Abstract

A brief overview of optical monitoring for vacuum and wet-bench film-deposition processes is presented. Interferometric and polarimetric measurements are combined with regard to simultaneous monitoring of refractive index and physical thickness in real time. Monitoring stability and accuracy are verified during dip coating with a transparent oil standard. This double optical technique is applied to dip coating with a multicomponent zirconyl chloride aqueous solution, whose resulting temporal refractive-index and physical-thickness curves indicate good reproducibility as well as significant sensitivity to changes of film-flow properties during the dip-coating process.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Macmillan, 1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. H. Bernhdt, 'Film thickness and deposition rate monitoring devices and techniques of production films of uniform thickness,' in Physics of Thin Films, 6th ed.,D. E. Hass and R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, 1966), Vol. 3, pp. 1-59.
  3. F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, and A. Fardad, 'Optics as a key to spin coating sol-gel films,' in Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippenyi, G. Lupkovics, and A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE 1983, 1022-1023 (1993).
  4. F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, and M. Green, 'Real-time optical monitoring of spin coating,' J. Phys. III 3, 2059-2063 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. E. Haas, J. N. Quijada, S. J. Picone, and D. P. Birnie, 'Effect of solvent evaporation rate on skin formation during spin coating of complex solutions,' in Sol-Gel Optics V, B. Dunn, E. Pope, H. K. Schmidt, and M. Yamane, eds., Proc. SPIE 3943, 280-284 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. E. Scriven, 'Physics and applications of dip coating and spin coating,' Mater. Res. Soc. 121, 717-729 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. R. Schunk, A. J. Hurd, and C. J. Brinker, 'Free-meniscus coating processes,' in Liquid Film Coating, S. F. Kistler and P. M. Schweizer, eds. (Chapman & Hall, 1997), pp. 673-708.
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. P. Spiers, C. V. Subabaraman, and W. L. Wilkinson, 'Free coating of a Newtonian liquid onto a vertical surface,' Chem. Eng. Sci. 29, 389-396 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Nishida, J. M. McKiernan, B. Dunn, J. I. Zink, C. J. Brinker, and A. J. Hurd, 'In situ fluorescence probing of the chemical changes during sol-gel thin film formation,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1640-1648 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Qu, E. Rancé, and S. Garoff, 'Dip coated films of volatile liquids,' Phys. Fluids 14, 1154-1165 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, P. Alcantara Jr., M. B. Pereira, A. P. Rizzato, and C. V. Santilli, 'Real-time interferometric monitoring of dip coating,' in Optics for the Next Millenium, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenter, and T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE 3749, 729-730 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. F. Michels, T. Menegotto, and F. Horowitz, 'Interferometric monitoring of dip coating,' Appl. Opt. 43, 820-823 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. Michels, T. Menegotto, and F. Horowitz, 'Optically monitored dip coating as a contactless viscometry method for liquid films,' Appl. Opt. 44, 912-915 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. T. Chou and O. Arnon, 'Refractive index measurement of optical thin-film,' U.S. patent 4,335,961 (22 June 1982).
  15. J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, 'A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,' J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, H. P. Grieneisen, and J. A. Lisboa, 'Aparelho Monitorador para Medida Direta e Multi-Angular do Índice de Refração, Método e Uso do Mesmo,' Brazil patent 0305389-0 (28 June 2005).
  17. L. A. Chiavacci, S. H. Pulcinelli, and C. V. Santilli, 'Structural and phenomenological characterization of the thermoreversible sol-gel transition of a zirconyl aqueous precursor modified by sulfuric acid,' Chem. Mater. 10, 986-993 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

