Abstract

Some exciting new efforts to use intrinsic signal optical imaging methods for long-term studies in anesthetized and awake monkeys are reviewed. The development of such methodologies opens the door for studying behavioral states such as attention, motivation, memory, emotion, and other higher-order cognitive functions. Long-term imaging is also ideal for studying changes in the brain that accompany development, plasticity, and learning. Although intrinsic imaging lacks the temporal resolution offered by dyes, it is a high spatial resolution imaging method that does not require application of any external agents to the brain. The bulk of procedures described here have been developed in the monkey but can be applied to the study of surface structures in any in vivo preparation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
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2005 (1)

M. Raffi and R. M. Siegel, "Functional architecture of spatial attention in the parietal cortex of the behaving monkey," J. Neurosci. 25, 5171-586 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

A. Zepeda, C. Ariasa, and F. Sengpiel, "Optical imaging of intrinsic signals: recent developments in the methodology and its applications," J. Neurosci. Methods 136, 1-21 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Roe, D. Walled, E. Sybirska, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Optical imaging of prefrontal cortex during oculomotor delay response task in Macaque monkey," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , San Diego, Calif. (2004).

X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, "Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey," J. Neurosci. 24, 6237-6247 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Schwartz, L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, D. D. Spencer, and A. W. Roe, "Intraoperative optical imaging of face topography in human somatosensory cortex," NeuroReport 15, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

R. M. Siegel, M. Raffi, R. E. Phinney, J. A. Turner, and G. Jando, "Functional architecture of eye position gain fields in visual association cortex of behaving monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 90, 1279-1294 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Thompson, M. R. Peterson, and R. D. Freeman, "Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex," Science 299, 1070-1072 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. Guiou, M. Walker, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, "Evaluation of coupling between optical intrinsic signals and neuronal activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuroimage 19, 884-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

E. Seidemann, A. Arieli, A. Grinvald, and H. Slovin, "Dynamics of depolarization and hyperpolarization in the frontal cortex and saccade goal," Science 295, 862-865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, G. V. Williams, and A. W. Roe, "A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in primates," J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, "Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735-15742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Slovin, A. Arieli, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term voltage-sensitive dye imaging reveals cortical dynamics in behaving monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 88, 3421-3438 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (5)

B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, "Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).

S. T. Schuett, T. Bonhoeffer, and M. Hubener, "Pairing-induced changes of orientation maps in cat visual cortex," Neuron 32, 325-337 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, and A. W. Roe, "Real and illusory contour processing in Area V1 of the primate--a cortical balancing act," Cerebral Cortex 11, 648-665 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, B. M. Ramsden, R. H. LaMotte, and A. W. Roe, "Fine-scale organization of primary somatosensory cortex (Area 3b) in the squirrel monkey revealed with intrinsic optical imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 3011-3029 (2001).
[PubMed]

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. A. Martin, D. P. Beckerand, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal spatial differences observed by functional MRI and human intraoperative optical imaging," Cereb. Cortex 11, 773-782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

D. S. Kim, T. Q. Duong, and S. G. Kim, "High-resolution mapping of iso-orientation columns by fMRI," Nat. Neurosci. 3, 164-169 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Bosking, R. Kretz, M. L. Pucak, and D. Fitzpatrick, "Functional specificity of callosal connections in tree shrew striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 20, 2346-2359 (2000).
[PubMed]

E. Shtoyerman, A. Arieli, H. Slovin, I. Vanzetta, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term optical imaging and spectroscopy reveal mechanisms underlying the intrinsic signal and stability of cortical maps in VI of behaving monkeys," J. Neurosci. 20, 8111-8121 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (3)

D. M. Rector, R. F. Rogers, and J. S. George, "A focusing image probe for assessing neural activity in vivo," J. Neurosci. Methods 91, 135-145 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vanzetta and A. Grinvald, "Increased cortical oxidative metabolism due to sensory stimulation: implications for functional brain imaging," Science 286, 1555-1558 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Vnek, R. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, P. S. Goldman-Rakic, and A. W. Roe, "Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 4057-4060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, M. H. Shomer, and A. W. Toga, "Refractory periods observed by intrinsic signal and fluorescent dye imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 1522-1532 (1998).
[PubMed]

G. Wang, M. Tanifuji, and K. Tanaka, "Functional architecture in monkey inferotemporal cortex revealed by in vivo optical imaging," Neurosci. Res. (NY) 32, 33-46 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, "Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272-3283 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997 (2)

G. M. Ghose and D. Y. Ts'o, "Form processing modules in primate area V4," J. Neurophysiol. 77, 2191-2196 (1997).
[PubMed]

R. M. Siegel and H. L. Read, "Analysis of optic flow in the monkey parietal area 7a," Cereb. Cortex 7, 327-346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

C. E. Schroeder, S. Seto, J. C. Arezzo, and P. E. Garraghty, "Electrophysiological evidence for overlapping dominant and latent inputs to somatosensory cortex in squirrel monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 74, 722-732 (1995).
[PubMed]

1991 (2)

K. D. Alloway and H. Burton, "Differential effects of GABA and bicuculline on rapidly- and slowly-adapting neurons in primary somatosensory cortex of primates," Exp. Brain Res. 85, 98-610 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, and E. Bartfeld, "High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 11559-11563 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts'o, and A. Grinvald, "Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 6082-6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Sakas, K. Chamvises, L. F. Borges, and N. T. Zervas, "Biologically inert synthetic dural substitutes. Appraisal of a medical-grade aliphatic polyurethane and a polysiloxane-carbonate block copolymer," J. Neurosurg. 73, 936-941 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

