Abstract

Photoacoustic imaging is a noninvasive biomedical imaging modality for visualizing the internal structure and function of soft tissues. Conventionally, an image proportional to the absorbed optical energy is reconstructed from measurements of light-induced acoustic emissions. We describe a simple iterative algorithm to recover the distribution of optical absorption coefficients from the image of the absorbed optical energy. The algorithm, which incorporates a diffusion-based finite-element model of light transport, converges quickly onto an accurate estimate of the distribution of absolute absorption coefficients. Two-dimensional examples with physiologically realistic optical properties are shown. The ability to recover optical properties (which directly reflect tissue physiology) could enhance photoacoustic imaging techniques, particularly methods based on spectroscopic analysis of chromophores.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, "Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using Fourier transform methods," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1863-1872 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. H. Xu, Y. Xu, and L. H. V. Wang, "Time-domain reconstruction-algorithms and numerical simulations for thermoacoustic tomography in various geometries," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1086-1099 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Köstli and P. Beard, "Two-dimensional photoacoustic imaging by use of Fourier-transform image: reconstruction and a detector with an anisotropic response," Appl. Opt. 42, 1899-1908 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. J. G. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4409-4428 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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  7. R. Kruger, W. Kiser, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, and K. Miller, "Thermoacoustic optical molecular imaging of small animals," Mol. Imaging 2, 113-123 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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  9. G. Paltauf and H. Schmidt-Kloiber, "Pulsed optoacoustic characterization of layered media," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1624-1631 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, "Quantitative point source photoacoustic inversion formulas for scattering and absorbing media," Phys. Rev. E 71, 031912 (2005).
  12. G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, "Properties of photoacoustic waves in one, two, and three dimensions," Acustica 80, 339-351 (1994).
  13. B. T. Cox and P. C. Beard, "Fast calculation of pulsed photoacoustic fields in fluids using k-space methods," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 3616-3627 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Paltauf and P. E. Dyer, "Photomechanical processes and effects in ablation," Chem. Rev. 103, 487-518 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. V. Zhulina, "Optimal statistical approach to optoacoustic image reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 39, 5971-5977 (2000).
  16. J. Zhang, M. A. Anastasio, X. Pan, and L. V. Wang, "Weighted expectation maximization reconstruction algorithms for thermoacoustic tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 817-820 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  22. M. O'Leary, D. Boas, B. Chance, and A. Yodh, "Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography," Opt. Lett. 20, 426-428 (1995).
  23. B. T. Cox, S. Arridge, K. Köstli, and P. Beard, "Quantitative photoacoustic imaging: fitting a model of light transport to the initial pressure distribution," Proc. SPIE 5697, 49-55 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Aster, B. Borchers, and C. Thurber, Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems (Elsevier, 2005).
  25. C. G. A. Hoelen, F. F. M. de Mul, R. Pongers, and A. Dekker, "Three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels in tissue," Opt. Lett. 23, 648-650 (1998).
  26. R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, "Contrast enhancement of breast cancer in vivo using thermoacoustic ct at 434 MHz—feasibility study," Radiology 216, 279-283 (2000).
  27. R. I. Siphanto, R. G. M. Kolkman, A. Huisjes, M. C. Pilatou, F. F. M. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, and L. N. A. van Adrichem, "Imaging of small vessels using photoacoustics: an in vivo study," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 354-362 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803-806 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  29. X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Three-dimensional laser-induced photoacoustic tomography of mouse brain with the skin and skull intact," Opt. Lett. 28, 1739-1741 (2003).
  30. H. Jiang, K. Paulsen, and U. Oesterberg, "Optical image reconstruction using dc data simulations and experiments," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1483-1498 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (6)

J. G. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4409-4428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Jaeger, J. Niederhauser, M. Hejazi, and M. Frenz, "Diffraction-free acoustic detection for optoacoustic depth profiling of tissue using an optically transparent polyvinylidene flouride pressure transducer operated in backward and forward mode," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024035 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, "Quantitative point source photoacoustic inversion formulas for scattering and absorbing media," Phys. Rev. E 71, 031912 (2005).