D. Qu, E. Rancé, and S. Garoff, 'Dip coated films of volatile liquids,' Phys. Fluids 14, 1154-1165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. E. Haas, J. N. Quijada, S. J. Picone, and D. P. Birnie, 'Effect of solvent evaporation rate on skin formation during spin coating of complex solutions,' in Sol-Gel Optics V, B. Dunn, E. Pope, H. K. Schmidt, and M. Yamane, eds., Proc. SPIE 3943, 280-284 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, P. Alcantara Jr., M. B. Pereira, A. P. Rizzato, and C. V. Santilli, 'Real-time interferometric monitoring of dip coating,' in Optics for the Next Millenium, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenter, and T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE 3749, 729-730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. A. Chiavacci, S. H. Pulcinelli, and C. V. Santilli, 'Structural and phenomenological characterization of the thermoreversible sol-gel transition of a zirconyl aqueous precursor modified by sulfuric acid,' Chem. Mater. 10, 986-993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

F. Nishida, J. M. McKiernan, B. Dunn, J. I. Zink, C. J. Brinker, and A. J. Hurd, 'In situ fluorescence probing of the chemical changes during sol-gel thin film formation,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1640-1648 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, and A. Fardad, 'Optics as a key to spin coating sol-gel films,' in Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippenyi, G. Lupkovics, and A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE 1983, 1022-1023 (1993).

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, and M. Green, 'Real-time optical monitoring of spin coating,' J. Phys. III 3, 2059-2063 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

L. E. Scriven, 'Physics and applications of dip coating and spin coating,' Mater. Res. Soc. 121, 717-729 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, 'A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,' J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. P. Spiers, C. V. Subabaraman, and W. L. Wilkinson, 'Free coating of a Newtonian liquid onto a vertical surface,' Chem. Eng. Sci. 29, 389-396 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Alcantara, P.

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, P. Alcantara Jr., M. B. Pereira, A. P. Rizzato, and C. V. Santilli, 'Real-time interferometric monitoring of dip coating,' in Optics for the Next Millenium, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenter, and T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE 3749, 729-730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arnon, O.

J. T. Chou and O. Arnon, 'Refractive index measurement of optical thin-film,' U.S. patent 4,335,961 (22 June 1982).

Bernhdt, K. H.

K. H. Bernhdt, 'Film thickness and deposition rate monitoring devices and techniques of production films of uniform thickness,' in Physics of Thin Films, 6th ed.,D. E. Hass and R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, 1966), Vol. 3, pp. 1-59.

Birnie, D. P.

D. E. Haas, J. N. Quijada, S. J. Picone, and D. P. Birnie, 'Effect of solvent evaporation rate on skin formation during spin coating of complex solutions,' in Sol-Gel Optics V, B. Dunn, E. Pope, H. K. Schmidt, and M. Yamane, eds., Proc. SPIE 3943, 280-284 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brinker, C. J.

F. Nishida, J. M. McKiernan, B. Dunn, J. I. Zink, C. J. Brinker, and A. J. Hurd, 'In situ fluorescence probing of the chemical changes during sol-gel thin film formation,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1640-1648 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Schunk, A. J. Hurd, and C. J. Brinker, 'Free-meniscus coating processes,' in Liquid Film Coating, S. F. Kistler and P. M. Schweizer, eds. (Chapman & Hall, 1997), pp. 673-708.
[CrossRef]

Chiavacci, L. A.

L. A. Chiavacci, S. H. Pulcinelli, and C. V. Santilli, 'Structural and phenomenological characterization of the thermoreversible sol-gel transition of a zirconyl aqueous precursor modified by sulfuric acid,' Chem. Mater. 10, 986-993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chou, J. T.

J. T. Chou and O. Arnon, 'Refractive index measurement of optical thin-film,' U.S. patent 4,335,961 (22 June 1982).

Dawnay, E.

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, and A. Fardad, 'Optics as a key to spin coating sol-gel films,' in Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippenyi, G. Lupkovics, and A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE 1983, 1022-1023 (1993).

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, and M. Green, 'Real-time optical monitoring of spin coating,' J. Phys. III 3, 2059-2063 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, B.

F. Nishida, J. M. McKiernan, B. Dunn, J. I. Zink, C. J. Brinker, and A. J. Hurd, 'In situ fluorescence probing of the chemical changes during sol-gel thin film formation,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1640-1648 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fardad, A.