S. Funahashi, C. J. Bruce, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Mnemonic coding of visual space in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 61, 331-349 (1989).
[PubMed]

1983 (1)

Y. Iwamura, M. Tanaka, M. Sakamoto, and O. Hikosaka, "Converging patterns of finger representation and complex response properties of neurons in Area 1 of the first somatoensory cortex of the conscious monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 51, 327-337 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. W. Dykes, M. Sur, M. M. Merzenich, J. H. Kaas, and R. J. Nelson, "Regional segregation of neurons responding to quickly adapting, slowly adapting, deep and pacinian receptors within thalamic ventroposterior lateral and ventroposterior inferior nuclei in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)," Neurosci. 6, 1687-1692 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Alloway, K. D.

K. D. Alloway and H. Burton, "Differential effects of GABA and bicuculline on rapidly- and slowly-adapting neurons in primary somatosensory cortex of primates," Exp. Brain Res. 85, 98-610 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Andermann, M. L.

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arezzo, J. C.

C. E. Schroeder, S. Seto, J. C. Arezzo, and P. E. Garraghty, "Electrophysiological evidence for overlapping dominant and latent inputs to somatosensory cortex in squirrel monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 74, 722-732 (1995).
[PubMed]

Ariasa, C.

A. Zepeda, C. Ariasa, and F. Sengpiel, "Optical imaging of intrinsic signals: recent developments in the methodology and its applications," J. Neurosci. Methods 136, 1-21 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arieli, A.

E. Seidemann, A. Arieli, A. Grinvald, and H. Slovin, "Dynamics of depolarization and hyperpolarization in the frontal cortex and saccade goal," Science 295, 862-865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Slovin, A. Arieli, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term voltage-sensitive dye imaging reveals cortical dynamics in behaving monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 88, 3421-3438 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Shtoyerman, A. Arieli, H. Slovin, I. Vanzetta, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term optical imaging and spectroscopy reveal mechanisms underlying the intrinsic signal and stability of cortical maps in VI of behaving monkeys," J. Neurosci. 20, 8111-8121 (2000).
[PubMed]

Bartfeld, E.

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, and E. Bartfeld, "High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 11559-11563 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beckerand, D. P.

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. A. Martin, D. P. Beckerand, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal spatial differences observed by functional MRI and human intraoperative optical imaging," Cereb. Cortex 11, 773-782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonhoeffer, T.

S. T. Schuett, T. Bonhoeffer, and M. Hubener, "Pairing-induced changes of orientation maps in cat visual cortex," Neuron 32, 325-337 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bonhoeffer and A. Grinvald, "Optical imaging based on intrinsic signals: the methodology," in Brain Mapping. The Methods, A. W. Toga and J. C. Mazziota, eds. (Academic, 1996), pp. 55-87.

Bookheimer, S. Y.

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. A. Martin, D. P. Beckerand, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal spatial differences observed by functional MRI and human intraoperative optical imaging," Cereb. Cortex 11, 773-782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borges, L. F.

D. E. Sakas, K. Chamvises, L. F. Borges, and N. T. Zervas, "Biologically inert synthetic dural substitutes. Appraisal of a medical-grade aliphatic polyurethane and a polysiloxane-carbonate block copolymer," J. Neurosurg. 73, 936-941 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosking, W.

X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, "Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey," J. Neurosci. 24, 6237-6247 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosking, W. H.

W. H. Bosking, R. Kretz, M. L. Pucak, and D. Fitzpatrick, "Functional specificity of callosal connections in tree shrew striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 20, 2346-2359 (2000).
[PubMed]

Bruce, C. J.

S. Funahashi, C. J. Bruce, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Mnemonic coding of visual space in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 61, 331-349 (1989).
[PubMed]

Burton, H.

K. D. Alloway and H. Burton, "Differential effects of GABA and bicuculline on rapidly- and slowly-adapting neurons in primary somatosensory cortex of primates," Exp. Brain Res. 85, 98-610 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cannestra, A. F.

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. A. Martin, D. P. Beckerand, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal spatial differences observed by functional MRI and human intraoperative optical imaging," Cereb. Cortex 11, 773-782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, M. H. Shomer, and A. W. Toga, "Refractory periods observed by intrinsic signal and fluorescent dye imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 1522-1532 (1998).
[PubMed]

Casagrande, V.

X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, "Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey," J. Neurosci. 24, 6237-6247 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casagrande, V. A.

D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, "Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735-15742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamvises, K.

D. E. Sakas, K. Chamvises, L. F. Borges, and N. T. Zervas, "Biologically inert synthetic dural substitutes. Appraisal of a medical-grade aliphatic polyurethane and a polysiloxane-carbonate block copolymer," J. Neurosurg. 73, 936-941 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. M.

T. H. Schwartz, L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, D. D. Spencer, and A. W. Roe, "Intraoperative optical imaging of face topography in human somatosensory cortex," NeuroReport 15, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, G. V. Williams, and A. W. Roe, "A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in primates," J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, B. M. Ramsden, R. H. LaMotte, and A. W. Roe, "Fine-scale organization of primary somatosensory cortex (Area 3b) in the squirrel monkey revealed with intrinsic optical imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 3011-3029 (2001).
[PubMed]

B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, "Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).