B. T. Cox and P. C. Beard, "Fast calculation of pulsed photoacoustic fields in fluids using k-space methods," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 3616-3627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, M. A. Anastasio, X. Pan, and L. V. Wang, "Weighted expectation maximization reconstruction algorithms for thermoacoustic tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 817-820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cox, S. Arridge, K. Köstli, and P. Beard, "Quantitative photoacoustic imaging: fitting a model of light transport to the initial pressure distribution," Proc. SPIE 5697, 49-55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

R. I. Siphanto, R. G. M. Kolkman, A. Huisjes, M. C. Pilatou, F. F. M. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, and L. N. A. van Adrichem, "Imaging of small vessels using photoacoustics: an in vivo study," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 354-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "Pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy of blood," Proc. SPIE 5320, 57-68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

R. Kruger, W. Kiser, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, and K. Miller, "Thermoacoustic optical molecular imaging of small animals," Mol. Imaging 2, 113-123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Paltauf and P. E. Dyer, "Photomechanical processes and effects in ablation," Chem. Rev. 103, 487-518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Xu, Y. Xu, and L. H. V. Wang, "Time-domain reconstruction-algorithms and numerical simulations for thermoacoustic tomography in various geometries," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1086-1099 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Köstli and P. Beard, "Two-dimensional photoacoustic imaging by use of Fourier-transform image: reconstruction and a detector with an anisotropic response," Appl. Opt. 42, 1899-1908 (2003).

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Three-dimensional laser-induced photoacoustic tomography of mouse brain with the skin and skull intact," Opt. Lett. 28, 1739-1741 (2003).

2001 (1)

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, "Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using Fourier transform methods," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1863-1872 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

G. Paltauf and H. Schmidt-Kloiber, "Pulsed optoacoustic characterization of layered media," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1624-1631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Zhulina, "Optimal statistical approach to optoacoustic image reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 39, 5971-5977 (2000).

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, "Contrast enhancement of breast cancer in vivo using thermoacoustic ct at 434 MHz—feasibility study," Radiology 216, 279-283 (2000).

1998 (2)

1996 (2)

A. A. Karabutov, N. B. Podymova, and V. S. Letokhov, "Time-resolved laser optoacoustic tomography of inhomogeneous media," Appl. Phys. B 63, 545-563 (1996).

H. Jiang, K. Paulsen, and U. Oesterberg, "Optical image reconstruction using dc data simulations and experiments," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1483-1498 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. O'Leary, D. Boas, B. Chance, and A. Yodh, "Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography," Opt. Lett. 20, 426-428 (1995).

M. Schweiger, S. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, "The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779-1792 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, "Properties of photoacoustic waves in one, two, and three dimensions," Acustica 80, 339-351 (1994).

1993 (1)

S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, "A finite element approach for modelling photon transport in tissue," Med. Phys. 20, 299-309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Anastasio, M. A.

J. Zhang, M. A. Anastasio, X. Pan, and L. V. Wang, "Weighted expectation maximization reconstruction algorithms for thermoacoustic tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 817-820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S.

B. T. Cox, S. Arridge, K. Köstli, and P. Beard, "Quantitative photoacoustic imaging: fitting a model of light transport to the initial pressure distribution," Proc. SPIE 5697, 49-55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, "The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779-1792 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, "A finite element approach for modelling photon transport in tissue," Med. Phys. 20, 299-309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

Aster, R.

R. Aster, B. Borchers, and C. Thurber, Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems (Elsevier, 2005).

Beard, P.

B. T. Cox, S. Arridge, K. Köstli, and P. Beard, "Quantitative photoacoustic imaging: fitting a model of light transport to the initial pressure distribution," Proc. SPIE 5697, 49-55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4409-4428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "Pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy of blood," Proc. SPIE 5320, 57-68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Köstli and P. Beard, "Two-dimensional photoacoustic imaging by use of Fourier-transform image: reconstruction and a detector with an anisotropic response," Appl. Opt. 42, 1899-1908 (2003).

