Abstract

A study was conducted for the purpose of improving the designs of the next generation of refractive surgical laser systems. Two common refractive laser systems, variable-spot scanning (type A) and small-spot scanning (type B), are discussed by identifying sources of error that could adversely affect the capability of these lasers to accurately produce complex, customized wavefront guided ablations. A mathematical model was used to construct a laser simulator that models the two common laser systems in terms of the root-mean-square error. Error sources from ablation profile fitting, ablation registration, eye tracking, and the laser delivery system are compared, and the relative contribution of each to the overall system error is analyzed. This system-level analysis can be helpful to the improvement of both laser systems.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Liang, W. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J. F. Bille, "Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1949-1957 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, and M. A. El Danasoury, "Comparison of corneal wave-front aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 127, 1-7 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Seiler, M. Mrochen, and M. Kaemmerer, "Operative correction of ocular aberrations to improve visual acuity," J. Refract. Surg. 16, S619-S622 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  4. E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, "Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1396-1403 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  5. M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, "Clinical results of wave-front-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 201-207 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Yee, "Active eye tracking for excimer laser refractive surgery," in Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, 2nd ed., J.Bille, C.F. H.Harner, and F.H.Loesel, eds. (Springer, 2003), pp. 125-140.
  7. D. K. Chitkara, E. Rosen, C. Gore, F. Howes, and E. Kowalewski, "Tracker-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia using the autonomous scanning and tracking laser: 12-month results," Ophthalmol. 109, 965-972 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. E. Pineros, "Tracker-assisted versus manual ablation zone centration in laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 37-42 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  9. S. M. Brown, "Tracker-assisted Lasik," Ophthalmol. 110, 2258-2259 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Bara, T. Maucebo, and E. Moreno-Barriuso, "Positioning tolerances for phase plates compensating aberrations of human eye," Appl. Opt. 39, 3413-3420 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Guirao, D. Williams, and I. Cox, "Effect of the rotation and translation on the expected benefit of an ideal method to correct the eye's high-order aberrations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1003-1015 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Yang, K. Thompson, and S. Burns, "Pupil location under mesopic, photopic, and pharmacologically dilated conditions," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 2508-2512 (2002).
    [PubMed]
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  14. D. Chernyak, "Cyclotorsional eye tracking," in Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, 2nd ed., J.Bille, C.F. H.Harner, and F.H.Loesel, eds. (Springer, 2003), pp. 141-157.
  15. G.-m. Dai, E. Gross, and J. Liang, "Reducing high order aberrations caused by accumulated system component errors," presented at Frontiers in Optics, 87th OSA Annual Meeting, Tucson, Arizona, 5-October 2003.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
  20. J. Schwiegerling, "Wavefront and topography: keratome-induced corneal changes demonstrate that both are needed for custom ablation," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S584-S588 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  21. I. G. Pallikaris, "Induced optical aberrations following formation of a laser in situ keratomileusis flap," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 1737-1741 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Porter, S. MacRea, G. Yoon, C. Roberts, I. G. Cox, and D. Williams, "Separate effects of the microkeratome incision and laser ablation on the eye's wave aberration," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136, 327-337 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. E. Wilson, R. R. Mohan, J. W. Hong, J. S. Lee, and R. Choi, "The wound healing response after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy: elusive control of biological variability and effect on custom laser vision correction," Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 889-896 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  24. D. Huang, M. Tang, and R. Shekhar, "Mathematical model of corneal surface smoothing after laser refractive surgery," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 267-278 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C++ (Cambridge University Press, 2002).
  26. K. Yee and E. Gross, "Generating scanning spot locations for laser eye surgery," U.S. patent 6,673,062 (6 January 2004).
  27. D. Ott, S. H. Seidman, and R. J. Leigh, "The stability of human eye orientation during visual fixation," Neuroscience Lett. 142, 183-186 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Schwiegerling and R. W. Snyder, "Eye movement during laser in situ keratomileusis," J. Cataract. Refract. Surg. 26, 345-351 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, 1965).