A. W. Roe, F. L. Healy, R. M. Friedman, B. Heider, and L. M. Chen, "Differences in SI topography between anesthetized and awake squirrel monkey as revealed by optical imaging," Program No. 28:651.3. 2002 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Washington, D.C.: Society for Neuroscience, CD-ROM (2002).

Dale, A. M.

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delemos, K. A.

M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, "Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272-3283 (1998).
[PubMed]

Devor, A.

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duong, T. Q.

D. S. Kim, T. Q. Duong, and S. G. Kim, "High-resolution mapping of iso-orientation columns by fMRI," Nat. Neurosci. 3, 164-169 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dykes, R. W.

R. W. Dykes, M. Sur, M. M. Merzenich, J. H. Kaas, and R. J. Nelson, "Regional segregation of neurons responding to quickly adapting, slowly adapting, deep and pacinian receptors within thalamic ventroposterior lateral and ventroposterior inferior nuclei in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)," Neurosci. 6, 1687-1692 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Favorov, O. V.

M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, "Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272-3283 (1998).
[PubMed]

Fitzpatrick, D.

W. H. Bosking, R. Kretz, M. L. Pucak, and D. Fitzpatrick, "Functional specificity of callosal connections in tree shrew striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 20, 2346-2359 (2000).
[PubMed]

Freeman, R. D.

J. K. Thompson, M. R. Peterson, and R. D. Freeman, "Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex," Science 299, 1070-1072 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, R. M.

T. H. Schwartz, L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, D. D. Spencer, and A. W. Roe, "Intraoperative optical imaging of face topography in human somatosensory cortex," NeuroReport 15, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, B. M. Ramsden, R. H. LaMotte, and A. W. Roe, "Fine-scale organization of primary somatosensory cortex (Area 3b) in the squirrel monkey revealed with intrinsic optical imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 3011-3029 (2001).
[PubMed]

A. W. Roe, F. L. Healy, R. M. Friedman, B. Heider, and L. M. Chen, "Differences in SI topography between anesthetized and awake squirrel monkey as revealed by optical imaging," Program No. 28:651.3. 2002 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Washington, D.C.: Society for Neuroscience, CD-ROM (2002).

Frostig, R. D.

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, and E. Bartfeld, "High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 11559-11563 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts'o, and A. Grinvald, "Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 6082-6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Funahashi, S.

S. Funahashi, C. J. Bruce, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Mnemonic coding of visual space in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 61, 331-349 (1989).
[PubMed]

Garraghty, P. E.

C. E. Schroeder, S. Seto, J. C. Arezzo, and P. E. Garraghty, "Electrophysiological evidence for overlapping dominant and latent inputs to somatosensory cortex in squirrel monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 74, 722-732 (1995).
[PubMed]

George, J. S.

D. M. Rector, R. F. Rogers, and J. S. George, "A focusing image probe for assessing neural activity in vivo," J. Neurosci. Methods 91, 135-145 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghose, G. M.

G. M. Ghose and D. Y. Ts'o, "Form processing modules in primate area V4," J. Neurophysiol. 77, 2191-2196 (1997).
[PubMed]

Goldman-Rakic, P. S.

A. W. Roe, D. Walled, E. Sybirska, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Optical imaging of prefrontal cortex during oculomotor delay response task in Macaque monkey," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , San Diego, Calif. (2004).

N. Vnek, R. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, P. S. Goldman-Rakic, and A. W. Roe, "Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 4057-4060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Funahashi, C. J. Bruce, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Mnemonic coding of visual space in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 61, 331-349 (1989).
[PubMed]

Grinvald, A.

E. Seidemann, A. Arieli, A. Grinvald, and H. Slovin, "Dynamics of depolarization and hyperpolarization in the frontal cortex and saccade goal," Science 295, 862-865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Slovin, A. Arieli, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term voltage-sensitive dye imaging reveals cortical dynamics in behaving monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 88, 3421-3438 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Shtoyerman, A. Arieli, H. Slovin, I. Vanzetta, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term optical imaging and spectroscopy reveal mechanisms underlying the intrinsic signal and stability of cortical maps in VI of behaving monkeys," J. Neurosci. 20, 8111-8121 (2000).
[PubMed]

I. Vanzetta and A. Grinvald, "Increased cortical oxidative metabolism due to sensory stimulation: implications for functional brain imaging," Science 286, 1555-1558 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, and E. Bartfeld, "High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 11559-11563 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts'o, and A. Grinvald, "Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 6082-6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bonhoeffer and A. Grinvald, "Optical imaging based on intrinsic signals: the methodology," in Brain Mapping. The Methods, A. W. Toga and J. C. Mazziota, eds. (Academic, 1996), pp. 55-87.

Guiou, M.

S. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. Guiou, M. Walker, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, "Evaluation of coupling between optical intrinsic signals and neuronal activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuroimage 19, 884-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Healy, F. L.

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, G. V. Williams, and A. W. Roe, "A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in primates," J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, "Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).

A. W. Roe, F. L. Healy, R. M. Friedman, B. Heider, and L. M. Chen, "Differences in SI topography between anesthetized and awake squirrel monkey as revealed by optical imaging," Program No. 28:651.3. 2002 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Washington, D.C.: Society for Neuroscience, CD-ROM (2002).

