Abstract

The optical properties of barium strontium titanate (Ba0 .7Sr0 .3TiO3; BST) thin films are described. The BST thin films were epitaxially grown upon MgO (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The crystallographic properties of the BST thin films were examined by x-ray diffraction. The BST thin films were highly optically transparent in the visible region. The optical waveguide properties were characterized by a prism coupling technique. An inverse-WBK method was employed to determine the refractive-index profile along the thickness of the BST films. Optical losses were measured by a moving fiber method, and the optical losses were found to be 0.93dB/cm for the TE0 mode and 1.29dB/cm for the TM0 mode at 1550nm. Electro-optic (E-O) properties were measured by a phase-modulation detection method at 632.8 nm, and the BST films exhibited a predominantly quadratic E-O effect with a quadratic E-O coefficient of 6.64×1018m 2/V 2.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Adachi and K. Wasa, "Sputtering preparation of ferroelectric PLZT thin films and their optical applications," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 38, 645-655 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Blomqvist, S. Khartsev, A. Crishin, A. Petraru, and C. Buchal, "Optical waveguiding in magnetron-sputtered Na0.5K0.5NbO3 thin films on sapphire substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 439-441 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. M. Gill, B. A. Block, C. W. Conrad, B. W. Wessels, and S. T. Ho, "Thin film channel waveguides fabricated in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown BaTiO3 on MgO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2968-2970 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Adachi, T. Mitsuyu, O. Yamazaki, and K. Wasa, "Ferroelectric (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3 epitaxial thin films on sapphire grown by rf-planar magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 60, 736-741 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. H. Kim and H. S. Kwok, "Pulsed laser deposition of BaTiO3 thin films and their optical properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1803-1805 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Lu, G.-H. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, S.-W. Liu, H. Jiang, F.-L. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, and A. J. Drehman, "Fabrication and optical characterization of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 planar thin film optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2927-2929 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, and T. W. Noh, "Structural and nonlinear optical properties of epitaxial LiNbO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 56, 251-255 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. D. Zhu, J. Zhao, F. Wang, P. E. Norris, G. D. Fogarty, B. Steiner, P. Lu, B. Kear, S. B. Kang, B. Gallois, M. Sinclair, D. Dimos, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Epitaxial electro-optical SrxBa1−xNb2O6 films by single-source plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1836-1838 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D.-Y. Kim, S. E. Moon, E.-K. Kim, S.-J. Lee, J.-J. Choi, and H. E. Kim, "Electro-optic characterization of (001)-oriented Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1455-1457 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Li, F. Duewer, C. Gao, H. Chang, X.-D. Xiang, and Y. Lu, "Electro-optic measurements of the ferroelectric-paraelectric boundary in Ba1−xSrxTiO3 materials chips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 769-771 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Echau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Vilquin, R. Bouregba, G. Poullain, H. Murray, E. Dogheche, and D. Remiens, "Crystallographic and optical properties of epitaxial Pb(Zr0.6,Ti0.4)O3 thin films grown on LaAIO3 substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5167-5171 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Lin, J.-Sik Lee, H. Wang, Y. Li, S. R. Foltyn, Q. X. Jia, G. E. Collis, A. K. Burrell, and T. M. McCleskey, "Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Ba1−xSrxTiO3 films grown on LaAlO3 substrates by polymer-assisted deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5007-5009 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Y. Wang, C. L. Mak, K. H. Wong, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, "Optical properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films grown on MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition," Ceramurgia Int. 30, 1745-1748 (2004).
  16. B. W. Wessels, M. J. Nystrom, J. Chen, D. Studebaker, and T. J. Marks, "Epitaxial niobate thin films and their nonlinear optical properties," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 401, 211-218 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Y. Tian, W. G. Luo, X. H. Pu, X. Y. He, P. S. Qiu, A. L. Ding, S. H. Yang, and D. Mo, "Determination of the optical properties of sol-gel-derived BaxSr1−xTiO3 thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," J. Phys Condens. Matter 13, 4065-4073 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Dogheche, X. Lansiaux, and D. Remiens, "m-line spectroscopy for optical analysis of thick LiNbO3 layers grown on sapphire substrates by radio-frequency multistep sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1165-1168 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. S. Chiang, "Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes," J. Lightwave. Technol. 3, 385-391 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. L. Chen, T. Garret, Y. Lin, J. C. Jiang, E. I. Meletis, F. A. Miranda, Z. Zhang, and W. K. Chu, "Interface structures and epitaxial behavior of ferroelectric (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films," Integr. Ferroelectr. 42, 165-172 (2002).
  21. D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, and J. J. Kingston, "Optical losses in ferroelectric oxide thin films: Is there light at the end of the tunnel?" Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 361, 155-166 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. J. Walker, R. A. McKee, H.-Wun Yen, and D. E. Zelmon, "Optical clarity and waveguide performance of thin film perovskites on MgO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1495-1497 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. H. Haertling, "Ferroelectric ceramics: history and technology," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 797-818 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Y. Wu, F. Wang, C. Juang, C. Bustmante, C. Yeh, and J. Diels, "Electro-optic and non-linear optical properties on (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3, BaTiO3, (Sr, Ba)Nb2O6, Ba2NaNb5O15, and beta-BaB2O4 thin films," in Proceedings of the IEEE 7th International Symposium on Applied Ferroelectronics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1990), p. 135.