2003

S. M. Brown, "Tracker-assisted Lasik," Ophthalmol. 110, 2258-2259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Porter, S. MacRea, G. Yoon, C. Roberts, I. G. Cox, and D. Williams, "Separate effects of the microkeratome incision and laser ablation on the eye's wave aberration," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136, 327-337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, M. Tang, and R. Shekhar, "Mathematical model of corneal surface smoothing after laser refractive surgery," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 267-278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

D. K. Chitkara, E. Rosen, C. Gore, F. Howes, and E. Kowalewski, "Tracker-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia using the autonomous scanning and tracking laser: 12-month results," Ophthalmol. 109, 965-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. E. Pineros, "Tracker-assisted versus manual ablation zone centration in laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 37-42 (2002).
[PubMed]

Y. Yang, K. Thompson, and S. Burns, "Pupil location under mesopic, photopic, and pharmacologically dilated conditions," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 2508-2512 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Schwiegerling, "Wavefront and topography: keratome-induced corneal changes demonstrate that both are needed for custom ablation," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S584-S588 (2002).
[PubMed]

I. G. Pallikaris, "Induced optical aberrations following formation of a laser in situ keratomileusis flap," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 1737-1741 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

A. Guirao, D. Williams, and I. Cox, "Effect of the rotation and translation on the expected benefit of an ideal method to correct the eye's high-order aberrations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1003-1015 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, "Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1396-1403 (2001).
[PubMed]

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, "Clinical results of wave-front-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 201-207 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Wilson, R. R. Mohan, J. W. Hong, J. S. Lee, and R. Choi, "The wound healing response after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy: elusive control of biological variability and effect on custom laser vision correction," Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 889-896 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000

J. Schwiegerling and R. W. Snyder, "Eye movement during laser in situ keratomileusis," J. Cataract. Refract. Surg. 26, 345-351 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bara, T. Maucebo, and E. Moreno-Barriuso, "Positioning tolerances for phase plates compensating aberrations of human eye," Appl. Opt. 39, 3413-3420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Seiler, M. Mrochen, and M. Kaemmerer, "Operative correction of ocular aberrations to improve visual acuity," J. Refract. Surg. 16, S619-S622 (2000).
[PubMed]

C. Roberts, "The cornea is not a piece of plastic," J. Refract. Surg. 16, 407-413 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, and M. A. El Danasoury, "Comparison of corneal wave-front aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 127, 1-7 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

1994

1992

D. Ott, S. H. Seidman, and R. J. Leigh, "The stability of human eye orientation during visual fixation," Neuroscience Lett. 142, 183-186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1980

Applegate, R. A.

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, and M. A. El Danasoury, "Comparison of corneal wave-front aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 127, 1-7 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bara, S.

Barbero, S.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, "Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1396-1403 (2001).
[PubMed]

Bille, J. F.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, 1965).

Brown, S. M.

S. M. Brown, "Tracker-assisted Lasik," Ophthalmol. 110, 2258-2259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S.

Y. Yang, K. Thompson, and S. Burns, "Pupil location under mesopic, photopic, and pharmacologically dilated conditions," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 2508-2512 (2002).
[PubMed]

Chernyak, D.

D. Chernyak, "Full registration of the laser ablation to the wavefront measurement," in Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, 2nd ed., J.Bille, C.F. H.Harner, and F.H.Loesel, eds. (Springer, 2003), pp. 159-170.

D. Chernyak, "Cyclotorsional eye tracking," in Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, 2nd ed., J.Bille, C.F. H.Harner, and F.H.Loesel, eds. (Springer, 2003), pp. 141-157.

Chitkara, D. K.

D. K. Chitkara, E. Rosen, C. Gore, F. Howes, and E. Kowalewski, "Tracker-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia using the autonomous scanning and tracking laser: 12-month results," Ophthalmol. 109, 965-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, R.

S. E. Wilson, R. R. Mohan, J. W. Hong, J. S. Lee, and R. Choi, "The wound healing response after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy: elusive control of biological variability and effect on custom laser vision correction," Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 889-896 (2001).
[PubMed]

Cox, I.