Heider, B.

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, G. V. Williams, and A. W. Roe, "A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in primates," J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, "Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).

A. W. Roe, F. L. Healy, R. M. Friedman, B. Heider, and L. M. Chen, "Differences in SI topography between anesthetized and awake squirrel monkey as revealed by optical imaging," Program No. 28:651.3. 2002 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Washington, D.C.: Society for Neuroscience, CD-ROM (2002).

Hikosaka, O.

Y. Iwamura, M. Tanaka, M. Sakamoto, and O. Hikosaka, "Converging patterns of finger representation and complex response properties of neurons in Area 1 of the first somatoensory cortex of the conscious monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 51, 327-337 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hildesheim, R.

H. Slovin, A. Arieli, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term voltage-sensitive dye imaging reveals cortical dynamics in behaving monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 88, 3421-3438 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubener, M.

S. T. Schuett, T. Bonhoeffer, and M. Hubener, "Pairing-induced changes of orientation maps in cat visual cortex," Neuron 32, 325-337 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hung, C. P.

B. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, and A. W. Roe, "Real and illusory contour processing in Area V1 of the primate--a cortical balancing act," Cerebral Cortex 11, 648-665 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Vnek, R. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, P. S. Goldman-Rakic, and A. W. Roe, "Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 4057-4060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwamura, Y.

Y. Iwamura, M. Tanaka, M. Sakamoto, and O. Hikosaka, "Converging patterns of finger representation and complex response properties of neurons in Area 1 of the first somatoensory cortex of the conscious monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 51, 327-337 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jando, G.

R. M. Siegel, M. Raffi, R. E. Phinney, J. A. Turner, and G. Jando, "Functional architecture of eye position gain fields in visual association cortex of behaving monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 90, 1279-1294 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaas, J. H.

D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, "Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735-15742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Dykes, M. Sur, M. M. Merzenich, J. H. Kaas, and R. J. Nelson, "Regional segregation of neurons responding to quickly adapting, slowly adapting, deep and pacinian receptors within thalamic ventroposterior lateral and ventroposterior inferior nuclei in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)," Neurosci. 6, 1687-1692 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, E.

L. Sirovich and E. Kaplan, "Analysis methods for optical imaging," in Optical Imaging: CRC Reviews, R.Frostig, ed. (CRC, 2002).

Kim, D. S.

D. S. Kim, T. Q. Duong, and S. G. Kim, "High-resolution mapping of iso-orientation columns by fMRI," Nat. Neurosci. 3, 164-169 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. G.

D. S. Kim, T. Q. Duong, and S. G. Kim, "High-resolution mapping of iso-orientation columns by fMRI," Nat. Neurosci. 3, 164-169 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kretz, R.

W. H. Bosking, R. Kretz, M. L. Pucak, and D. Fitzpatrick, "Functional specificity of callosal connections in tree shrew striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 20, 2346-2359 (2000).
[PubMed]

LaMotte, R. H.

L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, B. M. Ramsden, R. H. LaMotte, and A. W. Roe, "Fine-scale organization of primary somatosensory cortex (Area 3b) in the squirrel monkey revealed with intrinsic optical imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 3011-3029 (2001).
[PubMed]

Lieke, E. E.

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts'o, and A. Grinvald, "Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 6082-6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyon, D. C.

D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, "Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735-15742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, N. A.

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. A. Martin, D. P. Beckerand, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal spatial differences observed by functional MRI and human intraoperative optical imaging," Cereb. Cortex 11, 773-782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merzenich, M. M.

R. W. Dykes, M. Sur, M. M. Merzenich, J. H. Kaas, and R. J. Nelson, "Regional segregation of neurons responding to quickly adapting, slowly adapting, deep and pacinian receptors within thalamic ventroposterior lateral and ventroposterior inferior nuclei in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)," Neurosci. 6, 1687-1692 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Metz, C. B.

M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, "Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272-3283 (1998).
[PubMed]

Nelson, R. J.

R. W. Dykes, M. Sur, M. M. Merzenich, J. H. Kaas, and R. J. Nelson, "Regional segregation of neurons responding to quickly adapting, slowly adapting, deep and pacinian receptors within thalamic ventroposterior lateral and ventroposterior inferior nuclei in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)," Neurosci. 6, 1687-1692 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, M.

S. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. Guiou, M. Walker, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, "Evaluation of coupling between optical intrinsic signals and neuronal activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuroimage 19, 884-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterson, M. R.

J. K. Thompson, M. R. Peterson, and R. D. Freeman, "Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex," Science 299, 1070-1072 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phinney, R. E.

R. M. Siegel, M. Raffi, R. E. Phinney, J. A. Turner, and G. Jando, "Functional architecture of eye position gain fields in visual association cortex of behaving monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 90, 1279-1294 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pouratian, N.

S. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. Guiou, M. Walker, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, "Evaluation of coupling between optical intrinsic signals and neuronal activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuroimage 19, 884-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. A. Martin, D. P. Beckerand, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal spatial differences observed by functional MRI and human intraoperative optical imaging," Cereb. Cortex 11, 773-782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, M. H. Shomer, and A. W. Toga, "Refractory periods observed by intrinsic signal and fluorescent dye imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 1522-1532 (1998).
[PubMed]

Pucak, M. L.