2004

Y. Lin, J.-Sik Lee, H. Wang, Y. Li, S. R. Foltyn, Q. X. Jia, G. E. Collis, A. K. Burrell, and T. M. McCleskey, "Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Ba1−xSrxTiO3 films grown on LaAlO3 substrates by polymer-assisted deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5007-5009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Wang, C. L. Mak, K. H. Wong, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, "Optical properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films grown on MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition," Ceramurgia Int. 30, 1745-1748 (2004).

2003

B. Vilquin, R. Bouregba, G. Poullain, H. Murray, E. Dogheche, and D. Remiens, "Crystallographic and optical properties of epitaxial Pb(Zr0.6,Ti0.4)O3 thin films grown on LaAIO3 substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5167-5171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Dogheche, X. Lansiaux, and D. Remiens, "m-line spectroscopy for optical analysis of thick LiNbO3 layers grown on sapphire substrates by radio-frequency multistep sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1165-1168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Blomqvist, S. Khartsev, A. Crishin, A. Petraru, and C. Buchal, "Optical waveguiding in magnetron-sputtered Na0.5K0.5NbO3 thin films on sapphire substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 439-441 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Kim, S. E. Moon, E.-K. Kim, S.-J. Lee, J.-J. Choi, and H. E. Kim, "Electro-optic characterization of (001)-oriented Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1455-1457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Chen, T. Garret, Y. Lin, J. C. Jiang, E. I. Meletis, F. A. Miranda, Z. Zhang, and W. K. Chu, "Interface structures and epitaxial behavior of ferroelectric (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films," Integr. Ferroelectr. 42, 165-172 (2002).

2001

H. Y. Tian, W. G. Luo, X. H. Pu, X. Y. He, P. S. Qiu, A. L. Ding, S. H. Yang, and D. Mo, "Determination of the optical properties of sol-gel-derived BaxSr1−xTiO3 thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," J. Phys Condens. Matter 13, 4065-4073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Li, F. Duewer, C. Gao, H. Chang, X.-D. Xiang, and Y. Lu, "Electro-optic measurements of the ferroelectric-paraelectric boundary in Ba1−xSrxTiO3 materials chips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 769-771 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. H. Haertling, "Ferroelectric ceramics: history and technology," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 797-818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Echau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, G.-H. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, S.-W. Liu, H. Jiang, F.-L. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, and A. J. Drehman, "Fabrication and optical characterization of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 planar thin film optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2927-2929 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, and T. W. Noh, "Structural and nonlinear optical properties of epitaxial LiNbO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 56, 251-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. M. Gill, B. A. Block, C. W. Conrad, B. W. Wessels, and S. T. Ho, "Thin film channel waveguides fabricated in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown BaTiO3 on MgO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2968-2970 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Wessels, M. J. Nystrom, J. Chen, D. Studebaker, and T. J. Marks, "Epitaxial niobate thin films and their nonlinear optical properties," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 401, 211-218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. H. Kim and H. S. Kwok, "Pulsed laser deposition of BaTiO3 thin films and their optical properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1803-1805 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, and J. J. Kingston, "Optical losses in ferroelectric oxide thin films: Is there light at the end of the tunnel?" Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 361, 155-166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Zhu, J. Zhao, F. Wang, P. E. Norris, G. D. Fogarty, B. Steiner, P. Lu, B. Kear, S. B. Kang, B. Gallois, M. Sinclair, D. Dimos, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Epitaxial electro-optical SrxBa1−xNb2O6 films by single-source plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1836-1838 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

F. J. Walker, R. A. McKee, H.-Wun Yen, and D. E. Zelmon, "Optical clarity and waveguide performance of thin film perovskites on MgO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1495-1497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. Adachi and K. Wasa, "Sputtering preparation of ferroelectric PLZT thin films and their optical applications," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 38, 645-655 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

H. Adachi, T. Mitsuyu, O. Yamazaki, and K. Wasa, "Ferroelectric (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3 epitaxial thin films on sapphire grown by rf-planar magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 60, 736-741 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

K. S. Chiang, "Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes," J. Lightwave. Technol. 3, 385-391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, H.

H. Adachi and K. Wasa, "Sputtering preparation of ferroelectric PLZT thin films and their optical applications," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 38, 645-655 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Adachi, T. Mitsuyu, O. Yamazaki, and K. Wasa, "Ferroelectric (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3 epitaxial thin films on sapphire grown by rf-planar magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 60, 736-741 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Armani-Leplingard, F.

D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, and J. J. Kingston, "Optical losses in ferroelectric oxide thin films: Is there light at the end of the tunnel?" Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 361, 155-166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, L.

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Echau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Block, B. A.

D. M. Gill, B. A. Block, C. W. Conrad, B. W. Wessels, and S. T. Ho, "Thin film channel waveguides fabricated in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown BaTiO3 on MgO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2968-2970 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blomqvist, M.

M. Blomqvist, S. Khartsev, A. Crishin, A. Petraru, and C. Buchal, "Optical waveguiding in magnetron-sputtered Na0.5K0.5NbO3 thin films on sapphire substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 439-441 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bouregba, R.

