Abstract

The reduction in size and the increase in speed of opto- and magnetoelectronic devices is making the probability of nonequilibrium electron–phonon phenomena greater, leading to increased thermal resistance in these devices. The measurement of electron–phonon coupling in materials in these devices is becoming increasingly important for accurate thermal management. Here femtosecond thermoreflectance is used to measure the electron–phonon coupling factor in thin Ni films of varying thickness grown on Si and glass substrates. The thermoreflectance response is measured at 1.3 and 1.55  eV, yielding drastically different responses due to the Fermi-level transition at 1.3  eV in Ni. The influence of this transition on the thermoreflectance response results in a measurement of the electron–phonon coupling factor that is twice as high as that recorded in previous measurements that were unaffected by the Fermi-level transition.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. J. Stevens, A. N. Smith, and P. M. Norris, "Signal analysis and characterization of experimental setup for the transient thermoreflectance technique," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 084901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. K. Chen, W. P. Latham, and J. E. Beraun, "The role of electron-phonon coupling in ultrafast laser heating," J. Laser Appl. 17, 63-68 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Caffrey, P. E. Hopkins, J. M. Klopf, and P. M. Norris, "Thin film non-noble transition metal thermophysical properties," Microscale Thermophys. Eng. 9, 365-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

D. S. Ivanov and L. V. Zhigilei, "Combined atomistic-continuum modeling of short-pulse laser melting and disintegration of metal films," Phys. Rev. B 68, 064114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirori, T. Tachizaki, O. Matsuda, and O. B. Wright, "Electron dynamics in chromium probed with 20-fs optical pulses," Phys. Rev. B 68, 113102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Chowdhury and X. Xu, "Heat transfer in femtosecond laser processing of metal," Numer. Heat Transfer Part A 44, 219-232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. A. C. Bosco, A. Azevedo, and L. H. Acioli, "Substrate dependent ultrafast dynamics in thin NiFe films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1767-1769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Norris, A. P. Caffrey, R. J. Stevens, J. M. Klopf, J. T. McLeskey, and A. N. Smith, "Femtosecond pump-probe nondestructive examination of materials," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 400-406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Magneto-optics in the ultrafast regime: thermalization of spin populations in ferromagnetic films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. N. Smith and P. M. Norris, "Influence of intraband transitions on the electron thermoreflectance response of metals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1240-1242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

J. Hohlfeld, S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, and E. Matthias, "Electron and lattice dynamics following optical excitation of metals," Chem. Phys. 251, 237-258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Fatti, C. Voisin, M. Achermann, S. Tzortzakis, D. Christofilos, and F. Vallee, "Nonequilibrium electron dynamics in noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 61, 16956-16966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Koopmans, M. van Kampen, J. T. Kohlhepp, and W. J. M. de Jonge, "Femtosecond spin dynamics of epitaxial Cu(111)/Ni/Cu wedges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 5070-5072 (2000).

1999 (5)

J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, J. Hohlfeld, and E. Matthias, "Magnetization dynamics of Ni and Co films on Cu(001) and of bulk nickel surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 59, R6608-R6611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Smith, J. L. Hostetler, and P. M. Norris, "Nonequilibrium heating in metal films: an analytical and numerical analysis," Numer. Heat Transfer Part A 35, 859-873 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, "Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637-650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hostetler, A. N. Smith, D. M. Czajkowsky, and P. M. Norris, "Measurement of the electron-phonon coupling factor dependence on film thickness and grain size in Au, Cr, and Al," Appl. Opt. 38, 3614-3620 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Hohlfeld, J. Gudde, and E. Matthias, "The role of electron-phonon coupling in femtosecond laser damage of metals," Appl. Phys. A. 69, Suppl. S99-S107 (1999).

1998 (1)

S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, J. Hohlfeld, J. G. Muller, and E. Matthias, "The role of electron-phonon coupling in femtosecond laser damage of metals," in Proc. SPIE 3343, 378-387 (1998).