W. H. Bosking, R. Kretz, M. L. Pucak, and D. Fitzpatrick, "Functional specificity of callosal connections in tree shrew striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 20, 2346-2359 (2000).
[PubMed]

Raffi, M.

M. Raffi and R. M. Siegel, "Functional architecture of spatial attention in the parietal cortex of the behaving monkey," J. Neurosci. 25, 5171-586 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Siegel, M. Raffi, R. E. Phinney, J. A. Turner, and G. Jando, "Functional architecture of eye position gain fields in visual association cortex of behaving monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 90, 1279-1294 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramsden, B. M.

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, G. V. Williams, and A. W. Roe, "A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in primates," J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, B. M. Ramsden, R. H. LaMotte, and A. W. Roe, "Fine-scale organization of primary somatosensory cortex (Area 3b) in the squirrel monkey revealed with intrinsic optical imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 3011-3029 (2001).
[PubMed]

B. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, and A. W. Roe, "Real and illusory contour processing in Area V1 of the primate--a cortical balancing act," Cerebral Cortex 11, 648-665 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, "Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).

Ramsden, R. M.

N. Vnek, R. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, P. S. Goldman-Rakic, and A. W. Roe, "Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 4057-4060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Read, H. L.

R. M. Siegel and H. L. Read, "Analysis of optic flow in the monkey parietal area 7a," Cereb. Cortex 7, 327-346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rector, D. M.

D. M. Rector, R. F. Rogers, and J. S. George, "A focusing image probe for assessing neural activity in vivo," J. Neurosci. Methods 91, 135-145 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roe, A. W.

A. W. Roe, D. Walled, E. Sybirska, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Optical imaging of prefrontal cortex during oculomotor delay response task in Macaque monkey," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , San Diego, Calif. (2004).

T. H. Schwartz, L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, D. D. Spencer, and A. W. Roe, "Intraoperative optical imaging of face topography in human somatosensory cortex," NeuroReport 15, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, G. V. Williams, and A. W. Roe, "A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in primates," J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, "Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).

B. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, and A. W. Roe, "Real and illusory contour processing in Area V1 of the primate--a cortical balancing act," Cerebral Cortex 11, 648-665 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, B. M. Ramsden, R. H. LaMotte, and A. W. Roe, "Fine-scale organization of primary somatosensory cortex (Area 3b) in the squirrel monkey revealed with intrinsic optical imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 3011-3029 (2001).
[PubMed]

N. Vnek, R. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, P. S. Goldman-Rakic, and A. W. Roe, "Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 4057-4060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Roe, "Modular complexity of Area V2 in the Macaque monkey," in The Primate Visual System, C. Collins and J. H. Kaas, eds. (CRC, 2003), pp. 109-138.

A. W. Roe, F. L. Healy, R. M. Friedman, B. Heider, and L. M. Chen, "Differences in SI topography between anesthetized and awake squirrel monkey as revealed by optical imaging," Program No. 28:651.3. 2002 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Washington, D.C.: Society for Neuroscience, CD-ROM (2002).

Rogers, R. F.

D. M. Rector, R. F. Rogers, and J. S. George, "A focusing image probe for assessing neural activity in vivo," J. Neurosci. Methods 91, 135-145 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakamoto, M.

Y. Iwamura, M. Tanaka, M. Sakamoto, and O. Hikosaka, "Converging patterns of finger representation and complex response properties of neurons in Area 1 of the first somatoensory cortex of the conscious monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 51, 327-337 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sakas, D. E.

D. E. Sakas, K. Chamvises, L. F. Borges, and N. T. Zervas, "Biologically inert synthetic dural substitutes. Appraisal of a medical-grade aliphatic polyurethane and a polysiloxane-carbonate block copolymer," J. Neurosurg. 73, 936-941 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sary, G.

X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, "Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey," J. Neurosci. 24, 6237-6247 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, C. E.

C. E. Schroeder, S. Seto, J. C. Arezzo, and P. E. Garraghty, "Electrophysiological evidence for overlapping dominant and latent inputs to somatosensory cortex in squirrel monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 74, 722-732 (1995).
[PubMed]

Schuett, S. T.

S. T. Schuett, T. Bonhoeffer, and M. Hubener, "Pairing-induced changes of orientation maps in cat visual cortex," Neuron 32, 325-337 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, T. H.

T. H. Schwartz, L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, D. D. Spencer, and A. W. Roe, "Intraoperative optical imaging of face topography in human somatosensory cortex," NeuroReport 15, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidemann, E.

E. Seidemann, A. Arieli, A. Grinvald, and H. Slovin, "Dynamics of depolarization and hyperpolarization in the frontal cortex and saccade goal," Science 295, 862-865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sengpiel, F.

A. Zepeda, C. Ariasa, and F. Sengpiel, "Optical imaging of intrinsic signals: recent developments in the methodology and its applications," J. Neurosci. Methods 136, 1-21 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seto, S.

C. E. Schroeder, S. Seto, J. C. Arezzo, and P. E. Garraghty, "Electrophysiological evidence for overlapping dominant and latent inputs to somatosensory cortex in squirrel monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 74, 722-732 (1995).
[PubMed]

Sheth, S.

S. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. Guiou, M. Walker, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, "Evaluation of coupling between optical intrinsic signals and neuronal activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuroimage 19, 884-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shima, D.