B. Vilquin, R. Bouregba, G. Poullain, H. Murray, E. Dogheche, and D. Remiens, "Crystallographic and optical properties of epitaxial Pb(Zr0.6,Ti0.4)O3 thin films grown on LaAIO3 substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5167-5171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buchal, C.

M. Blomqvist, S. Khartsev, A. Crishin, A. Petraru, and C. Buchal, "Optical waveguiding in magnetron-sputtered Na0.5K0.5NbO3 thin films on sapphire substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 439-441 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buchal, Ch.

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Echau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burrell, A. K.

Y. Lin, J.-Sik Lee, H. Wang, Y. Li, S. R. Foltyn, Q. X. Jia, G. E. Collis, A. K. Burrell, and T. M. McCleskey, "Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Ba1−xSrxTiO3 films grown on LaAlO3 substrates by polymer-assisted deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5007-5009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bustmante, C.

A. Y. Wu, F. Wang, C. Juang, C. Bustmante, C. Yeh, and J. Diels, "Electro-optic and non-linear optical properties on (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3, BaTiO3, (Sr, Ba)Nb2O6, Ba2NaNb5O15, and beta-BaB2O4 thin films," in Proceedings of the IEEE 7th International Symposium on Applied Ferroelectronics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1990), p. 135.

Chan, H. L. W.

D. Y. Wang, C. L. Mak, K. H. Wong, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, "Optical properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films grown on MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition," Ceramurgia Int. 30, 1745-1748 (2004).

Chang, H.

J. Li, F. Duewer, C. Gao, H. Chang, X.-D. Xiang, and Y. Lu, "Electro-optic measurements of the ferroelectric-paraelectric boundary in Ba1−xSrxTiO3 materials chips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 769-771 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. L.

C. L. Chen, T. Garret, Y. Lin, J. C. Jiang, E. I. Meletis, F. A. Miranda, Z. Zhang, and W. K. Chu, "Interface structures and epitaxial behavior of ferroelectric (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films," Integr. Ferroelectr. 42, 165-172 (2002).

Chen, J.

B. W. Wessels, M. J. Nystrom, J. Chen, D. Studebaker, and T. J. Marks, "Epitaxial niobate thin films and their nonlinear optical properties," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 401, 211-218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

K. S. Chiang, "Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes," J. Lightwave. Technol. 3, 385-391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.-J.

D.-Y. Kim, S. E. Moon, E.-K. Kim, S.-J. Lee, J.-J. Choi, and H. E. Kim, "Electro-optic characterization of (001)-oriented Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1455-1457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choy, C. L.

D. Y. Wang, C. L. Mak, K. H. Wong, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, "Optical properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films grown on MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition," Ceramurgia Int. 30, 1745-1748 (2004).

Chu, W. K.

C. L. Chen, T. Garret, Y. Lin, J. C. Jiang, E. I. Meletis, F. A. Miranda, Z. Zhang, and W. K. Chu, "Interface structures and epitaxial behavior of ferroelectric (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films," Integr. Ferroelectr. 42, 165-172 (2002).

Collis, G. E.

Y. Lin, J.-Sik Lee, H. Wang, Y. Li, S. R. Foltyn, Q. X. Jia, G. E. Collis, A. K. Burrell, and T. M. McCleskey, "Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Ba1−xSrxTiO3 films grown on LaAlO3 substrates by polymer-assisted deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5007-5009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, C. W.

D. M. Gill, B. A. Block, C. W. Conrad, B. W. Wessels, and S. T. Ho, "Thin film channel waveguides fabricated in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown BaTiO3 on MgO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2968-2970 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Crishin, A.

M. Blomqvist, S. Khartsev, A. Crishin, A. Petraru, and C. Buchal, "Optical waveguiding in magnetron-sputtered Na0.5K0.5NbO3 thin films on sapphire substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 439-441 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Y. Lu, G.-H. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, S.-W. Liu, H. Jiang, F.-L. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, and A. J. Drehman, "Fabrication and optical characterization of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 planar thin film optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2927-2929 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Zhu, J. Zhao, F. Wang, P. E. Norris, G. D. Fogarty, B. Steiner, P. Lu, B. Kear, S. B. Kang, B. Gallois, M. Sinclair, D. Dimos, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Epitaxial electro-optical SrxBa1−xNb2O6 films by single-source plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1836-1838 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Diels, J.

A. Y. Wu, F. Wang, C. Juang, C. Bustmante, C. Yeh, and J. Diels, "Electro-optic and non-linear optical properties on (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3, BaTiO3, (Sr, Ba)Nb2O6, Ba2NaNb5O15, and beta-BaB2O4 thin films," in Proceedings of the IEEE 7th International Symposium on Applied Ferroelectronics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1990), p. 135.

Dimos, D.

L. D. Zhu, J. Zhao, F. Wang, P. E. Norris, G. D. Fogarty, B. Steiner, P. Lu, B. Kear, S. B. Kang, B. Gallois, M. Sinclair, D. Dimos, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Epitaxial electro-optical SrxBa1−xNb2O6 films by single-source plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1836-1838 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ding, A. L.