1997 (2)

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, "Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861-4864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Hohlfeld, J. G. Muller, S.-S. Wellershoff, and E. Matthias, "Time-resolved thermoreflectivity of thin gold films and its dependence on film thickness," Appl. Phys. B 64, 387-390 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250-4253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Gadzuk, "Resonance-assisted hot electron femtochemistry at surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4234-4237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. Majumdar, K. Fushinobu, and K. Hijikata, "Effect of gate voltage on hot-electron and hot-phonon interaction and transport in a submicrometer transistor," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6686-6694 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

T. Q. Qiu and C. L. Tien, "Femtosecond laser heating of multilayer metals--I. Analysis," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 37, 2789-2797 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Qiu, T. Juhasz, C. Suarez, W. E. Bron, and C. L. Tien, "Femtosecond laser heating of multilayer metals--II. Experiments," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 37, 2799-2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold," Phys. Rev. B 50, 15337-15348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

T. Q. Qiu and C. L. Tien, "Size effects on nonequilibrium laser heating of metal films," J. Heat Transfer 115, 842-847 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Qiu and C. L. Tien, "Heat transfer mechanisms during short-pulse laser heating of metals," J. Heat Transfer 115, 835-841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. D. Brorson, A. Kazeroonian, J. S. Moodera, D. W. Face, T. K. Cheng, E. P. Ippen, M. S. Dresselhaus, and G. Dresselhaus, "Femtosecond room-temperature measurement of the electron-phonon coupling constant λ in metallic superconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2172-2175 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

N. K. Sherman, F. Brunel, P. B. Corkum, and F. A. Hegmann, "Transient response of metals to ultrashort pulse excitation," Opt. Eng. 28, 1114-1121 (1989).

1987 (1)

J. W. C. de Vries, "Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements on polycrystalline SiO2-covered thin nickel films," Thin Solid Films 150, 209-215 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. L. Eesley, "Generation of nonequilibrium electron and lattice temepratures in copper by picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 33, 2144-2151 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

E. Colavita, A. Franciosi, C. Mariani, and R. Rosei, "Thermoreflectance test of W, Mo, and paramagnetic Cr band structures," Phys. Rev. B 27, 4684-4693 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

F. Weiling and J. Callaway, "Semiempirical description of energy bands in nickel," Phys. Rev. B 26, 710-719 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

S. I. Anisimov, B. L. Kapeliovich, and T. L. Perel'man, "Electron emission from metal surfaces exposed to ultrashort laser pulses," Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375-377 (1974).

1972 (1)

R. Rosei and D. W. Lynch, "Thermomodulation spectra of Al, Au, and Cu," Phys. Rev. B 5, 3883-3894 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1967 (3)

W. J. Scouler, "Temperature-modulated reflectance of gold from 2 to 10 eV," Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 445-448 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. W. D. Connolly, "Energy bands in ferromagnetic nickel," Phys. Rev. 159, 415-426 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanus, J. Feinleib, and W. J. Scouler, "Low-energy interband transitions and band structure in nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 16-20 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

J. C. Phillips, "Fermi surface of ferromagnetic nickel," Phys. Rev. 133, A1020-A1028 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (2)

H. Ehrenreich, H. R. Philipp, and D. J. Olenchna, "Optical properties and Fermi surface of nickel," Phys. Rev. 131, 2469-2477 (1963).
[CrossRef]

H. Enrenreich, H. R. Philipp, and D. J. Olenchna, "Optical properties and Fermi surface of nickel," Phys. Rev. 131, 2469-2477 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, F.

F. Abeles, "Optics of thin films" in Advanced Optical Techniques, A. C. S. V. Heel, ed. (North-Holland, 1967), pp. 145-188.

Achermann, M.

N. D. Fatti, C. Voisin, M. Achermann, S. Tzortzakis, D. Christofilos, and F. Vallee, "Nonequilibrium electron dynamics in noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 61, 16956-16966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Acioli, L.

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold," Phys. Rev. B 50, 15337-15348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Acioli, L. H.

C. A. C. Bosco, A. Azevedo, and L. H. Acioli, "Substrate dependent ultrafast dynamics in thin NiFe films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1767-1769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anisimov, S. I.

S. I. Anisimov, B. L. Kapeliovich, and T. L. Perel'man, "Electron emission from metal surfaces exposed to ultrashort laser pulses," Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375-377 (1974).

Ashcroft, N. W.

N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Saunders College, 1976).

Azevedo, A.

C. A. C. Bosco, A. Azevedo, and L. H. Acioli, "Substrate dependent ultrafast dynamics in thin NiFe films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1767-1769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beaurepaire, E.