X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, "Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey," J. Neurosci. 24, 6237-6247 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, "Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735-15742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shomer, M. H.

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, M. H. Shomer, and A. W. Toga, "Refractory periods observed by intrinsic signal and fluorescent dye imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 1522-1532 (1998).
[PubMed]

Shtoyerman, E.

E. Shtoyerman, A. Arieli, H. Slovin, I. Vanzetta, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term optical imaging and spectroscopy reveal mechanisms underlying the intrinsic signal and stability of cortical maps in VI of behaving monkeys," J. Neurosci. 20, 8111-8121 (2000).
[PubMed]

Siegel, R. M.

M. Raffi and R. M. Siegel, "Functional architecture of spatial attention in the parietal cortex of the behaving monkey," J. Neurosci. 25, 5171-586 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Siegel, M. Raffi, R. E. Phinney, J. A. Turner, and G. Jando, "Functional architecture of eye position gain fields in visual association cortex of behaving monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 90, 1279-1294 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Siegel and H. L. Read, "Analysis of optic flow in the monkey parietal area 7a," Cereb. Cortex 7, 327-346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, and E. Bartfeld, "High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 11559-11563 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirovich, L.

L. Sirovich and E. Kaplan, "Analysis methods for optical imaging," in Optical Imaging: CRC Reviews, R.Frostig, ed. (CRC, 2002).

Slovin, H.

H. Slovin, A. Arieli, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term voltage-sensitive dye imaging reveals cortical dynamics in behaving monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 88, 3421-3438 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Seidemann, A. Arieli, A. Grinvald, and H. Slovin, "Dynamics of depolarization and hyperpolarization in the frontal cortex and saccade goal," Science 295, 862-865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Shtoyerman, A. Arieli, H. Slovin, I. Vanzetta, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term optical imaging and spectroscopy reveal mechanisms underlying the intrinsic signal and stability of cortical maps in VI of behaving monkeys," J. Neurosci. 20, 8111-8121 (2000).
[PubMed]

Spencer, D. D.

T. H. Schwartz, L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, D. D. Spencer, and A. W. Roe, "Intraoperative optical imaging of face topography in human somatosensory cortex," NeuroReport 15, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stefansic, J.

X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, "Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey," J. Neurosci. 24, 6237-6247 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stefansic, J. D.

D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, "Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735-15742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sur, M.

R. W. Dykes, M. Sur, M. M. Merzenich, J. H. Kaas, and R. J. Nelson, "Regional segregation of neurons responding to quickly adapting, slowly adapting, deep and pacinian receptors within thalamic ventroposterior lateral and ventroposterior inferior nuclei in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)," Neurosci. 6, 1687-1692 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sybirska, E.

A. W. Roe, D. Walled, E. Sybirska, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Optical imaging of prefrontal cortex during oculomotor delay response task in Macaque monkey," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , San Diego, Calif. (2004).

Tanaka, K.

G. Wang, M. Tanifuji, and K. Tanaka, "Functional architecture in monkey inferotemporal cortex revealed by in vivo optical imaging," Neurosci. Res. (NY) 32, 33-46 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, M.

Y. Iwamura, M. Tanaka, M. Sakamoto, and O. Hikosaka, "Converging patterns of finger representation and complex response properties of neurons in Area 1 of the first somatoensory cortex of the conscious monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 51, 327-337 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tanifuji, M.

G. Wang, M. Tanifuji, and K. Tanaka, "Functional architecture in monkey inferotemporal cortex revealed by in vivo optical imaging," Neurosci. Res. (NY) 32, 33-46 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, J. K.

J. K. Thompson, M. R. Peterson, and R. D. Freeman, "Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex," Science 299, 1070-1072 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toga, A. W.

S. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. Guiou, M. Walker, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, "Evaluation of coupling between optical intrinsic signals and neuronal activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuroimage 19, 884-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. A. Martin, D. P. Beckerand, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal spatial differences observed by functional MRI and human intraoperative optical imaging," Cereb. Cortex 11, 773-782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, M. H. Shomer, and A. W. Toga, "Refractory periods observed by intrinsic signal and fluorescent dye imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 1522-1532 (1998).
[PubMed]

Tommerdahl, M.

M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, "Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272-3283 (1998).
[PubMed]

Ts'o, D. Y.

G. M. Ghose and D. Y. Ts'o, "Form processing modules in primate area V4," J. Neurophysiol. 77, 2191-2196 (1997).
[PubMed]

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts'o, and A. Grinvald, "Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 6082-6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, J. A.

R. M. Siegel, M. Raffi, R. E. Phinney, J. A. Turner, and G. Jando, "Functional architecture of eye position gain fields in visual association cortex of behaving monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 90, 1279-1294 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulbert, I.

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanzetta, I.

E. Shtoyerman, A. Arieli, H. Slovin, I. Vanzetta, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term optical imaging and spectroscopy reveal mechanisms underlying the intrinsic signal and stability of cortical maps in VI of behaving monkeys," J. Neurosci. 20, 8111-8121 (2000).
[PubMed]

I. Vanzetta and A. Grinvald, "Increased cortical oxidative metabolism due to sensory stimulation: implications for functional brain imaging," Science 286, 1555-1558 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vierck, C. J.