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "Spatially resolved blood oxygenation measurements using time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy," in Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXVII, Vol. 578 of Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology , G. Cicco, D. F. Bruley, M. Ferrari, and D. K. Harrison, eds. (Springer, 2006).

Beard, P. C.

B. T. Cox and P. C. Beard, "Fast calculation of pulsed photoacoustic fields in fluids using k-space methods," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 3616-3627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bebie, H.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, "Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using Fourier transform methods," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1863-1872 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D.

Borchers, B.

R. Aster, B. Borchers, and C. Thurber, Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems (Elsevier, 2005).

Chance, B.

Cox, B. T.

B. T. Cox, S. Arridge, K. Köstli, and P. Beard, "Quantitative photoacoustic imaging: fitting a model of light transport to the initial pressure distribution," Proc. SPIE 5697, 49-55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cox and P. C. Beard, "Fast calculation of pulsed photoacoustic fields in fluids using k-space methods," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 3616-3627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Mul, F. F. M.

R. I. Siphanto, R. G. M. Kolkman, A. Huisjes, M. C. Pilatou, F. F. M. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, and L. N. A. van Adrichem, "Imaging of small vessels using photoacoustics: an in vivo study," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 354-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. G. A. Hoelen, F. F. M. de Mul, R. Pongers, and A. Dekker, "Three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels in tissue," Opt. Lett. 23, 648-650 (1998).

Dekker, A.

Delpy, D.

J. G. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4409-4428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "Pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy of blood," Proc. SPIE 5320, 57-68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, "The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779-1792 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, "A finite element approach for modelling photon transport in tissue," Med. Phys. 20, 299-309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "Spatially resolved blood oxygenation measurements using time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy," in Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXVII, Vol. 578 of Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology , G. Cicco, D. F. Bruley, M. Ferrari, and D. K. Harrison, eds. (Springer, 2006).

Diebold, G. J.

G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, "Properties of photoacoustic waves in one, two, and three dimensions," Acustica 80, 339-351 (1994).

Dyer, P. E.

G. Paltauf and P. E. Dyer, "Photomechanical processes and effects in ablation," Chem. Rev. 103, 487-518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elwell, C.

J. G. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4409-4428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "Pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy of blood," Proc. SPIE 5320, 57-68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "Spatially resolved blood oxygenation measurements using time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy," in Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXVII, Vol. 578 of Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology , G. Cicco, D. F. Bruley, M. Ferrari, and D. K. Harrison, eds. (Springer, 2006).

Frenz, M.

M. Jaeger, J. Niederhauser, M. Hejazi, and M. Frenz, "Diffraction-free acoustic detection for optoacoustic depth profiling of tissue using an optically transparent polyvinylidene flouride pressure transducer operated in backward and forward mode," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024035 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, "Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using Fourier transform methods," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1863-1872 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hejazi, M.

M. Jaeger, J. Niederhauser, M. Hejazi, and M. Frenz, "Diffraction-free acoustic detection for optoacoustic depth profiling of tissue using an optically transparent polyvinylidene flouride pressure transducer operated in backward and forward mode," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024035 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hiraoka, M.

M. Schweiger, S. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, "The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779-1792 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, "A finite element approach for modelling photon transport in tissue," Med. Phys. 20, 299-309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hoelen, C. G. A.

Huisjes, A.

R. I. Siphanto, R. G. M. Kolkman, A. Huisjes, M. C. Pilatou, F. F. M. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, and L. N. A. van Adrichem, "Imaging of small vessels using photoacoustics: an in vivo study," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 354-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques and L. Wang, "Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in tissues," in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A.J.Welch and M.J. C.van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, 1995).

Jaeger, M.