L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Magneto-optics in the ultrafast regime: thermalization of spin populations in ferromagnetic films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250-4253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennemann, K. H.

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, "Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861-4864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beraun, J. E.

J. K. Chen, W. P. Latham, and J. E. Beraun, "The role of electron-phonon coupling in ultrafast laser heating," J. Laser Appl. 17, 63-68 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, J.-Y.

L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Magneto-optics in the ultrafast regime: thermalization of spin populations in ferromagnetic films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250-4253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosco, C. A. C.

C. A. C. Bosco, A. Azevedo, and L. H. Acioli, "Substrate dependent ultrafast dynamics in thin NiFe films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1767-1769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

Bron, W. E.

T. Q. Qiu, T. Juhasz, C. Suarez, W. E. Bron, and C. L. Tien, "Femtosecond laser heating of multilayer metals--II. Experiments," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 37, 2799-2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brorson, S. D.

S. D. Brorson, A. Kazeroonian, J. S. Moodera, D. W. Face, T. K. Cheng, E. P. Ippen, M. S. Dresselhaus, and G. Dresselhaus, "Femtosecond room-temperature measurement of the electron-phonon coupling constant λ in metallic superconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2172-2175 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunel, F.

N. K. Sherman, F. Brunel, P. B. Corkum, and F. A. Hegmann, "Transient response of metals to ultrashort pulse excitation," Opt. Eng. 28, 1114-1121 (1989).

Caffrey, A. P.

A. P. Caffrey, P. E. Hopkins, J. M. Klopf, and P. M. Norris, "Thin film non-noble transition metal thermophysical properties," Microscale Thermophys. Eng. 9, 365-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Norris, A. P. Caffrey, R. J. Stevens, J. M. Klopf, J. T. McLeskey, and A. N. Smith, "Femtosecond pump-probe nondestructive examination of materials," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 400-406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Callaway, J.

F. Weiling and J. Callaway, "Semiempirical description of energy bands in nickel," Phys. Rev. B 26, 710-719 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. K.

J. K. Chen, W. P. Latham, and J. E. Beraun, "The role of electron-phonon coupling in ultrafast laser heating," J. Laser Appl. 17, 63-68 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T. K.

S. D. Brorson, A. Kazeroonian, J. S. Moodera, D. W. Face, T. K. Cheng, E. P. Ippen, M. S. Dresselhaus, and G. Dresselhaus, "Femtosecond room-temperature measurement of the electron-phonon coupling constant λ in metallic superconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2172-2175 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

Chowdhury, I. H.

I. H. Chowdhury and X. Xu, "Heat transfer in femtosecond laser processing of metal," Numer. Heat Transfer Part A 44, 219-232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Christofilos, D.

N. D. Fatti, C. Voisin, M. Achermann, S. Tzortzakis, D. Christofilos, and F. Vallee, "Nonequilibrium electron dynamics in noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 61, 16956-16966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colavita, E.

E. Colavita, A. Franciosi, C. Mariani, and R. Rosei, "Thermoreflectance test of W, Mo, and paramagnetic Cr band structures," Phys. Rev. B 27, 4684-4693 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Connolly, J. W. D.

J. W. D. Connolly, "Energy bands in ferromagnetic nickel," Phys. Rev. 159, 415-426 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, U.

J. Hohlfeld, S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, and E. Matthias, "Electron and lattice dynamics following optical excitation of metals," Chem. Phys. 251, 237-258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, J. Hohlfeld, and E. Matthias, "Magnetization dynamics of Ni and Co films on Cu(001) and of bulk nickel surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 59, R6608-R6611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

N. K. Sherman, F. Brunel, P. B. Corkum, and F. A. Hegmann, "Transient response of metals to ultrashort pulse excitation," Opt. Eng. 28, 1114-1121 (1989).

Czajkowsky, D. M.

Daunois, A.

E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250-4253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jonge, W. J. M.

B. Koopmans, M. van Kampen, J. T. Kohlhepp, and W. J. M. de Jonge, "Femtosecond spin dynamics of epitaxial Cu(111)/Ni/Cu wedges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 5070-5072 (2000).