Cox, I. G.

J. Porter, S. MacRea, G. Yoon, C. Roberts, I. G. Cox, and D. Williams, "Separate effects of the microkeratome incision and laser ablation on the eye's wave aberration," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136, 327-337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, G.-m.

G.-m. Dai, "Modal wave-front reconstruction with Zernike polynomials and Karhunen-Loève functions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1218-1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G.-m. Dai, E. Gross, and J. Liang, "Reducing high order aberrations caused by accumulated system component errors," presented at Frontiers in Optics, 87th OSA Annual Meeting, Tucson, Arizona, 5-October 2003.

El Danasoury, M. A.

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, and M. A. El Danasoury, "Comparison of corneal wave-front aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 127, 1-7 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C++ (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Goelz, S.

Gore, C.

D. K. Chitkara, E. Rosen, C. Gore, F. Howes, and E. Kowalewski, "Tracker-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia using the autonomous scanning and tracking laser: 12-month results," Ophthalmol. 109, 965-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, W.

Gross, E.

K. Yee and E. Gross, "Generating scanning spot locations for laser eye surgery," U.S. patent 6,673,062 (6 January 2004).

G.-m. Dai, E. Gross, and J. Liang, "Reducing high order aberrations caused by accumulated system component errors," presented at Frontiers in Optics, 87th OSA Annual Meeting, Tucson, Arizona, 5-October 2003.

Guirao, A.

Hong, J. W.

S. E. Wilson, R. R. Mohan, J. W. Hong, J. S. Lee, and R. Choi, "The wound healing response after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy: elusive control of biological variability and effect on custom laser vision correction," Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 889-896 (2001).
[PubMed]

Howes, F.

D. K. Chitkara, E. Rosen, C. Gore, F. Howes, and E. Kowalewski, "Tracker-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia using the autonomous scanning and tracking laser: 12-month results," Ophthalmol. 109, 965-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Howland, H. C.

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, and M. A. El Danasoury, "Comparison of corneal wave-front aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 127, 1-7 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, M. Tang, and R. Shekhar, "Mathematical model of corneal surface smoothing after laser refractive surgery," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 267-278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaemmerer, M.

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, "Clinical results of wave-front-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 201-207 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seiler, M. Mrochen, and M. Kaemmerer, "Operative correction of ocular aberrations to improve visual acuity," J. Refract. Surg. 16, S619-S622 (2000).
[PubMed]

Klyce, S. D.

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, and M. A. El Danasoury, "Comparison of corneal wave-front aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 127, 1-7 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalewski, E.

D. K. Chitkara, E. Rosen, C. Gore, F. Howes, and E. Kowalewski, "Tracker-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia using the autonomous scanning and tracking laser: 12-month results," Ophthalmol. 109, 965-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

S. E. Wilson, R. R. Mohan, J. W. Hong, J. S. Lee, and R. Choi, "The wound healing response after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy: elusive control of biological variability and effect on custom laser vision correction," Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 889-896 (2001).
[PubMed]

Leigh, R. J.

D. Ott, S. H. Seidman, and R. J. Leigh, "The stability of human eye orientation during visual fixation," Neuroscience Lett. 142, 183-186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

J. Liang, W. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J. F. Bille, "Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1949-1957 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G.-m. Dai, E. Gross, and J. Liang, "Reducing high order aberrations caused by accumulated system component errors," presented at Frontiers in Optics, 87th OSA Annual Meeting, Tucson, Arizona, 5-October 2003.

Llorente, L.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, "Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1396-1403 (2001).
[PubMed]

Lloves, J. M.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, "Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1396-1403 (2001).
[PubMed]

MacRea, S.

J. Porter, S. MacRea, G. Yoon, C. Roberts, I. G. Cox, and D. Williams, "Separate effects of the microkeratome incision and laser ablation on the eye's wave aberration," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136, 327-337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcos, S.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, "Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1396-1403 (2001).
[PubMed]

Maucebo, T.