H. Y. Tian, W. G. Luo, X. H. Pu, X. Y. He, P. S. Qiu, A. L. Ding, S. H. Yang, and D. Mo, "Determination of the optical properties of sol-gel-derived BaxSr1−xTiO3 thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," J. Phys Condens. Matter 13, 4065-4073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dogheche, E.

E. Dogheche, X. Lansiaux, and D. Remiens, "m-line spectroscopy for optical analysis of thick LiNbO3 layers grown on sapphire substrates by radio-frequency multistep sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1165-1168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Vilquin, R. Bouregba, G. Poullain, H. Murray, E. Dogheche, and D. Remiens, "Crystallographic and optical properties of epitaxial Pb(Zr0.6,Ti0.4)O3 thin films grown on LaAIO3 substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5167-5171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drehman, A. J.

Y. Lu, G.-H. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, S.-W. Liu, H. Jiang, F.-L. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, and A. J. Drehman, "Fabrication and optical characterization of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 planar thin film optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2927-2929 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duewer, F.

J. Li, F. Duewer, C. Gao, H. Chang, X.-D. Xiang, and Y. Lu, "Electro-optic measurements of the ferroelectric-paraelectric boundary in Ba1−xSrxTiO3 materials chips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 769-771 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Echau, A.

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Echau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fogarty, G. D.

L. D. Zhu, J. Zhao, F. Wang, P. E. Norris, G. D. Fogarty, B. Steiner, P. Lu, B. Kear, S. B. Kang, B. Gallois, M. Sinclair, D. Dimos, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Epitaxial electro-optical SrxBa1−xNb2O6 films by single-source plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1836-1838 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Foltyn, S. R.

Y. Lin, J.-Sik Lee, H. Wang, Y. Li, S. R. Foltyn, Q. X. Jia, G. E. Collis, A. K. Burrell, and T. M. McCleskey, "Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Ba1−xSrxTiO3 films grown on LaAlO3 substrates by polymer-assisted deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5007-5009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fork, D. K.

D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, and J. J. Kingston, "Optical losses in ferroelectric oxide thin films: Is there light at the end of the tunnel?" Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 361, 155-166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gallois, B.

L. D. Zhu, J. Zhao, F. Wang, P. E. Norris, G. D. Fogarty, B. Steiner, P. Lu, B. Kear, S. B. Kang, B. Gallois, M. Sinclair, D. Dimos, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Epitaxial electro-optical SrxBa1−xNb2O6 films by single-source plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1836-1838 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gao, C.

J. Li, F. Duewer, C. Gao, H. Chang, X.-D. Xiang, and Y. Lu, "Electro-optic measurements of the ferroelectric-paraelectric boundary in Ba1−xSrxTiO3 materials chips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 769-771 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garret, T.

C. L. Chen, T. Garret, Y. Lin, J. C. Jiang, E. I. Meletis, F. A. Miranda, Z. Zhang, and W. K. Chu, "Interface structures and epitaxial behavior of ferroelectric (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films," Integr. Ferroelectr. 42, 165-172 (2002).

Gill, D. M.

D. M. Gill, B. A. Block, C. W. Conrad, B. W. Wessels, and S. T. Ho, "Thin film channel waveguides fabricated in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown BaTiO3 on MgO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2968-2970 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haertling, G. H.

G. H. Haertling, "Ferroelectric ceramics: history and technology," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 797-818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

He, X. Y.

H. Y. Tian, W. G. Luo, X. H. Pu, X. Y. He, P. S. Qiu, A. L. Ding, S. H. Yang, and D. Mo, "Determination of the optical properties of sol-gel-derived BaxSr1−xTiO3 thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," J. Phys Condens. Matter 13, 4065-4073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

D. M. Gill, B. A. Block, C. W. Conrad, B. W. Wessels, and S. T. Ho, "Thin film channel waveguides fabricated in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown BaTiO3 on MgO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2968-2970 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Q. X.

Y. Lin, J.-Sik Lee, H. Wang, Y. Li, S. R. Foltyn, Q. X. Jia, G. E. Collis, A. K. Burrell, and T. M. McCleskey, "Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Ba1−xSrxTiO3 films grown on LaAlO3 substrates by polymer-assisted deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5007-5009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

Y. Lu, G.-H. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, S.-W. Liu, H. Jiang, F.-L. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, and A. J. Drehman, "Fabrication and optical characterization of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 planar thin film optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2927-2929 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J. C.

C. L. Chen, T. Garret, Y. Lin, J. C. Jiang, E. I. Meletis, F. A. Miranda, Z. Zhang, and W. K. Chu, "Interface structures and epitaxial behavior of ferroelectric (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films," Integr. Ferroelectr. 42, 165-172 (2002).

Jin, G.-H.

Y. Lu, G.-H. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, S.-W. Liu, H. Jiang, F.-L. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, and A. J. Drehman, "Fabrication and optical characterization of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 planar thin film optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2927-2929 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Juang, C.

A. Y. Wu, F. Wang, C. Juang, C. Bustmante, C. Yeh, and J. Diels, "Electro-optic and non-linear optical properties on (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3, BaTiO3, (Sr, Ba)Nb2O6, Ba2NaNb5O15, and beta-BaB2O4 thin films," in Proceedings of the IEEE 7th International Symposium on Applied Ferroelectronics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1990), p. 135.