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, and M. Green, 'Real-time optical monitoring of spin coating,' J. Phys. III 3, 2059-2063 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, and A. Fardad, 'Optics as a key to spin coating sol-gel films,' in Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippenyi, G. Lupkovics, and A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE 1983, 1022-1023 (1993).

Fillard, J. P.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, 'A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,' J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Garoff, S.

D. Qu, E. Rancé, and S. Garoff, 'Dip coated films of volatile liquids,' Phys. Fluids 14, 1154-1165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gasiot, J.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, 'A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,' J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Green, M.

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, and M. Green, 'Real-time optical monitoring of spin coating,' J. Phys. III 3, 2059-2063 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grieneisen, H. P.

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, H. P. Grieneisen, and J. A. Lisboa, 'Aparelho Monitorador para Medida Direta e Multi-Angular do Índice de Refração, Método e Uso do Mesmo,' Brazil patent 0305389-0 (28 June 2005).

Haas, D. E.

D. E. Haas, J. N. Quijada, S. J. Picone, and D. P. Birnie, 'Effect of solvent evaporation rate on skin formation during spin coating of complex solutions,' in Sol-Gel Optics V, B. Dunn, E. Pope, H. K. Schmidt, and M. Yamane, eds., Proc. SPIE 3943, 280-284 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, F.

F. Michels, T. Menegotto, and F. Horowitz, 'Optically monitored dip coating as a contactless viscometry method for liquid films,' Appl. Opt. 44, 912-915 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Michels, T. Menegotto, and F. Horowitz, 'Interferometric monitoring of dip coating,' Appl. Opt. 43, 820-823 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, P. Alcantara Jr., M. B. Pereira, A. P. Rizzato, and C. V. Santilli, 'Real-time interferometric monitoring of dip coating,' in Optics for the Next Millenium, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenter, and T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE 3749, 729-730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, and A. Fardad, 'Optics as a key to spin coating sol-gel films,' in Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippenyi, G. Lupkovics, and A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE 1983, 1022-1023 (1993).

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, and M. Green, 'Real-time optical monitoring of spin coating,' J. Phys. III 3, 2059-2063 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, H. P. Grieneisen, and J. A. Lisboa, 'Aparelho Monitorador para Medida Direta e Multi-Angular do Índice de Refração, Método e Uso do Mesmo,' Brazil patent 0305389-0 (28 June 2005).

Hurd, A. J.

F. Nishida, J. M. McKiernan, B. Dunn, J. I. Zink, C. J. Brinker, and A. J. Hurd, 'In situ fluorescence probing of the chemical changes during sol-gel thin film formation,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1640-1648 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Schunk, A. J. Hurd, and C. J. Brinker, 'Free-meniscus coating processes,' in Liquid Film Coating, S. F. Kistler and P. M. Schweizer, eds. (Chapman & Hall, 1997), pp. 673-708.
[CrossRef]

Lisboa, J. A.

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, H. P. Grieneisen, and J. A. Lisboa, 'Aparelho Monitorador para Medida Direta e Multi-Angular do Índice de Refração, Método e Uso do Mesmo,' Brazil patent 0305389-0 (28 June 2005).

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Macmillan, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Manifacier, J. C.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, 'A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,' J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

McKiernan, J. M.

F. Nishida, J. M. McKiernan, B. Dunn, J. I. Zink, C. J. Brinker, and A. J. Hurd, 'In situ fluorescence probing of the chemical changes during sol-gel thin film formation,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1640-1648 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Menegotto, T.

Michels, A. F.

A. F. Michels, T. Menegotto, and F. Horowitz, 'Interferometric monitoring of dip coating,' Appl. Opt. 43, 820-823 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, P. Alcantara Jr., M. B. Pereira, A. P. Rizzato, and C. V. Santilli, 'Real-time interferometric monitoring of dip coating,' in Optics for the Next Millenium, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenter, and T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE 3749, 729-730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, H. P. Grieneisen, and J. A. Lisboa, 'Aparelho Monitorador para Medida Direta e Multi-Angular do Índice de Refração, Método e Uso do Mesmo,' Brazil patent 0305389-0 (28 June 2005).