M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, "Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272-3283 (1998).
[PubMed]

Vnek, N.

N. Vnek, R. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, P. S. Goldman-Rakic, and A. W. Roe, "Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 4057-4060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, M.

S. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. Guiou, M. Walker, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, "Evaluation of coupling between optical intrinsic signals and neuronal activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuroimage 19, 884-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walled, D.

A. W. Roe, D. Walled, E. Sybirska, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Optical imaging of prefrontal cortex during oculomotor delay response task in Macaque monkey," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , San Diego, Calif. (2004).

Wang, G.

G. Wang, M. Tanifuji, and K. Tanaka, "Functional architecture in monkey inferotemporal cortex revealed by in vivo optical imaging," Neurosci. Res. (NY) 32, 33-46 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitsel, B. L.

M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, "Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272-3283 (1998).
[PubMed]

Williams, G. V.

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, G. V. Williams, and A. W. Roe, "A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in primates," J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, "Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).

Xu, X.

X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, "Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey," J. Neurosci. 24, 6237-6247 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, "Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735-15742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zepeda, A.

A. Zepeda, C. Ariasa, and F. Sengpiel, "Optical imaging of intrinsic signals: recent developments in the methodology and its applications," J. Neurosci. Methods 136, 1-21 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zervas, N. T.

D. E. Sakas, K. Chamvises, L. F. Borges, and N. T. Zervas, "Biologically inert synthetic dural substitutes. Appraisal of a medical-grade aliphatic polyurethane and a polysiloxane-carbonate block copolymer," J. Neurosurg. 73, 936-941 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cereb. Cortex (2)

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. A. Martin, D. P. Beckerand, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal spatial differences observed by functional MRI and human intraoperative optical imaging," Cereb. Cortex 11, 773-782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Siegel and H. L. Read, "Analysis of optic flow in the monkey parietal area 7a," Cereb. Cortex 7, 327-346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerebral Cortex (1)

B. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, and A. W. Roe, "Real and illusory contour processing in Area V1 of the primate--a cortical balancing act," Cerebral Cortex 11, 648-665 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Brain Res. (2)

Y. Iwamura, M. Tanaka, M. Sakamoto, and O. Hikosaka, "Converging patterns of finger representation and complex response properties of neurons in Area 1 of the first somatoensory cortex of the conscious monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 51, 327-337 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Alloway and H. Burton, "Differential effects of GABA and bicuculline on rapidly- and slowly-adapting neurons in primary somatosensory cortex of primates," Exp. Brain Res. 85, 98-610 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurophysiol. (8)

C. E. Schroeder, S. Seto, J. C. Arezzo, and P. E. Garraghty, "Electrophysiological evidence for overlapping dominant and latent inputs to somatosensory cortex in squirrel monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 74, 722-732 (1995).
[PubMed]

S. Funahashi, C. J. Bruce, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Mnemonic coding of visual space in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 61, 331-349 (1989).
[PubMed]

L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, B. M. Ramsden, R. H. LaMotte, and A. W. Roe, "Fine-scale organization of primary somatosensory cortex (Area 3b) in the squirrel monkey revealed with intrinsic optical imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 3011-3029 (2001).
[PubMed]

H. Slovin, A. Arieli, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term voltage-sensitive dye imaging reveals cortical dynamics in behaving monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 88, 3421-3438 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Ghose and D. Y. Ts'o, "Form processing modules in primate area V4," J. Neurophysiol. 77, 2191-2196 (1997).
[PubMed]

M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, "Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272-3283 (1998).
[PubMed]

R. M. Siegel, M. Raffi, R. E. Phinney, J. A. Turner, and G. Jando, "Functional architecture of eye position gain fields in visual association cortex of behaving monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 90, 1279-1294 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, M. H. Shomer, and A. W. Toga, "Refractory periods observed by intrinsic signal and fluorescent dye imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 1522-1532 (1998).
[PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (4)

W. H. Bosking, R. Kretz, M. L. Pucak, and D. Fitzpatrick, "Functional specificity of callosal connections in tree shrew striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 20, 2346-2359 (2000).
[PubMed]

X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, "Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey," J. Neurosci. 24, 6237-6247 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Shtoyerman, A. Arieli, H. Slovin, I. Vanzetta, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term optical imaging and spectroscopy reveal mechanisms underlying the intrinsic signal and stability of cortical maps in VI of behaving monkeys," J. Neurosci. 20, 8111-8121 (2000).
[PubMed]

M. Raffi and R. M. Siegel, "Functional architecture of spatial attention in the parietal cortex of the behaving monkey," J. Neurosci. 25, 5171-586 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods (3)

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, G. V. Williams, and A. W. Roe, "A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in primates," J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Rector, R. F. Rogers, and J. S. George, "A focusing image probe for assessing neural activity in vivo," J. Neurosci. Methods 91, 135-145 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zepeda, C. Ariasa, and F. Sengpiel, "Optical imaging of intrinsic signals: recent developments in the methodology and its applications," J. Neurosci. Methods 136, 1-21 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosurg. (1)

D. E. Sakas, K. Chamvises, L. F. Borges, and N. T. Zervas, "Biologically inert synthetic dural substitutes. Appraisal of a medical-grade aliphatic polyurethane and a polysiloxane-carbonate block copolymer," J. Neurosurg. 73, 936-941 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Neurosci. (1)