M. Jaeger, J. Niederhauser, M. Hejazi, and M. Frenz, "Diffraction-free acoustic detection for optoacoustic depth profiling of tissue using an optically transparent polyvinylidene flouride pressure transducer operated in backward and forward mode," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024035 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, K. Paulsen, and U. Oesterberg, "Optical image reconstruction using dc data simulations and experiments," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1483-1498 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Karabutov, A. A.

A. A. Karabutov, N. B. Podymova, and V. S. Letokhov, "Time-resolved laser optoacoustic tomography of inhomogeneous media," Appl. Phys. B 63, 545-563 (1996).

Kiser, W.

R. Kruger, W. Kiser, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, and K. Miller, "Thermoacoustic optical molecular imaging of small animals," Mol. Imaging 2, 113-123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kiser, W. L.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, "Contrast enhancement of breast cancer in vivo using thermoacoustic ct at 434 MHz—feasibility study," Radiology 216, 279-283 (2000).

Kolkman, R. G. M.

R. I. Siphanto, R. G. M. Kolkman, A. Huisjes, M. C. Pilatou, F. F. M. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, and L. N. A. van Adrichem, "Imaging of small vessels using photoacoustics: an in vivo study," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 354-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Köstli, K.

B. T. Cox, S. Arridge, K. Köstli, and P. Beard, "Quantitative photoacoustic imaging: fitting a model of light transport to the initial pressure distribution," Proc. SPIE 5697, 49-55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Köstli and P. Beard, "Two-dimensional photoacoustic imaging by use of Fourier-transform image: reconstruction and a detector with an anisotropic response," Appl. Opt. 42, 1899-1908 (2003).

Köstli, K. P.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, "Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using Fourier transform methods," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1863-1872 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, G.

R. Kruger, W. Kiser, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, and K. Miller, "Thermoacoustic optical molecular imaging of small animals," Mol. Imaging 2, 113-123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, G. A.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, "Contrast enhancement of breast cancer in vivo using thermoacoustic ct at 434 MHz—feasibility study," Radiology 216, 279-283 (2000).

Kruger, R.

R. Kruger, W. Kiser, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, and K. Miller, "Thermoacoustic optical molecular imaging of small animals," Mol. Imaging 2, 113-123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, R. A.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, "Contrast enhancement of breast cancer in vivo using thermoacoustic ct at 434 MHz—feasibility study," Radiology 216, 279-283 (2000).

Ku, G.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Three-dimensional laser-induced photoacoustic tomography of mouse brain with the skin and skull intact," Opt. Lett. 28, 1739-1741 (2003).

Laufer, J.

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "Pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy of blood," Proc. SPIE 5320, 57-68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "Spatially resolved blood oxygenation measurements using time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy," in Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXVII, Vol. 578 of Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology , G. Cicco, D. F. Bruley, M. Ferrari, and D. K. Harrison, eds. (Springer, 2006).

Laufer, J. G.

J. G. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4409-4428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

A. A. Karabutov, N. B. Podymova, and V. S. Letokhov, "Time-resolved laser optoacoustic tomography of inhomogeneous media," Appl. Phys. B 63, 545-563 (1996).

Lionheart, W. R. B.

Miller, K.

R. Kruger, W. Kiser, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, and K. Miller, "Thermoacoustic optical molecular imaging of small animals," Mol. Imaging 2, 113-123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miller, K. D.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, "Contrast enhancement of breast cancer in vivo using thermoacoustic ct at 434 MHz—feasibility study," Radiology 216, 279-283 (2000).

Niederhauser, J.

M. Jaeger, J. Niederhauser, M. Hejazi, and M. Frenz, "Diffraction-free acoustic detection for optoacoustic depth profiling of tissue using an optically transparent polyvinylidene flouride pressure transducer operated in backward and forward mode," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024035 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, "Quantitative point source photoacoustic inversion formulas for scattering and absorbing media," Phys. Rev. E 71, 031912 (2005).

Oesterberg, U.