Mohan, R. R.

S. E. Wilson, R. R. Mohan, J. W. Hong, J. S. Lee, and R. Choi, "The wound healing response after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy: elusive control of biological variability and effect on custom laser vision correction," Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 889-896 (2001).
[PubMed]

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, "Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1396-1403 (2001).
[PubMed]

S. Bara, T. Maucebo, and E. Moreno-Barriuso, "Positioning tolerances for phase plates compensating aberrations of human eye," Appl. Opt. 39, 3413-3420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mrochen, M.

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, "Clinical results of wave-front-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 201-207 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seiler, M. Mrochen, and M. Kaemmerer, "Operative correction of ocular aberrations to improve visual acuity," J. Refract. Surg. 16, S619-S622 (2000).
[PubMed]

M. Mrochen, "How to translate a shape onto the cornea: customized ablation profile design," presented at Laser Technology Forum, 107th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, Anaheim, California, 15-18 November 2003.

Navarro, R.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, "Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1396-1403 (2001).
[PubMed]

Oshika, T.

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, and M. A. El Danasoury, "Comparison of corneal wave-front aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 127, 1-7 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ott, D.

D. Ott, S. H. Seidman, and R. J. Leigh, "The stability of human eye orientation during visual fixation," Neuroscience Lett. 142, 183-186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pallikaris, I. G.

I. G. Pallikaris, "Induced optical aberrations following formation of a laser in situ keratomileusis flap," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 1737-1741 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pineros, O. E.

O. E. Pineros, "Tracker-assisted versus manual ablation zone centration in laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 37-42 (2002).
[PubMed]

Porter, J.

J. Porter, S. MacRea, G. Yoon, C. Roberts, I. G. Cox, and D. Williams, "Separate effects of the microkeratome incision and laser ablation on the eye's wave aberration," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136, 327-337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C++ (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Roberts, C.

J. Porter, S. MacRea, G. Yoon, C. Roberts, I. G. Cox, and D. Williams, "Separate effects of the microkeratome incision and laser ablation on the eye's wave aberration," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136, 327-337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Roberts, "The cornea is not a piece of plastic," J. Refract. Surg. 16, 407-413 (2000).
[PubMed]

Rosen, E.

D. K. Chitkara, E. Rosen, C. Gore, F. Howes, and E. Kowalewski, "Tracker-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia using the autonomous scanning and tracking laser: 12-month results," Ophthalmol. 109, 965-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwiegerling, J.

J. Schwiegerling, "Wavefront and topography: keratome-induced corneal changes demonstrate that both are needed for custom ablation," J. Refract. Surg. 18, S584-S588 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Schwiegerling and R. W. Snyder, "Eye movement during laser in situ keratomileusis," J. Cataract. Refract. Surg. 26, 345-351 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidman, S. H.

D. Ott, S. H. Seidman, and R. J. Leigh, "The stability of human eye orientation during visual fixation," Neuroscience Lett. 142, 183-186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Seiler, T.

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, "Clinical results of wave-front-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 27, 201-207 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seiler, M. Mrochen, and M. Kaemmerer, "Operative correction of ocular aberrations to improve visual acuity," J. Refract. Surg. 16, S619-S622 (2000).
[PubMed]

Shekhar, R.

D. Huang, M. Tang, and R. Shekhar, "Mathematical model of corneal surface smoothing after laser refractive surgery," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 267-278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, R. W.

J. Schwiegerling and R. W. Snyder, "Eye movement during laser in situ keratomileusis," J. Cataract. Refract. Surg. 26, 345-351 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southwell, W. H.

Tang, M.

D. Huang, M. Tang, and R. Shekhar, "Mathematical model of corneal surface smoothing after laser refractive surgery," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 267-278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C++ (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Thompson, K.

Y. Yang, K. Thompson, and S. Burns, "Pupil location under mesopic, photopic, and pharmacologically dilated conditions," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 2508-2512 (2002).
[PubMed]

Vetterling, W.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C++ (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Williams, D.