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S. D. Brorson, A. Kazeroonian, J. S. Moodera, D. W. Face, T. K. Cheng, E. P. Ippen, M. S. Dresselhaus, and G. Dresselhaus, "Femtosecond room-temperature measurement of the electron-phonon coupling constant λ in metallic superconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2172-2175 (1990).
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S. D. Brorson, A. Kazeroonian, J. S. Moodera, D. W. Face, T. K. Cheng, E. P. Ippen, M. S. Dresselhaus, and G. Dresselhaus, "Femtosecond room-temperature measurement of the electron-phonon coupling constant λ in metallic superconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2172-2175 (1990).
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N. D. Fatti, C. Voisin, M. Achermann, S. Tzortzakis, D. Christofilos, and F. Vallee, "Nonequilibrium electron dynamics in noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 61, 16956-16966 (2000).
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E. Colavita, A. Franciosi, C. Mariani, and R. Rosei, "Thermoreflectance test of W, Mo, and paramagnetic Cr band structures," Phys. Rev. B 27, 4684-4693 (1983).
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C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold," Phys. Rev. B 50, 15337-15348 (1994).
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A. Majumdar, K. Fushinobu, and K. Hijikata, "Effect of gate voltage on hot-electron and hot-phonon interaction and transport in a submicrometer transistor," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6686-6694 (1995).
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S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Hohlfeld, J. Gudde, and E. Matthias, "The role of electron-phonon coupling in femtosecond laser damage of metals," Appl. Phys. A. 69, Suppl. S99-S107 (1999).

J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, J. Hohlfeld, and E. Matthias, "Magnetization dynamics of Ni and Co films on Cu(001) and of bulk nickel surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 59, R6608-R6611 (1999).
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N. K. Sherman, F. Brunel, P. B. Corkum, and F. A. Hegmann, "Transient response of metals to ultrashort pulse excitation," Opt. Eng. 28, 1114-1121 (1989).

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A. Majumdar, K. Fushinobu, and K. Hijikata, "Effect of gate voltage on hot-electron and hot-phonon interaction and transport in a submicrometer transistor," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6686-6694 (1995).
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J. Hohlfeld, S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, and E. Matthias, "Electron and lattice dynamics following optical excitation of metals," Chem. Phys. 251, 237-258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Hohlfeld, J. Gudde, and E. Matthias, "The role of electron-phonon coupling in femtosecond laser damage of metals," Appl. Phys. A. 69, Suppl. S99-S107 (1999).

J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, J. Hohlfeld, and E. Matthias, "Magnetization dynamics of Ni and Co films on Cu(001) and of bulk nickel surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 59, R6608-R6611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, J. Hohlfeld, J. G. Muller, and E. Matthias, "The role of electron-phonon coupling in femtosecond laser damage of metals," in Proc. SPIE 3343, 378-387 (1998).

J. Hohlfeld, J. G. Muller, S.-S. Wellershoff, and E. Matthias, "Time-resolved thermoreflectivity of thin gold films and its dependence on film thickness," Appl. Phys. B 64, 387-390 (1997).
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J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, "Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861-4864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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A. P. Caffrey, P. E. Hopkins, J. M. Klopf, and P. M. Norris, "Thin film non-noble transition metal thermophysical properties," Microscale Thermophys. Eng. 9, 365-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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A. N. Smith, J. L. Hostetler, and P. M. Norris, "Nonequilibrium heating in metal films: an analytical and numerical analysis," Numer. Heat Transfer Part A 35, 859-873 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hostetler, A. N. Smith, D. M. Czajkowsky, and P. M. Norris, "Measurement of the electron-phonon coupling factor dependence on film thickness and grain size in Au, Cr, and Al," Appl. Opt. 38, 3614-3620 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold," Phys. Rev. B 50, 15337-15348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Brorson, A. Kazeroonian, J. S. Moodera, D. W. Face, T. K. Cheng, E. P. Ippen, M. S. Dresselhaus, and G. Dresselhaus, "Femtosecond room-temperature measurement of the electron-phonon coupling constant λ in metallic superconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2172-2175 (1990).
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D. S. Ivanov and L. V. Zhigilei, "Combined atomistic-continuum modeling of short-pulse laser melting and disintegration of metal films," Phys. Rev. B 68, 064114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jahnke, V.

J. Hohlfeld, S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, and E. Matthias, "Electron and lattice dynamics following optical excitation of metals," Chem. Phys. 251, 237-258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, J. Hohlfeld, and E. Matthias, "Magnetization dynamics of Ni and Co films on Cu(001) and of bulk nickel surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 59, R6608-R6611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Juhasz, T.