H. Jiang, K. Paulsen, and U. Oesterberg, "Optical image reconstruction using dc data simulations and experiments," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1483-1498 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O'Leary, M.

Paltauf, G.

G. Paltauf and P. E. Dyer, "Photomechanical processes and effects in ablation," Chem. Rev. 103, 487-518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Paltauf and H. Schmidt-Kloiber, "Pulsed optoacoustic characterization of layered media," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1624-1631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pan, X.

J. Zhang, M. A. Anastasio, X. Pan, and L. V. Wang, "Weighted expectation maximization reconstruction algorithms for thermoacoustic tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 817-820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pang, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Three-dimensional laser-induced photoacoustic tomography of mouse brain with the skin and skull intact," Opt. Lett. 28, 1739-1741 (2003).

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paulsen, K.

H. Jiang, K. Paulsen, and U. Oesterberg, "Optical image reconstruction using dc data simulations and experiments," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1483-1498 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pilatou, M. C.

R. I. Siphanto, R. G. M. Kolkman, A. Huisjes, M. C. Pilatou, F. F. M. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, and L. N. A. van Adrichem, "Imaging of small vessels using photoacoustics: an in vivo study," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 354-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Podymova, N. B.

A. A. Karabutov, N. B. Podymova, and V. S. Letokhov, "Time-resolved laser optoacoustic tomography of inhomogeneous media," Appl. Phys. B 63, 545-563 (1996).

Pongers, R.

Reinecke, D.

R. Kruger, W. Kiser, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, and K. Miller, "Thermoacoustic optical molecular imaging of small animals," Mol. Imaging 2, 113-123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reinecke, D. R.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, "Contrast enhancement of breast cancer in vivo using thermoacoustic ct at 434 MHz—feasibility study," Radiology 216, 279-283 (2000).

Reynolds, H. E.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, "Contrast enhancement of breast cancer in vivo using thermoacoustic ct at 434 MHz—feasibility study," Radiology 216, 279-283 (2000).

Ripoll, J.

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, "Quantitative point source photoacoustic inversion formulas for scattering and absorbing media," Phys. Rev. E 71, 031912 (2005).

Schmidt-Kloiber, H.

G. Paltauf and H. Schmidt-Kloiber, "Pulsed optoacoustic characterization of layered media," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1624-1631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schweiger, M.

M. Schweiger, S. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, "The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779-1792 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, "A finite element approach for modelling photon transport in tissue," Med. Phys. 20, 299-309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Siphanto, R. I.

R. I. Siphanto, R. G. M. Kolkman, A. Huisjes, M. C. Pilatou, F. F. M. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, and L. N. A. van Adrichem, "Imaging of small vessels using photoacoustics: an in vivo study," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 354-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Star, W. M.

W. M. Star, "Diffusion theory of light transport," in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A.J.Welch and M.J. C.van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, 1995).

Steenbergen, W.

R. I. Siphanto, R. G. M. Kolkman, A. Huisjes, M. C. Pilatou, F. F. M. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, and L. N. A. van Adrichem, "Imaging of small vessels using photoacoustics: an in vivo study," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 354-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stoica, G.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Three-dimensional laser-induced photoacoustic tomography of mouse brain with the skin and skull intact," Opt. Lett. 28, 1739-1741 (2003).

Sun, T.

G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, "Properties of photoacoustic waves in one, two, and three dimensions," Acustica 80, 339-351 (1994).

Thurber, C.

R. Aster, B. Borchers, and C. Thurber, Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems (Elsevier, 2005).

van Adrichem, L. N. A.

R. I. Siphanto, R. G. M. Kolkman, A. Huisjes, M. C. Pilatou, F. F. M. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, and L. N. A. van Adrichem, "Imaging of small vessels using photoacoustics: an in vivo study," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 354-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

S. L. Jacques and L. Wang, "Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in tissues," in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A.J.Welch and M.J. C.van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, 1995).

Wang, L. H. V.