Kang, S. B.

L. D. Zhu, J. Zhao, F. Wang, P. E. Norris, G. D. Fogarty, B. Steiner, P. Lu, B. Kear, S. B. Kang, B. Gallois, M. Sinclair, D. Dimos, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Epitaxial electro-optical SrxBa1−xNb2O6 films by single-source plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1836-1838 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kear, B.

L. D. Zhu, J. Zhao, F. Wang, P. E. Norris, G. D. Fogarty, B. Steiner, P. Lu, B. Kear, S. B. Kang, B. Gallois, M. Sinclair, D. Dimos, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Epitaxial electro-optical SrxBa1−xNb2O6 films by single-source plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1836-1838 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Khartsev, S.

M. Blomqvist, S. Khartsev, A. Crishin, A. Petraru, and C. Buchal, "Optical waveguiding in magnetron-sputtered Na0.5K0.5NbO3 thin films on sapphire substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 439-441 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim and H. S. Kwok, "Pulsed laser deposition of BaTiO3 thin films and their optical properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1803-1805 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. W.

D. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, and T. W. Noh, "Structural and nonlinear optical properties of epitaxial LiNbO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 56, 251-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-Y.

D.-Y. Kim, S. E. Moon, E.-K. Kim, S.-J. Lee, J.-J. Choi, and H. E. Kim, "Electro-optic characterization of (001)-oriented Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1455-1457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.-K.

D.-Y. Kim, S. E. Moon, E.-K. Kim, S.-J. Lee, J.-J. Choi, and H. E. Kim, "Electro-optic characterization of (001)-oriented Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1455-1457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. E.

D.-Y. Kim, S. E. Moon, E.-K. Kim, S.-J. Lee, J.-J. Choi, and H. E. Kim, "Electro-optic characterization of (001)-oriented Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1455-1457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kingston, J. J.

D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, and J. J. Kingston, "Optical losses in ferroelectric oxide thin films: Is there light at the end of the tunnel?" Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 361, 155-166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

D. H. Kim and H. S. Kwok, "Pulsed laser deposition of BaTiO3 thin films and their optical properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1803-1805 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lansiaux, X.

E. Dogheche, X. Lansiaux, and D. Remiens, "m-line spectroscopy for optical analysis of thick LiNbO3 layers grown on sapphire substrates by radio-frequency multistep sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1165-1168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-Sik

Y. Lin, J.-Sik Lee, H. Wang, Y. Li, S. R. Foltyn, Q. X. Jia, G. E. Collis, A. K. Burrell, and T. M. McCleskey, "Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Ba1−xSrxTiO3 films grown on LaAlO3 substrates by polymer-assisted deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5007-5009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

D. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, and T. W. Noh, "Structural and nonlinear optical properties of epitaxial LiNbO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 56, 251-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-J.

D.-Y. Kim, S. E. Moon, E.-K. Kim, S.-J. Lee, J.-J. Choi, and H. E. Kim, "Electro-optic characterization of (001)-oriented Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1455-1457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leinenbach, P.

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Echau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, F. Duewer, C. Gao, H. Chang, X.-D. Xiang, and Y. Lu, "Electro-optic measurements of the ferroelectric-paraelectric boundary in Ba1−xSrxTiO3 materials chips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 769-771 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Lin, J.-Sik Lee, H. Wang, Y. Li, S. R. Foltyn, Q. X. Jia, G. E. Collis, A. K. Burrell, and T. M. McCleskey, "Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Ba1−xSrxTiO3 films grown on LaAlO3 substrates by polymer-assisted deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5007-5009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

Y. Lin, J.-Sik Lee, H. Wang, Y. Li, S. R. Foltyn, Q. X. Jia, G. E. Collis, A. K. Burrell, and T. M. McCleskey, "Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Ba1−xSrxTiO3 films grown on LaAlO3 substrates by polymer-assisted deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5007-5009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Chen, T. Garret, Y. Lin, J. C. Jiang, E. I. Meletis, F. A. Miranda, Z. Zhang, and W. K. Chu, "Interface structures and epitaxial behavior of ferroelectric (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films," Integr. Ferroelectr. 42, 165-172 (2002).

Liu, S.-W.

Y. Lu, G.-H. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, S.-W. Liu, H. Jiang, F.-L. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, and A. J. Drehman, "Fabrication and optical characterization of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 planar thin film optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2927-2929 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

L. D. Zhu, J. Zhao, F. Wang, P. E. Norris, G. D. Fogarty, B. Steiner, P. Lu, B. Kear, S. B. Kang, B. Gallois, M. Sinclair, D. Dimos, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Epitaxial electro-optical SrxBa1−xNb2O6 films by single-source plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1836-1838 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

J. Li, F. Duewer, C. Gao, H. Chang, X.-D. Xiang, and Y. Lu, "Electro-optic measurements of the ferroelectric-paraelectric boundary in Ba1−xSrxTiO3 materials chips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 769-771 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, G.-H. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, S.-W. Liu, H. Jiang, F.-L. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, and A. J. Drehman, "Fabrication and optical characterization of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 planar thin film optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2927-2929 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luo, W. G.