T. Q. Qiu, T. Juhasz, C. Suarez, W. E. Bron, and C. L. Tien, "Femtosecond laser heating of multilayer metals--II. Experiments," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 37, 2799-2808 (1994).
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S. I. Anisimov, B. L. Kapeliovich, and T. L. Perel'man, "Electron emission from metal surfaces exposed to ultrashort laser pulses," Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375-377 (1974).

Kazeroonian, A.

S. D. Brorson, A. Kazeroonian, J. S. Moodera, D. W. Face, T. K. Cheng, E. P. Ippen, M. S. Dresselhaus, and G. Dresselhaus, "Femtosecond room-temperature measurement of the electron-phonon coupling constant λ in metallic superconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2172-2175 (1990).
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Klopf, J. M.

A. P. Caffrey, P. E. Hopkins, J. M. Klopf, and P. M. Norris, "Thin film non-noble transition metal thermophysical properties," Microscale Thermophys. Eng. 9, 365-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Norris, A. P. Caffrey, R. J. Stevens, J. M. Klopf, J. T. McLeskey, and A. N. Smith, "Femtosecond pump-probe nondestructive examination of materials," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 400-406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knorren, R.

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, "Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861-4864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kohlhepp, J. T.

B. Koopmans, M. van Kampen, J. T. Kohlhepp, and W. J. M. de Jonge, "Femtosecond spin dynamics of epitaxial Cu(111)/Ni/Cu wedges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 5070-5072 (2000).

Koopmans, B.

B. Koopmans, M. van Kampen, J. T. Kohlhepp, and W. J. M. de Jonge, "Femtosecond spin dynamics of epitaxial Cu(111)/Ni/Cu wedges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 5070-5072 (2000).

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J. K. Chen, W. P. Latham, and J. E. Beraun, "The role of electron-phonon coupling in ultrafast laser heating," J. Laser Appl. 17, 63-68 (2005).
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R. Rosei and D. W. Lynch, "Thermomodulation spectra of Al, Au, and Cu," Phys. Rev. B 5, 3883-3894 (1972).
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Majumdar, A.

A. Majumdar, K. Fushinobu, and K. Hijikata, "Effect of gate voltage on hot-electron and hot-phonon interaction and transport in a submicrometer transistor," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6686-6694 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mariani, C.

E. Colavita, A. Franciosi, C. Mariani, and R. Rosei, "Thermoreflectance test of W, Mo, and paramagnetic Cr band structures," Phys. Rev. B 27, 4684-4693 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, O.

H. Hirori, T. Tachizaki, O. Matsuda, and O. B. Wright, "Electron dynamics in chromium probed with 20-fs optical pulses," Phys. Rev. B 68, 113102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, E.

J. Hohlfeld, S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, and E. Matthias, "Electron and lattice dynamics following optical excitation of metals," Chem. Phys. 251, 237-258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Hohlfeld, J. Gudde, and E. Matthias, "The role of electron-phonon coupling in femtosecond laser damage of metals," Appl. Phys. A. 69, Suppl. S99-S107 (1999).

J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, J. Hohlfeld, and E. Matthias, "Magnetization dynamics of Ni and Co films on Cu(001) and of bulk nickel surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 59, R6608-R6611 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, J. Hohlfeld, J. G. Muller, and E. Matthias, "The role of electron-phonon coupling in femtosecond laser damage of metals," in Proc. SPIE 3343, 378-387 (1998).

J. Hohlfeld, J. G. Muller, S.-S. Wellershoff, and E. Matthias, "Time-resolved thermoreflectivity of thin gold films and its dependence on film thickness," Appl. Phys. B 64, 387-390 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, "Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861-4864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McLeskey, J. T.

P. M. Norris, A. P. Caffrey, R. J. Stevens, J. M. Klopf, J. T. McLeskey, and A. N. Smith, "Femtosecond pump-probe nondestructive examination of materials," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 400-406 (2003).
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S. D. Brorson, A. Kazeroonian, J. S. Moodera, D. W. Face, T. K. Cheng, E. P. Ippen, M. S. Dresselhaus, and G. Dresselhaus, "Femtosecond room-temperature measurement of the electron-phonon coupling constant λ in metallic superconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2172-2175 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, J. G.