M. H. Xu, Y. Xu, and L. H. V. Wang, "Time-domain reconstruction-algorithms and numerical simulations for thermoacoustic tomography in various geometries," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1086-1099 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

J. Zhang, M. A. Anastasio, X. Pan, and L. V. Wang, "Weighted expectation maximization reconstruction algorithms for thermoacoustic tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 817-820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Three-dimensional laser-induced photoacoustic tomography of mouse brain with the skin and skull intact," Opt. Lett. 28, 1739-1741 (2003).

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Three-dimensional laser-induced photoacoustic tomography of mouse brain with the skin and skull intact," Opt. Lett. 28, 1739-1741 (2003).

Weber, H. P.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, "Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using Fourier transform methods," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1863-1872 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. H.

M. H. Xu, Y. Xu, and L. H. V. Wang, "Time-domain reconstruction-algorithms and numerical simulations for thermoacoustic tomography in various geometries," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1086-1099 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

M. H. Xu, Y. Xu, and L. H. V. Wang, "Time-domain reconstruction-algorithms and numerical simulations for thermoacoustic tomography in various geometries," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1086-1099 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A.

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, M. A. Anastasio, X. Pan, and L. V. Wang, "Weighted expectation maximization reconstruction algorithms for thermoacoustic tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 817-820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhulina, Y. V.

Acustica (1)

G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, "Properties of photoacoustic waves in one, two, and three dimensions," Acustica 80, 339-351 (1994).

Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (1)

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "Spatially resolved blood oxygenation measurements using time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy," in Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXVII, Vol. 578 of Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology , G. Cicco, D. F. Bruley, M. Ferrari, and D. K. Harrison, eds. (Springer, 2006).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. A. Karabutov, N. B. Podymova, and V. S. Letokhov, "Time-resolved laser optoacoustic tomography of inhomogeneous media," Appl. Phys. B 63, 545-563 (1996).

Chem. Rev. (1)

G. Paltauf and P. E. Dyer, "Photomechanical processes and effects in ablation," Chem. Rev. 103, 487-518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. H. Xu, Y. Xu, and L. H. V. Wang, "Time-domain reconstruction-algorithms and numerical simulations for thermoacoustic tomography in various geometries," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1086-1099 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

J. Zhang, M. A. Anastasio, X. Pan, and L. V. Wang, "Weighted expectation maximization reconstruction algorithms for thermoacoustic tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 817-820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

B. T. Cox and P. C. Beard, "Fast calculation of pulsed photoacoustic fields in fluids using k-space methods," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 3616-3627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Paltauf and H. Schmidt-Kloiber, "Pulsed optoacoustic characterization of layered media," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1624-1631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Jaeger, J. Niederhauser, M. Hejazi, and M. Frenz, "Diffraction-free acoustic detection for optoacoustic depth profiling of tissue using an optically transparent polyvinylidene flouride pressure transducer operated in backward and forward mode," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024035 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

R. I. Siphanto, R. G. M. Kolkman, A. Huisjes, M. C. Pilatou, F. F. M. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, and L. N. A. van Adrichem, "Imaging of small vessels using photoacoustics: an in vivo study," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 354-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (2)

S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, "A finite element approach for modelling photon transport in tissue," Med. Phys. 20, 299-309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. Delpy, "The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779-1792 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Imaging (1)

R. Kruger, W. Kiser, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, and K. Miller, "Thermoacoustic optical molecular imaging of small animals," Mol. Imaging 2, 113-123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

H. Jiang, K. Paulsen, and U. Oesterberg, "Optical image reconstruction using dc data simulations and experiments," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1483-1498 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, "Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using Fourier transform methods," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1863-1872 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4409-4428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, "Quantitative point source photoacoustic inversion formulas for scattering and absorbing media," Phys. Rev. E 71, 031912 (2005).