H. Y. Tian, W. G. Luo, X. H. Pu, X. Y. He, P. S. Qiu, A. L. Ding, S. H. Yang, and D. Mo, "Determination of the optical properties of sol-gel-derived BaxSr1−xTiO3 thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," J. Phys Condens. Matter 13, 4065-4073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mak, C. L.

D. Y. Wang, C. L. Mak, K. H. Wong, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, "Optical properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films grown on MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition," Ceramurgia Int. 30, 1745-1748 (2004).

Marks, T. J.

B. W. Wessels, M. J. Nystrom, J. Chen, D. Studebaker, and T. J. Marks, "Epitaxial niobate thin films and their nonlinear optical properties," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 401, 211-218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCleskey, T. M.

Y. Lin, J.-Sik Lee, H. Wang, Y. Li, S. R. Foltyn, Q. X. Jia, G. E. Collis, A. K. Burrell, and T. M. McCleskey, "Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Ba1−xSrxTiO3 films grown on LaAlO3 substrates by polymer-assisted deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5007-5009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McKee, R. A.

F. J. Walker, R. A. McKee, H.-Wun Yen, and D. E. Zelmon, "Optical clarity and waveguide performance of thin film perovskites on MgO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1495-1497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meletis, E. I.

C. L. Chen, T. Garret, Y. Lin, J. C. Jiang, E. I. Meletis, F. A. Miranda, Z. Zhang, and W. K. Chu, "Interface structures and epitaxial behavior of ferroelectric (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films," Integr. Ferroelectr. 42, 165-172 (2002).

Miranda, F. A.

C. L. Chen, T. Garret, Y. Lin, J. C. Jiang, E. I. Meletis, F. A. Miranda, Z. Zhang, and W. K. Chu, "Interface structures and epitaxial behavior of ferroelectric (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films," Integr. Ferroelectr. 42, 165-172 (2002).

Mitsuyu, T.

H. Adachi, T. Mitsuyu, O. Yamazaki, and K. Wasa, "Ferroelectric (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3 epitaxial thin films on sapphire grown by rf-planar magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 60, 736-741 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mo, D.

H. Y. Tian, W. G. Luo, X. H. Pu, X. Y. He, P. S. Qiu, A. L. Ding, S. H. Yang, and D. Mo, "Determination of the optical properties of sol-gel-derived BaxSr1−xTiO3 thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," J. Phys Condens. Matter 13, 4065-4073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S. E.

D.-Y. Kim, S. E. Moon, E.-K. Kim, S.-J. Lee, J.-J. Choi, and H. E. Kim, "Electro-optic characterization of (001)-oriented Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1455-1457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murray, H.

B. Vilquin, R. Bouregba, G. Poullain, H. Murray, E. Dogheche, and D. Remiens, "Crystallographic and optical properties of epitaxial Pb(Zr0.6,Ti0.4)O3 thin films grown on LaAIO3 substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5167-5171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noh, T. W.

D. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, and T. W. Noh, "Structural and nonlinear optical properties of epitaxial LiNbO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 56, 251-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Norris, P. E.

L. D. Zhu, J. Zhao, F. Wang, P. E. Norris, G. D. Fogarty, B. Steiner, P. Lu, B. Kear, S. B. Kang, B. Gallois, M. Sinclair, D. Dimos, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Epitaxial electro-optical SrxBa1−xNb2O6 films by single-source plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1836-1838 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nystrom, M. J.

B. W. Wessels, M. J. Nystrom, J. Chen, D. Studebaker, and T. J. Marks, "Epitaxial niobate thin films and their nonlinear optical properties," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 401, 211-218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Petraru, A.

M. Blomqvist, S. Khartsev, A. Crishin, A. Petraru, and C. Buchal, "Optical waveguiding in magnetron-sputtered Na0.5K0.5NbO3 thin films on sapphire substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 439-441 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poullain, G.

B. Vilquin, R. Bouregba, G. Poullain, H. Murray, E. Dogheche, and D. Remiens, "Crystallographic and optical properties of epitaxial Pb(Zr0.6,Ti0.4)O3 thin films grown on LaAIO3 substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5167-5171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pu, X. H.

H. Y. Tian, W. G. Luo, X. H. Pu, X. Y. He, P. S. Qiu, A. L. Ding, S. H. Yang, and D. Mo, "Determination of the optical properties of sol-gel-derived BaxSr1−xTiO3 thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," J. Phys Condens. Matter 13, 4065-4073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, P. S.

H. Y. Tian, W. G. Luo, X. H. Pu, X. Y. He, P. S. Qiu, A. L. Ding, S. H. Yang, and D. Mo, "Determination of the optical properties of sol-gel-derived BaxSr1−xTiO3 thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," J. Phys Condens. Matter 13, 4065-4073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Remiens, D.

E. Dogheche, X. Lansiaux, and D. Remiens, "m-line spectroscopy for optical analysis of thick LiNbO3 layers grown on sapphire substrates by radio-frequency multistep sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1165-1168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Vilquin, R. Bouregba, G. Poullain, H. Murray, E. Dogheche, and D. Remiens, "Crystallographic and optical properties of epitaxial Pb(Zr0.6,Ti0.4)O3 thin films grown on LaAIO3 substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5167-5171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, M.