S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, J. Hohlfeld, J. G. Muller, and E. Matthias, "The role of electron-phonon coupling in femtosecond laser damage of metals," in Proc. SPIE 3343, 378-387 (1998).

J. Hohlfeld, J. G. Muller, S.-S. Wellershoff, and E. Matthias, "Time-resolved thermoreflectivity of thin gold films and its dependence on film thickness," Appl. Phys. B 64, 387-390 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Norris, P. M.

R. J. Stevens, A. N. Smith, and P. M. Norris, "Signal analysis and characterization of experimental setup for the transient thermoreflectance technique," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 084901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Caffrey, P. E. Hopkins, J. M. Klopf, and P. M. Norris, "Thin film non-noble transition metal thermophysical properties," Microscale Thermophys. Eng. 9, 365-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Norris, A. P. Caffrey, R. J. Stevens, J. M. Klopf, J. T. McLeskey, and A. N. Smith, "Femtosecond pump-probe nondestructive examination of materials," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 400-406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Smith and P. M. Norris, "Influence of intraband transitions on the electron thermoreflectance response of metals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1240-1242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hostetler, A. N. Smith, D. M. Czajkowsky, and P. M. Norris, "Measurement of the electron-phonon coupling factor dependence on film thickness and grain size in Au, Cr, and Al," Appl. Opt. 38, 3614-3620 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Smith, J. L. Hostetler, and P. M. Norris, "Nonequilibrium heating in metal films: an analytical and numerical analysis," Numer. Heat Transfer Part A 35, 859-873 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Olenchna, D. J.

H. Enrenreich, H. R. Philipp, and D. J. Olenchna, "Optical properties and Fermi surface of nickel," Phys. Rev. 131, 2469-2477 (1963).
[CrossRef]

H. Ehrenreich, H. R. Philipp, and D. J. Olenchna, "Optical properties and Fermi surface of nickel," Phys. Rev. 131, 2469-2477 (1963).
[CrossRef]

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E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Perel'man, T. L.

S. I. Anisimov, B. L. Kapeliovich, and T. L. Perel'man, "Electron emission from metal surfaces exposed to ultrashort laser pulses," Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375-377 (1974).

Philipp, H. R.

H. Enrenreich, H. R. Philipp, and D. J. Olenchna, "Optical properties and Fermi surface of nickel," Phys. Rev. 131, 2469-2477 (1963).
[CrossRef]

H. Ehrenreich, H. R. Philipp, and D. J. Olenchna, "Optical properties and Fermi surface of nickel," Phys. Rev. 131, 2469-2477 (1963).
[CrossRef]

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J. C. Phillips, "Fermi surface of ferromagnetic nickel," Phys. Rev. 133, A1020-A1028 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, T. Q.

T. Q. Qiu, T. Juhasz, C. Suarez, W. E. Bron, and C. L. Tien, "Femtosecond laser heating of multilayer metals--II. Experiments," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 37, 2799-2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Qiu and C. L. Tien, "Femtosecond laser heating of multilayer metals--I. Analysis," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 37, 2789-2797 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Qiu and C. L. Tien, "Size effects on nonequilibrium laser heating of metal films," J. Heat Transfer 115, 842-847 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Qiu and C. L. Tien, "Heat transfer mechanisms during short-pulse laser heating of metals," J. Heat Transfer 115, 835-841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Qiu and C. L. Tien, "Heat transfer mechanisms during short-pulse laser heating on metals," in Transport Phenomena in Materials Processing and Manufacturing (ASME, 1992), HTD-Vol. 196, pp. 41-49.

Rosei, R.

E. Colavita, A. Franciosi, C. Mariani, and R. Rosei, "Thermoreflectance test of W, Mo, and paramagnetic Cr band structures," Phys. Rev. B 27, 4684-4693 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Rosei and D. W. Lynch, "Thermomodulation spectra of Al, Au, and Cu," Phys. Rev. B 5, 3883-3894 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Scouler, W. J.

W. J. Scouler, "Temperature-modulated reflectance of gold from 2 to 10 eV," Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 445-448 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanus, J. Feinleib, and W. J. Scouler, "Low-energy interband transitions and band structure in nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 16-20 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, N. K.

N. K. Sherman, F. Brunel, P. B. Corkum, and F. A. Hegmann, "Transient response of metals to ultrashort pulse excitation," Opt. Eng. 28, 1114-1121 (1989).