D. S. Kim, T. Q. Duong, and S. G. Kim, "High-resolution mapping of iso-orientation columns by fMRI," Nat. Neurosci. 3, 164-169 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (1)

S. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. Guiou, M. Walker, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, "Evaluation of coupling between optical intrinsic signals and neuronal activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuroimage 19, 884-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuron (2)

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Schuett, T. Bonhoeffer, and M. Hubener, "Pairing-induced changes of orientation maps in cat visual cortex," Neuron 32, 325-337 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

NeuroReport (1)

T. H. Schwartz, L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, D. D. Spencer, and A. W. Roe, "Intraoperative optical imaging of face topography in human somatosensory cortex," NeuroReport 15, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurosci. (1)

R. W. Dykes, M. Sur, M. M. Merzenich, J. H. Kaas, and R. J. Nelson, "Regional segregation of neurons responding to quickly adapting, slowly adapting, deep and pacinian receptors within thalamic ventroposterior lateral and ventroposterior inferior nuclei in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)," Neurosci. 6, 1687-1692 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Neurosci. Res. (1)

G. Wang, M. Tanifuji, and K. Tanaka, "Functional architecture in monkey inferotemporal cortex revealed by in vivo optical imaging," Neurosci. Res. (NY) 32, 33-46 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (4)

D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, "Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735-15742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts'o, and A. Grinvald, "Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 6082-6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, and E. Bartfeld, "High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 11559-11563 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Vnek, R. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, P. S. Goldman-Rakic, and A. W. Roe, "Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 4057-4060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

E. Seidemann, A. Arieli, A. Grinvald, and H. Slovin, "Dynamics of depolarization and hyperpolarization in the frontal cortex and saccade goal," Science 295, 862-865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Thompson, M. R. Peterson, and R. D. Freeman, "Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex," Science 299, 1070-1072 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vanzetta and A. Grinvald, "Increased cortical oxidative metabolism due to sensory stimulation: implications for functional brain imaging," Science 286, 1555-1558 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soc. Neurosci. Abstract (2)

A. W. Roe, D. Walled, E. Sybirska, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Optical imaging of prefrontal cortex during oculomotor delay response task in Macaque monkey," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , San Diego, Calif. (2004).

B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, "Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).

Other (4)

L. Sirovich and E. Kaplan, "Analysis methods for optical imaging," in Optical Imaging: CRC Reviews, R.Frostig, ed. (CRC, 2002).

A. W. Roe, F. L. Healy, R. M. Friedman, B. Heider, and L. M. Chen, "Differences in SI topography between anesthetized and awake squirrel monkey as revealed by optical imaging," Program No. 28:651.3. 2002 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Washington, D.C.: Society for Neuroscience, CD-ROM (2002).

T. Bonhoeffer and A. Grinvald, "Optical imaging based on intrinsic signals: the methodology," in Brain Mapping. The Methods, A. W. Toga and J. C. Mazziota, eds. (Academic, 1996), pp. 55-87.

A. W. Roe, "Modular complexity of Area V2 in the Macaque monkey," in The Primate Visual System, C. Collins and J. H. Kaas, eds. (CRC, 2003), pp. 109-138.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A, Profile of chamber and artificial dura over the brain; B, chamber; C, artificial dura; D, chamber open; E, chamber closed. (From Chen et al.[20])

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A, Dura over SI somatosensory cortex (Areas 1, 3b, and 3a) in the squirrel monkey has been resected and a detailed electrophysiological map recorded. B. Appearance of cortex remains healthy and vascular pattern remains stable for over a 2 year period.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cortical responses to tactile indentation on Digit 3 (D3) is imaged repeatedly on three different days. Response region overlain on blood vessel map (indicated by outlines in overlay) reveals stable topography over time. Signal amplitudes were stable over time ( 0.77 % + 0.1 % , 0.83 % + 0.07 % , and 0.59% + 0.14%).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical imaging setup of squirrel monkey with implanted chamber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Motion correction algorithm. A. Time sequence of image frames. B. Select one frame as base frame (usually the very first frame of the run). Shift each frame in x and y coordinates in 0.2–0.5 pixel steps. For each shift, calculate the correlation coefficient between the base frame and the current frame. C. Repeat for every pixel in a small area (e.g., 10 × 10 comparison will give 100 correlation coefficients). Find the best coefficient and use corresponding shift offset ( d x , d y ) . D. Magnitude of correction in an anesthetized monkey (black) and an awake, fixating monkey (gray) (140 frames over 28   s ).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ocular dominance (B, E) and orientation (C, F) maps from V1 and V2 in macaque monkey on two different days (A–C versus D–F). Black crosses in A and D indicate the alignment points used to generate transformation function between images. F–I Application of transformation to images in A–C produce images similar to D–F. (From Chen et al.[20])

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cortical response to vibrotactile stimulation of D3 and D4 in the squirrel monkey. A. Anesthetized activation prominent in Area 3b (see time course in Fig. 8). B. Awake activation prominent in Area 1 (see time courses in graphs below). C. Electrophysiologyical mapping of Areas 3a, 3b, and 1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time course of optical signal in Area 3b of the squirrel monkey in response to vibrotactile stimulation of digits D2 (circle) and D4 (triangle). Awake (A) and anesthetized (B) signals were obtained from identical location in same monkey to identical stimulus. All signals measured at the D4 location.

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