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, J.

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Echau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, M.

L. D. Zhu, J. Zhao, F. Wang, P. E. Norris, G. D. Fogarty, B. Steiner, P. Lu, B. Kear, S. B. Kang, B. Gallois, M. Sinclair, D. Dimos, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Epitaxial electro-optical SrxBa1−xNb2O6 films by single-source plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1836-1838 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, B.

L. D. Zhu, J. Zhao, F. Wang, P. E. Norris, G. D. Fogarty, B. Steiner, P. Lu, B. Kear, S. B. Kang, B. Gallois, M. Sinclair, D. Dimos, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Epitaxial electro-optical SrxBa1−xNb2O6 films by single-source plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1836-1838 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Studebaker, D.

B. W. Wessels, M. J. Nystrom, J. Chen, D. Studebaker, and T. J. Marks, "Epitaxial niobate thin films and their nonlinear optical properties," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 401, 211-218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tian, H. Y.

H. Y. Tian, W. G. Luo, X. H. Pu, X. Y. He, P. S. Qiu, A. L. Ding, S. H. Yang, and D. Mo, "Determination of the optical properties of sol-gel-derived BaxSr1−xTiO3 thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," J. Phys Condens. Matter 13, 4065-4073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vilquin, B.

B. Vilquin, R. Bouregba, G. Poullain, H. Murray, E. Dogheche, and D. Remiens, "Crystallographic and optical properties of epitaxial Pb(Zr0.6,Ti0.4)O3 thin films grown on LaAIO3 substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5167-5171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walker, F. J.

F. J. Walker, R. A. McKee, H.-Wun Yen, and D. E. Zelmon, "Optical clarity and waveguide performance of thin film perovskites on MgO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1495-1497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. Y.

D. Y. Wang, C. L. Mak, K. H. Wong, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, "Optical properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films grown on MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition," Ceramurgia Int. 30, 1745-1748 (2004).

Wang, F.

L. D. Zhu, J. Zhao, F. Wang, P. E. Norris, G. D. Fogarty, B. Steiner, P. Lu, B. Kear, S. B. Kang, B. Gallois, M. Sinclair, D. Dimos, and M. Cronin-Golomb, "Epitaxial electro-optical SrxBa1−xNb2O6 films by single-source plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1836-1838 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Wu, F. Wang, C. Juang, C. Bustmante, C. Yeh, and J. Diels, "Electro-optic and non-linear optical properties on (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3, BaTiO3, (Sr, Ba)Nb2O6, Ba2NaNb5O15, and beta-BaB2O4 thin films," in Proceedings of the IEEE 7th International Symposium on Applied Ferroelectronics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1990), p. 135.

Wang, F.-L.

Y. Lu, G.-H. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, S.-W. Liu, H. Jiang, F.-L. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, and A. J. Drehman, "Fabrication and optical characterization of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 planar thin film optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2927-2929 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Y. Lin, J.-Sik Lee, H. Wang, Y. Li, S. R. Foltyn, Q. X. Jia, G. E. Collis, A. K. Burrell, and T. M. McCleskey, "Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Ba1−xSrxTiO3 films grown on LaAlO3 substrates by polymer-assisted deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5007-5009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.-Q.

Y. Lu, G.-H. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, S.-W. Liu, H. Jiang, F.-L. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, and A. J. Drehman, "Fabrication and optical characterization of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 planar thin film optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2927-2929 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wasa, K.

H. Adachi and K. Wasa, "Sputtering preparation of ferroelectric PLZT thin films and their optical applications," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 38, 645-655 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Adachi, T. Mitsuyu, O. Yamazaki, and K. Wasa, "Ferroelectric (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3 epitaxial thin films on sapphire grown by rf-planar magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 60, 736-741 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wessels, B. W.

B. W. Wessels, M. J. Nystrom, J. Chen, D. Studebaker, and T. J. Marks, "Epitaxial niobate thin films and their nonlinear optical properties," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 401, 211-218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gill, B. A. Block, C. W. Conrad, B. W. Wessels, and S. T. Ho, "Thin film channel waveguides fabricated in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown BaTiO3 on MgO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2968-2970 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. H.

D. Y. Wang, C. L. Mak, K. H. Wong, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, "Optical properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films grown on MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition," Ceramurgia Int. 30, 1745-1748 (2004).

Wu, A. Y.

A. Y. Wu, F. Wang, C. Juang, C. Bustmante, C. Yeh, and J. Diels, "Electro-optic and non-linear optical properties on (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3, BaTiO3, (Sr, Ba)Nb2O6, Ba2NaNb5O15, and beta-BaB2O4 thin films," in Proceedings of the IEEE 7th International Symposium on Applied Ferroelectronics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1990), p. 135.

Xiang, X.-D.

J. Li, F. Duewer, C. Gao, H. Chang, X.-D. Xiang, and Y. Lu, "Electro-optic measurements of the ferroelectric-paraelectric boundary in Ba1−xSrxTiO3 materials chips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 769-771 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, O.