Smith, A. N.

R. J. Stevens, A. N. Smith, and P. M. Norris, "Signal analysis and characterization of experimental setup for the transient thermoreflectance technique," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 084901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Norris, A. P. Caffrey, R. J. Stevens, J. M. Klopf, J. T. McLeskey, and A. N. Smith, "Femtosecond pump-probe nondestructive examination of materials," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 400-406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Smith and P. M. Norris, "Influence of intraband transitions on the electron thermoreflectance response of metals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1240-1242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hostetler, A. N. Smith, D. M. Czajkowsky, and P. M. Norris, "Measurement of the electron-phonon coupling factor dependence on film thickness and grain size in Au, Cr, and Al," Appl. Opt. 38, 3614-3620 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Smith, J. L. Hostetler, and P. M. Norris, "Nonequilibrium heating in metal films: an analytical and numerical analysis," Numer. Heat Transfer Part A 35, 859-873 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, R. J.

R. J. Stevens, A. N. Smith, and P. M. Norris, "Signal analysis and characterization of experimental setup for the transient thermoreflectance technique," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 084901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Norris, A. P. Caffrey, R. J. Stevens, J. M. Klopf, J. T. McLeskey, and A. N. Smith, "Femtosecond pump-probe nondestructive examination of materials," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 400-406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suarez, C.

T. Q. Qiu, T. Juhasz, C. Suarez, W. E. Bron, and C. L. Tien, "Femtosecond laser heating of multilayer metals--II. Experiments," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 37, 2799-2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. K.

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold," Phys. Rev. B 50, 15337-15348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tachizaki, T.

H. Hirori, T. Tachizaki, O. Matsuda, and O. B. Wright, "Electron dynamics in chromium probed with 20-fs optical pulses," Phys. Rev. B 68, 113102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tien, C. L.

T. Q. Qiu and C. L. Tien, "Femtosecond laser heating of multilayer metals--I. Analysis," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 37, 2789-2797 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Qiu, T. Juhasz, C. Suarez, W. E. Bron, and C. L. Tien, "Femtosecond laser heating of multilayer metals--II. Experiments," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 37, 2799-2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Qiu and C. L. Tien, "Size effects on nonequilibrium laser heating of metal films," J. Heat Transfer 115, 842-847 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Qiu and C. L. Tien, "Heat transfer mechanisms during short-pulse laser heating of metals," J. Heat Transfer 115, 835-841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Qiu and C. L. Tien, "Heat transfer mechanisms during short-pulse laser heating on metals," in Transport Phenomena in Materials Processing and Manufacturing (ASME, 1992), HTD-Vol. 196, pp. 41-49.

Tzortzakis, S.

N. D. Fatti, C. Voisin, M. Achermann, S. Tzortzakis, D. Christofilos, and F. Vallee, "Nonequilibrium electron dynamics in noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 61, 16956-16966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, F.

N. D. Fatti, C. Voisin, M. Achermann, S. Tzortzakis, D. Christofilos, and F. Vallee, "Nonequilibrium electron dynamics in noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 61, 16956-16966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold," Phys. Rev. B 50, 15337-15348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van Kampen, M.

B. Koopmans, M. van Kampen, J. T. Kohlhepp, and W. J. M. de Jonge, "Femtosecond spin dynamics of epitaxial Cu(111)/Ni/Cu wedges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 5070-5072 (2000).

Voisin, C.

N. D. Fatti, C. Voisin, M. Achermann, S. Tzortzakis, D. Christofilos, and F. Vallee, "Nonequilibrium electron dynamics in noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 61, 16956-16966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weiling, F.

F. Weiling and J. Callaway, "Semiempirical description of energy bands in nickel," Phys. Rev. B 26, 710-719 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wellershoff, S.-S.

J. Hohlfeld, S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, and E. Matthias, "Electron and lattice dynamics following optical excitation of metals," Chem. Phys. 251, 237-258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Hohlfeld, J. Gudde, and E. Matthias, "The role of electron-phonon coupling in femtosecond laser damage of metals," Appl. Phys. A. 69, Suppl. S99-S107 (1999).

S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, J. Hohlfeld, J. G. Muller, and E. Matthias, "The role of electron-phonon coupling in femtosecond laser damage of metals," in Proc. SPIE 3343, 378-387 (1998).

