Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala, 2004).
[PubMed]

D. R. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 80th ed. (CRC, 1999), pp. 12-132.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the DCR. The arrows, with their dimensions, qualitatively indicate the process of attenuation the light progressively undergoes flowing through the radiometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

General model of the radiometer with two coupled integrating spheres. G 1 irradiance in the first sphere; G 2 irradiance in the second sphere; ( w pd ) photodetector window for irradiance measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Attenuation factor f A P of the DCR, calculated as function of the intermediate aperture area, S c o , for some values of the wall reflectance, R p , common to both cavities.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity of irradiation distribution in the two integrating cavities of the DCR, after the ray tracing performed with the TracePro optical code.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized average light intensity on six representative surface portions, of 4 cm 2 area each, of the internal wall of each cavity (sd = standard deviation).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Heat generated on the SP-HECO252 photodetector after exposition to different light concentration levels at the input of DCR, for different S c o values. The curves have been intentionally truncated in correspondence of G 2 = 200   suns .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

General scheme of the DCR, comprising the prism or gauge head (pr) with the two optical cavities and all the accessories, the control module and the spectrograph.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) (a) Photograph of the gauge head of DCR, complete with accessories, without the screen (pa). (b) Photograph of the DCR during a measurement at a vertical solar simulator; it is shown the external resistance load Rsh and the diode-array spectrometer.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic of the apparatus used for the calibration of the DCR: 1a, flash lamp; sc, screen; dia, diaphragm; dr, dark room; fl, Fresnel lens; rc, reference cell; ra, DCR; ob, optical bench; sl, slide; I∕V, I∕V measurement; T ( ° C ) , controlled temperature of DCR photodetector. The computer synchronizes the la power supply with the I∕V curve measurement on the rc or on the DCR cell.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calibration curves, as obtained by pulsed measurements of I S C on the DCR and on the reference SP-HECO252 cell. Measurements taken at T = 25 ° C . Input window area: S i n = 1.96 cm 2 .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental data of the attenuation factor f A P of DCR versus insert area, compared to the data of ray-tracing model and to the theoretical curves of the analytical optical model, for some values of wall reflectivity, R p , The estimated weighted wall reflectivity was R ¯ p = 95 ± 1 % . The dashed area delimits the experimental wall reflectivity.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison between experimental and theoretical data of the attenuation factor f A P of DCR versus insert area. The data from the ray-tracing model give the best matching with the experimental ones. Suffixes: opt = optical model; optda = optical model + dark area; ray = ray-tracing model.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Attenuation factor calculated by the ray-tracing method for the 0.76 c m 2 insert area as a function of the aperture angle of the input beam, in the presence and in the absence of baffles.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Log–log plot of the theoretical data of the attenuation factor f A G as function of the insert area S c o , for a photodetector window area S w p d of 1.21 cm 2 and a wall reflectivity R p of 98%. For low values of S c o , the five curves are well fitted linearly with the same slope parameter: b = 0.98 ± 0.02 .

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Dimensional and Optical Properties of Some Absorbing Parts of the Radiometer

Tables Icon

Table 2 Attenuation Factor f   A P for Different Insert Areas S co at S in = 1.96 cm2

Tables Icon

Table 3 Fitting Parameters, a and b , of the log f   A P = a + b log S co Plot of Data

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Table 4 Experimental Attenuation Factor f   A G for Different Inserts at S in = 0.18 cm2

Equations (31)

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P i n + P c o ( r ) = i = 1 N 1 P i + P p 1 ,
P i n + G 2 S c o = i = 1 N 1 G 1 S i ( 1 R i ) + G 1 S p 1 ( 1 R p 1 ) .
P c o ( l ) = j = 1 N 2 P j + P p 2 ,
G 1 S c o = j = 1 N 2 G 2 S j ( 1 R j ) + G 2 S p 2 ( 1 R p 2 ) ,
G 1 = P i n [ j = 1 N 2 S j ( 1 R j ) + S p 2 ( 1 R p 2 ) ] [ i = 1 N 1 S i ( 1 R i ) + S p 1 ( 1 R p 1 ) ] [ j = 1 N 2 S j ( 1 R j ) + S p 2 ( 1 R p 2 ) ] S c o 2 ,
G 2 = G 1 S c o [ j = 1 N 2 S j ( 1 R j ) + S p 2 ( 1 R p 2 ) ] .
P i n = G i n S i n ,
P p d = G 2 S p d ,
P p d = G 1 S c o [ j = 1 N 2 S j ( 1 R j ) + S p 2 ( 1 R p 2 ) ] S p d ,
P p d = G i n S i n S c o S p d [ i = 1 N 1 S i ( 1 R i ) + S p 1 ( 1 R p 1 ) ] [ j = 1 N 2 S j ( 1 R j ) + S p 2 ( 1 R p 2 ) ] S c o 2 .
f 1 = G i n / G 1 ,
f 2 = G 1 / G 2 ,
f A G = G i n / G 2 ,
f A P = P i n / P p d ,
f 1 = G i n / G 1 = [ i = 1 N 1 S i ( 1 R i ) + S p 1 ( 1 R p 1 ) ] [ j = 1 N 2 S j ( 1 R j ) + S p 2 ( 1 R p 2 ) ] S c o 2 S i n [ j = 1 N 2 S j ( 1 R j ) + S p 2 ( 1 R p 2 ) ] ,
f 2 = G 1 / G 2 = [ j = 1 N 2 S j ( 1 R j ) + S p 2 ( 1 R p 2 ) ] S c o ,
f A G = G i n / G 2 = f 1 f 2 = [ i = 1 N 1 S i ( 1 R i ) + S p 1 ( 1 R p 1 ) ] [ j = 1 N 2 S j ( 1 R j ) + S p 2 ( 1 R p 2 ) ] S c o 2 S i n S c o ,
f A P = P i n / P p d = ( S i n G i n ) / ( S p d G 2 ) = f A G S i n / S p d = [ i = 1 N 1 S i ( 1 R i ) + S p 1 ( 1 R p 1 ) ] [ j = 1 N 2 S j ( 1 R j ) + S p 2 ( 1 R p 2 ) ] S c o 2 S p d S c o .
P p d = G i n S i n S c o S p d 1 2 S c o 2 ,
f A P = P i n / P p d = 1 2 S c o 2 S c o S p d ,
1 =  [ S i n + S c o + S p 1 ( 1 R p ) ] ,
2 =  [ S p d 1 ( 1 R p d 1 ) + S p d 2 ( 1 R p d 2 ) + S o f 1 ( 1 R o f 1 ) + S o f 2 ( 1 R o f 2 ) + S c o + S p 2 ( 1 R p ) ] .
  Q p d = P p d P p d η ( C p d ) P p d R p d = P p d [ 1 η ( C p d ) R p d ] ,
    Q p d = 0.1 × C i n S i n S c o S p d [ 1 η ( C p d ) R p d ] 1 2 S c o 2 ,
C p d ( suns ) = C i n ( suns ) / f A G = C i n S i n S c o 1 2 S c o 2 ,
G i n ( W / cm 2 ) = C i n ( suns ) / 10 .
η ( C ) = 20.481 + 6.6063 × log   C 2.1524 × ( log   C ) 2 .
I S C ( A ) = k G G ( W / cm 2 ) = ( k G / S c e l l ) P ( W ) = k p P ( W ) ,
R ¯ p = d λ I ( λ ) R p ( λ ) S R ( λ ) d λ I ( λ ) S R ( λ ) .
log   f A P = 1.66 1.01   log   S c o .
f A G = 1 2 S c o 2 S i n S c o ,

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