H. Adachi, T. Mitsuyu, O. Yamazaki, and K. Wasa, "Ferroelectric (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3 epitaxial thin films on sapphire grown by rf-planar magnetron sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 60, 736-741 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. H.

H. Y. Tian, W. G. Luo, X. H. Pu, X. Y. He, P. S. Qiu, A. L. Ding, S. H. Yang, and D. Mo, "Determination of the optical properties of sol-gel-derived BaxSr1−xTiO3 thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," J. Phys Condens. Matter 13, 4065-4073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C.

A. Y. Wu, F. Wang, C. Juang, C. Bustmante, C. Yeh, and J. Diels, "Electro-optic and non-linear optical properties on (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3, BaTiO3, (Sr, Ba)Nb2O6, Ba2NaNb5O15, and beta-BaB2O4 thin films," in Proceedings of the IEEE 7th International Symposium on Applied Ferroelectronics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1990), p. 135.

Yen, H.-Wun

F. J. Walker, R. A. McKee, H.-Wun Yen, and D. E. Zelmon, "Optical clarity and waveguide performance of thin film perovskites on MgO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1495-1497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zander, W.

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Echau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zelmon, D. E.

F. J. Walker, R. A. McKee, H.-Wun Yen, and D. E. Zelmon, "Optical clarity and waveguide performance of thin film perovskites on MgO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1495-1497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

C. L. Chen, T. Garret, Y. Lin, J. C. Jiang, E. I. Meletis, F. A. Miranda, Z. Zhang, and W. K. Chu, "Interface structures and epitaxial behavior of ferroelectric (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films," Integr. Ferroelectr. 42, 165-172 (2002).

Zhao, J.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XRD patterns of Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin film: (a) θ∕2θ scan [inset, rocking curve of the (002) peak]; (b) ϕ scan of (202) reflections of the Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AFM image taken from a 250 nm thick Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin film epitaxially grown upon a MgO (001) substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical transmission spectrum of a Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin film (250 nm thick) epitaxially grown upon a MgO (001) substrate, (b) plot of (αhυ)2 versus hυ for a Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin film (250 nm thick). Optical bandgap energy E gap is deduced from extrapolation of the straight line to (αhυ)2 = 0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Prism coupling spectra of a Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin film (620 nm thick) epitaxially grown upon a MgO (001) substrate at both 632.8 and 1550 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reconstruction of the refractive-index profile of the Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin film (620 nm thick) epitaxially grown upon a MgO (001) substrate at 632.8 nm by use of an i-WKB method.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of the experimental arrangement for measurements of surface scattering loss (moving fiber method).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scattered intensity from the TE0 and TM0 modes of a 620 nm thick Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin film epitaxially grown on MgO (001) substrate at both 632.8 nm and 1550 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Electro-optic responses of the Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin film (250 nm thick) epitaxially grown upon a MgO (001) substrate, (b) electro-optic response versus E 2 of the Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin film.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 PLD Conditions of Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 Thin Films

Tables Icon

Table 2 Surface Scattered Losses in Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 Thin Films Epitaxially Grown Upon MgO (001) Substrates

Equations (111)

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(Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
0.93 dB / cm
TE 0
1.29 dB / cm
TM 0
1550 nm
6.64 × 10 18 m 2 / V 2
(Ba 1 x Sr x TiO 3
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
( T c )
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
620   nm
248   nm
25   ns
250   mJ
10   Hz
5   cm
650 ° C
200 mTorr
1000 ° C
3   h
280 850   nm
1550   nm
200   nm
40 μ m
632.8   nm
θ
250   nm
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
001 BST / / 001 MgO
c = 3.9751 Å
a = 4.0003 Å
( 1 Å = 0.1 nm )
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
4.215 Å   and   3 .970   Å
0.90°
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
100 BST / / 100 MgO
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
80   to   120   nm
3.4   nm
1 μ m × 1 μ m
250   nm
2 4   nm
1 2 dB / cm
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
(250   nm
280 850   nm
58 %
90 %
316   nm
α ( υ )
α h υ = const . ( h υ E gap ) 1 / r ,
r = 2
α ( υ )
α ( υ ) = [ ln 1 T ( υ ) ] d ,
T ( υ )
( α h υ ) 2
( α h υ ) 2 = 0
( α h υ ) 2
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
3 .50   eV
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
B a 0.7 S r 0.3   T iO 3
1550   nm
620   nm
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
632 .8   nm
1550   nm
626 .0   nm
632 .8   nm
632 .8   nm
1550   nm
632 .8   nm
1550   nm
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
632 .8   nm
2 dB / cm
50 %
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
(620   nm thick)
1550   nm
3.04 dB / cm
TE 0   and   TM 0
632 .8   nm
1.29 dB / cm
TE 0 and   TM 0
1550   nm
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
1550   nm
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
632 .8   nm
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
(∼ 250   nm
Δ n = 0
BST MgO
Δ n
E 2
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
Δ n
E 2
Δ n = ½ n 3 R E 2 ,
Δ n
6.64 × 10 18 m 2 / V 2
Ba 0 .7 Sr 0 .3 TiO 3
1.29 dB / cm
TE 0   and   TM 0
1550   nm
R = 6.64 × 10 18 m 2 / V 2

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