Abstract

The effect attributable to the nonparallelism of the guiding layer of a planar waveguide on the reflection dip of the attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectrum is investigated. It is considered that the reflected light from a nonparallel waveguide is, indeed, the superposition of a series of beams propagating in different directions. The ATR spectra are numerically calculated with various inclination values. Compared with those of the corresponding parallel ones, with the inclination of waveguides exceeding 1 μrad, the characteristics of the ATR spectra begin to differ considerably, and when the inclination reaches 10 μrad, the sensitivity of sensors based on the waveguide is reduced by 62.7% and 67.3% for the free space coupling structure and the prism coupling structure, respectively. When the inclination becomes larger than 100μrad, the ATR phenomenon cannot be observed any longer.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2006

K. H. Park, Y. Liang, S. H. Kim, and H. S. Lee, "New analysis method for three-dimensional orientation of PEN using polarized FTIR-ATR spectroscopy: multiple peak reference method," Macromolecules 39, 1832-1838 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. Skivesen, "Monitoring of living cell attachment and spreading using reverse symmetry waveguide sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, and Y. Feng, "Optical approach to angular displacement based on attenuated total reflection," Appl. Opt. 44, 5393-5397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. Shi, Z. Cao, J. Zhu, and Q. Shen, "Displacement measurement in real time using the attenuated total reflection technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3253-3255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, Z.-Q Cao, Q. Shen, S. Lv, and X. Li, "Measurement of the second-order nonlinear optical coefficient of polymers based on surface plasmon resonance," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 1072-1075 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, Q. Shen, and X. Deng, "Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579-4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, "Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757-2759, (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

1999

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, Principle of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), Chap. 1, pp. 64-70.

Cao, Z.

F. Chen, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, and Y. Feng, "Optical approach to angular displacement based on attenuated total reflection," Appl. Opt. 44, 5393-5397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shi, Z. Cao, J. Zhu, and Q. Shen, "Displacement measurement in real time using the attenuated total reflection technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3253-3255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, Q. Shen, and X. Deng, "Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579-4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, "Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757-2759, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, "Improved attenuated-total-reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficients of nonlinear optical polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 805-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z.-Q

F. Wang, Z.-Q Cao, Q. Shen, S. Lv, and X. Li, "Measurement of the second-order nonlinear optical coefficient of polymers based on surface plasmon resonance," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 1072-1075 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

Chen, Y.

Deng, X.

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, Q. Shen, and X. Deng, "Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579-4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dou, X.

Feng, Y.

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, R.

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. Skivesen, "Monitoring of living cell attachment and spreading using reverse symmetry waveguide sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Kim, S. H.

K. H. Park, Y. Liang, S. H. Kim, and H. S. Lee, "New analysis method for three-dimensional orientation of PEN using polarized FTIR-ATR spectroscopy: multiple peak reference method," Macromolecules 39, 1832-1838 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. S.

K. H. Park, Y. Liang, S. H. Kim, and H. S. Lee, "New analysis method for three-dimensional orientation of PEN using polarized FTIR-ATR spectroscopy: multiple peak reference method," Macromolecules 39, 1832-1838 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, Q. Shen, and X. Deng, "Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579-4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, "Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757-2759, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

F. Wang, Z.-Q Cao, Q. Shen, S. Lv, and X. Li, "Measurement of the second-order nonlinear optical coefficient of polymers based on surface plasmon resonance," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 1072-1075 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

K. H. Park, Y. Liang, S. H. Kim, and H. S. Lee, "New analysis method for three-dimensional orientation of PEN using polarized FTIR-ATR spectroscopy: multiple peak reference method," Macromolecules 39, 1832-1838 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, Q. Shen, and X. Deng, "Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579-4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, "Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757-2759, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lv, S.

F. Wang, Z.-Q Cao, Q. Shen, S. Lv, and X. Li, "Measurement of the second-order nonlinear optical coefficient of polymers based on surface plasmon resonance," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 1072-1075 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, N.

Okamoto, T.

Park, K. H.

K. H. Park, Y. Liang, S. H. Kim, and H. S. Lee, "New analysis method for three-dimensional orientation of PEN using polarized FTIR-ATR spectroscopy: multiple peak reference method," Macromolecules 39, 1832-1838 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, H. C.

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. Skivesen, "Monitoring of living cell attachment and spreading using reverse symmetry waveguide sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qi, Z.-M.

Santos, J. H.

Shen, Q.

F. Chen, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, and Y. Feng, "Optical approach to angular displacement based on attenuated total reflection," Appl. Opt. 44, 5393-5397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shi, Z. Cao, J. Zhu, and Q. Shen, "Displacement measurement in real time using the attenuated total reflection technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3253-3255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, Z.-Q Cao, Q. Shen, S. Lv, and X. Li, "Measurement of the second-order nonlinear optical coefficient of polymers based on surface plasmon resonance," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 1072-1075 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, Q. Shen, and X. Deng, "Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579-4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, "Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757-2759, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, "Improved attenuated-total-reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficients of nonlinear optical polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 805-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

J. Shi, Z. Cao, J. Zhu, and Q. Shen, "Displacement measurement in real time using the attenuated total reflection technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3253-3255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Skivesen, N.

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. Skivesen, "Monitoring of living cell attachment and spreading using reverse symmetry waveguide sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

F. Wang, Z.-Q Cao, Q. Shen, S. Lv, and X. Li, "Measurement of the second-order nonlinear optical coefficient of polymers based on surface plasmon resonance," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 1072-1075 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, I.

Yamamoto, M.

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Shi, Z. Cao, J. Zhu, and Q. Shen, "Displacement measurement in real time using the attenuated total reflection technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3253-3255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. Skivesen, "Monitoring of living cell attachment and spreading using reverse symmetry waveguide sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, "Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757-2759, (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, Q. Shen, and X. Deng, "Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579-4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Shi, Z. Cao, J. Zhu, and Q. Shen, "Displacement measurement in real time using the attenuated total reflection technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3253-3255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt.

F. Wang, Z.-Q Cao, Q. Shen, S. Lv, and X. Li, "Measurement of the second-order nonlinear optical coefficient of polymers based on surface plasmon resonance," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 1072-1075 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Macromolecules

K. H. Park, Y. Liang, S. H. Kim, and H. S. Lee, "New analysis method for three-dimensional orientation of PEN using polarized FTIR-ATR spectroscopy: multiple peak reference method," Macromolecules 39, 1832-1838 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Sens. Actuators B

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born, Principle of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), Chap. 1, pp. 64-70.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of nonparallel waveguides: (a) free-space coupling structure and (b) prism coupling structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

ATR spectra for inclinations of 0, 1, 5, 10, and 100 μrad : (a) free-space coupling structure and (b) prism coupling structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relations between S 1 and incident angle for inclinations of 0, 1, 5, and 10 μrad : (a) free-space coupling structure and (b) prism coupling structure.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Dependence of Dip Characteristics on the Inclination

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R = 1 I 0 L L n = 1 U n ( n = 1 U n ) * d x ,
U 1 = U 0 r ( θ ) ,
U 2 = U 0 t ( θ ) t ( θ 2 ϕ ) r ( θ ϕ ) exp ( i 4 π λ d ) .
U n + 1 = U n r ( θ 1 ) r ( θ 1 + ϕ ) exp ( i 4 π λ d ) .
S = d R d q = R θ θ q = S 1 S 2 .

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