J. Hohlfeld, J. G. Muller, S.-S. Wellershoff, and E. Matthias, "Time-resolved thermoreflectivity of thin gold films and its dependence on film thickness," Appl. Phys. B 64, 387-390 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wright, O. B.

H. Hirori, T. Tachizaki, O. Matsuda, and O. B. Wright, "Electron dynamics in chromium probed with 20-fs optical pulses," Phys. Rev. B 68, 113102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

I. H. Chowdhury and X. Xu, "Heat transfer in femtosecond laser processing of metal," Numer. Heat Transfer Part A 44, 219-232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhigilei, L. V.

D. S. Ivanov and L. V. Zhigilei, "Combined atomistic-continuum modeling of short-pulse laser melting and disintegration of metal films," Phys. Rev. B 68, 064114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A. (1)

S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Hohlfeld, J. Gudde, and E. Matthias, "The role of electron-phonon coupling in femtosecond laser damage of metals," Appl. Phys. A. 69, Suppl. S99-S107 (1999).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Reflectance off the surface of a Ni film on both Si and SiO 2 substrates as a function of film thickness at a probing wavelength of 800   nm calculated with the equations developed by Abeles (Ref. [37]). For films thinner than 30   nm , the reflectance deviates by more than 10% from the bulk reflectance, indicating that for films in this range the absorbed laser energy in TTR experiments could be affected by the underlying substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) TTR experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Observed phase and phase-corrected reflectance data on the 30 nm Ni∕Si sample at a probe energy of (a) 1.3 and (b) 1.55   eV . The phase of the pump was set to zero so that when the probe was in phase with the pump at t 0 , thus yielding the peak probe response; the phase was defined as 0°. (a) At a probe energy of 1.3   eV , the signal after the interband response is 90 ° out of phase with the pump, which is evident from the phase-corrected data that have a magnitude that is only a small fraction of the peak value at t 0 . (b) However, at a probe energy of 1.55   eV , the signal after the interband response is almost 180° out of phase with the pump, and therefore the phase corrected data are approximately the magnitude, but opposite in sign to the value at t 0 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Comparison of the TTR response at probe energies of 1.3 and 1.55   eV . The influence of the interband transition on the 1.3   eV data is apparent by the value of the maximum peak, which is significantly greater than that observed in the 1.55   eV probe data since the probe is removed from the 1.3   eV interband transition. The effect of this transition on the TTR response lasts much longer at 1.3   eV than at 1.55   eV . At both probe energies, the TTR response relaxes to a negative response after the interband positive peak, and both signals reach the same value when the electrons and phonons come to equilibrium. The inset shows the 1.3   eV data scaled to the peak of the 1.55   eV data by dividing the 1.3   eV data by a factor of 40.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) PTS model fit to the 1.3 and 1.55   eV data on the 30   nm Ni∕Si film with the reflectance model, Eq. (6). The model was fit to the first 1.0   ps of data following the electron peak. The PTS electron temperature was fit to the peak, and the lattice temperature was fit to the point 5.0   ps after the peak. The data in this graph are normalized at the peak value.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Electron–phonon coupling factor measurements as a function of film thickness. The measurement of G was consistently higher at 1.3   eV probe energy than at 1.55   eV . The average value of G determined from the 1.55   eV data agreed well with the past value reported at 3.11   eV (Refs. 2 and 48). In addition, a slight difference in measurements is observed between the Ni∕Si samples and the Ni∕glass samples, which could be due to substrate effects resulting in an increased temperature in the film by inhibiting thermal diffusion across the film–substrate interface.

Equations (6)

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C e ( T e ) T e t = x ( k e ( T e , T l ) T e x ) G ( T e T l ) + S ( x , t ) ,
C l T l t = G ( T e T l ) .
S ( x , t ) = 0.94 ( 1 R ) t p δ J   exp [ x δ 2.77 ( t t p ) 2 ] ,
Δ ε = Δ ε 1 + i Δ ε 2 = ε 1 T e Δ T e + ε 1 T l Δ T l + i ( ε 2 T e Δ T e + ε 2 T l Δ T l ) .
Δ R R = 1 R [ R ε 1 Δ ε 1 + R ε 2 Δ ε 2 ] .
Δ R R = a Δ T e + b Δ T l ,

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