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, "Pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy of blood," Proc. SPIE 5320, 57-68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cox, S. Arridge, K. Köstli, and P. Beard, "Quantitative photoacoustic imaging: fitting a model of light transport to the initial pressure distribution," Proc. SPIE 5697, 49-55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (1)

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, "Contrast enhancement of breast cancer in vivo using thermoacoustic ct at 434 MHz—feasibility study," Radiology 216, 279-283 (2000).

Other (3)

R. Aster, B. Borchers, and C. Thurber, Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems (Elsevier, 2005).

W. M. Star, "Diffusion theory of light transport," in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A.J.Welch and M.J. C.van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, 1995).

S. L. Jacques and L. Wang, "Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in tissues," in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A.J.Welch and M.J. C.van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, 1995).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flow chart showing the recursive algorithm for quantitative PA imaging.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Quantitative reconstruction of absorbers in a scattering medium by use of data simulated with a MC model. A, true optical absorption distribution with absorption coefficients of 0.2 mm−1 (small square), 0.1 mm−1 (larger square), and 0.01 mm−1 (background). μ s = 10 mm−1, g = 0.8, σ = 1. B, measured absorbed energy distribution, in millijoules per cubic centimeter, simulated with a MC model with added noise. The SNR varies across the image from 40 dB, near the light source, to −10 dB farthest away. C, recovered absorption distribution, in inverse millimeters, following 20 iterations. D, horizontal slices through the true (solid) and recovered (dots) absorption distributions at 3 and −1.5 mm. E, recovered fluence, in millijoules per square centimeter, following 20 iterations. F, log (base 10) of the sum of the squared error against iteration number, showing convergence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quantitative reconstruction of absorbers in a scattering medium by use of data simulated using a FE model. A, true optical absorption distribution with absorption coefficients of 0.3 mm−1 (small circle), 0.2 mm−1 (square), 0.1 mm−1 (larger circle), and 0.01 mm−1 (background). μ s = 10 mm−1, g = 0.8, σ = 0.1. B, measured absorbed energy distribution, in millijoules per cubic centimeter, simulated with a model. The SNR ranges from 40 to −20 dB. C, recovered absorption distribution, in inverse millimeters, after 20 iterations. D, horizontal slices through the true (solid) and recovered (dots) absorption distributions at 2, 0, and −3 mm. E, recovered fluence, in millijoules per square centimeter, following 20 iterations. F, log (base 10) of the sum of the squared error against iteration number showing convergence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Quantitative reconstruction of absorbing strips in a scattering medium. A, true absorption distribution consisting of alternate lines with absorption coefficients 0.2 and 0.01 mm−1. μ s = 10 mm−1, g = 0.8, σ = 0.1. B, measured absorbed energy distribution, in millijoules per cubic centimeter, simulated with a FE model. The SNR ranges from 40 to −20 dB. C, recovered absorption distribution, in inverse millimeters, following 20 iterations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quantitative reconstruction of a smoothly varying absorption distribution in a scattering medium. A, true absorption distribution with the absorption coefficient varying smoothly and continuously over space. μ s = 10 mm−1,  g = 0.8, σ = 1. B, measured absorbed energy distribution, in millijoules per cubic centimeter, simulated with a FE model. The SNR ranges from 40 to −40 dB. C, recovered absorption distribution, in inverse millimeters, following 20 iterations.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 p 1 c 2 2 p t 2 = β C p t ,
( r , t ) = H ( r ) δ ( t ) ,
H ( r ) = μ a ( r ) Φ ( r ; μ a ) .
p 0 ( r ) = ( β c 2 C p ) H ( r ) = Γ H ( r ) ,
μ a     ( 0 ) = 0
k = 0
Δ H ( k ) = H ^ μ a     ( k ) Φ ( k )
μ a     ( k + 1 ) = H ^ / Φ ( k )
k = k + 1
μ a Φ = - H ^ Φ 2 ,
μ a     ( k + 1 ) = H ^ Φ ( k ) + σ .
μ a Φ = H ( Φ + σ ) 2 N ( Φ + σ ) 2 ,

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