J. Porter, S. MacRea, G. Yoon, C. Roberts, I. G. Cox, and D. Williams, "Separate effects of the microkeratome incision and laser ablation on the eye's wave aberration," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136, 327-337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guirao, D. Williams, and I. Cox, "Effect of the rotation and translation on the expected benefit of an ideal method to correct the eye's high-order aberrations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1003-1015 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, S. E.

S. E. Wilson, R. R. Mohan, J. W. Hong, J. S. Lee, and R. Choi, "The wound healing response after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy: elusive control of biological variability and effect on custom laser vision correction," Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 889-896 (2001).
[PubMed]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, 1965).

Yang, Y.

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K. Yee, "Active eye tracking for excimer laser refractive surgery," in Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery, 2nd ed., J.Bille, C.F. H.Harner, and F.H.Loesel, eds. (Springer, 2003), pp. 125-140.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flow chart of the laser simulation process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser pulse profiles of type A and type B for tissue ablation. Each profile represents the theoretical ablation of a single laser pulse. The type A laser can vary pulse diameter from 0.65 mm to 6.5 mm continuously. The type B laser is fixed to a single-size spot, in this case 1 mm diameter (0.75 mm FWHM).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of a horizontal eye motion profile: (a) measured from a real eye sampled at 60 Hz and (b) calculated from the simulation with the same sampling rate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Power spectrum from (a) 50 real eye movements (courtesy of Kingman Yee for providing the data) and (b) 100 simulated eye movements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

rms Errors for small-spot scanning with different spot sizes show that a smaller spot does not produce a more accurate fit. Note that error begins to increase as the spot size decreases below 0.5 mm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Correlation of the fitting error and the number of pulses after fitting for (a) type A and (b) type B.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

rms Error owing to registration error for (a) type A with positional error; (b) type B with positional error; (c) type A with rotational error; and (d) type B with rotational error.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Correlation of the registration error and tissue ablation depth for the six refractive types. The registration error is due to positional misalignment with 0.2 mm error.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

rms Tracking error as a function of (a) tracking speed for type A; (b) tracking speed for type B; (c) tracking accuracy for type A; (d) tracking accuracy for type B; (e) system latency time for type A; (f) system latency time for type B.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Correlation of the tracking error and the number of pulses for the six refractive types: (a) type A; (b) type B.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

rms Torsional tracking error as a function of (a) tracking speed for type A; (b) tracking speed for type B; (c) tracking accuracy for type A; (d) tracking accuracy for type B; (e) system latency time for type A; (f) system latency time for type B.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

rms Error owing to laser ablation profile fluctuation for (a) type A and (b) type B.

Tables (8)

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Table 1 Refraction, HOA, Optical Zone (OZ), Ablation Zone (AZ) and Tissue Ablation Depth of the Six Refractive Types

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Table 2 Average Eye Movement from 100 Simulated Samples

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Table 3 Comparison of rms Fitting Error in μm

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Table 4 Comparison of the Number of Pulses Used in Fitting

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Table 5 Parameters Used in the Simulation for the Two Types of Lasers

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Table 6 Comparison of rms Error (in Microns) for both Types of Lasers for all Refractive Types

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Table 7 Comparison of rms Error (in Microns) with and without Registration Alignment Correction

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Table 8 Comparison of rms Error (in Microns) with and without Tracking

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ total                2 = σ f     2 + σ r     2 + σ t     2 + σ b     2 ,
F ( r ) = 0.4 exp [ 8 ln 2 r 2 D 2 ] ,
W ^ ( r , θ ) = W ^ ( x , y ) = i = 1 m F i ( x x i , y y i ) ,
W ˜ ( r , θ ) = W ˜ ( x , y ) = i = 1 m α i F ( x x i x i , y y i y i ) ,
σ f     2 = n 1 π P ( r ) | W ^ ( r , θ ) W ( r , θ ) | 2 d 2 r ,
σ 0     2 = n 1 π s j = 1 S P ( r ) | W ˜ j ( r , θ ) W ^ ( r , θ ) | 2 d 2 r ,

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