Michels, F.

Nishida, F.

F. Nishida, J. M. McKiernan, B. Dunn, J. I. Zink, C. J. Brinker, and A. J. Hurd, 'In situ fluorescence probing of the chemical changes during sol-gel thin film formation,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1640-1648 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, M. B.

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, P. Alcantara Jr., M. B. Pereira, A. P. Rizzato, and C. V. Santilli, 'Real-time interferometric monitoring of dip coating,' in Optics for the Next Millenium, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenter, and T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE 3749, 729-730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Picone, S. J.

D. E. Haas, J. N. Quijada, S. J. Picone, and D. P. Birnie, 'Effect of solvent evaporation rate on skin formation during spin coating of complex solutions,' in Sol-Gel Optics V, B. Dunn, E. Pope, H. K. Schmidt, and M. Yamane, eds., Proc. SPIE 3943, 280-284 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pulcinelli, S. H.

L. A. Chiavacci, S. H. Pulcinelli, and C. V. Santilli, 'Structural and phenomenological characterization of the thermoreversible sol-gel transition of a zirconyl aqueous precursor modified by sulfuric acid,' Chem. Mater. 10, 986-993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qu, D.

D. Qu, E. Rancé, and S. Garoff, 'Dip coated films of volatile liquids,' Phys. Fluids 14, 1154-1165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Quijada, J. N.

D. E. Haas, J. N. Quijada, S. J. Picone, and D. P. Birnie, 'Effect of solvent evaporation rate on skin formation during spin coating of complex solutions,' in Sol-Gel Optics V, B. Dunn, E. Pope, H. K. Schmidt, and M. Yamane, eds., Proc. SPIE 3943, 280-284 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rancé, E.

D. Qu, E. Rancé, and S. Garoff, 'Dip coated films of volatile liquids,' Phys. Fluids 14, 1154-1165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rizzato, A. P.

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, P. Alcantara Jr., M. B. Pereira, A. P. Rizzato, and C. V. Santilli, 'Real-time interferometric monitoring of dip coating,' in Optics for the Next Millenium, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenter, and T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE 3749, 729-730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Santilli, C. V.

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, P. Alcantara Jr., M. B. Pereira, A. P. Rizzato, and C. V. Santilli, 'Real-time interferometric monitoring of dip coating,' in Optics for the Next Millenium, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenter, and T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE 3749, 729-730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Chiavacci, S. H. Pulcinelli, and C. V. Santilli, 'Structural and phenomenological characterization of the thermoreversible sol-gel transition of a zirconyl aqueous precursor modified by sulfuric acid,' Chem. Mater. 10, 986-993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schunk, P. R.

P. R. Schunk, A. J. Hurd, and C. J. Brinker, 'Free-meniscus coating processes,' in Liquid Film Coating, S. F. Kistler and P. M. Schweizer, eds. (Chapman & Hall, 1997), pp. 673-708.
[CrossRef]

Scriven, L. E.

L. E. Scriven, 'Physics and applications of dip coating and spin coating,' Mater. Res. Soc. 121, 717-729 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Spiers, R. P.

R. P. Spiers, C. V. Subabaraman, and W. L. Wilkinson, 'Free coating of a Newtonian liquid onto a vertical surface,' Chem. Eng. Sci. 29, 389-396 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Subabaraman, C. V.

R. P. Spiers, C. V. Subabaraman, and W. L. Wilkinson, 'Free coating of a Newtonian liquid onto a vertical surface,' Chem. Eng. Sci. 29, 389-396 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, W. L.

R. P. Spiers, C. V. Subabaraman, and W. L. Wilkinson, 'Free coating of a Newtonian liquid onto a vertical surface,' Chem. Eng. Sci. 29, 389-396 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Yeatman, E. M.

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, and M. Green, 'Real-time optical monitoring of spin coating,' J. Phys. III 3, 2059-2063 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, and A. Fardad, 'Optics as a key to spin coating sol-gel films,' in Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippenyi, G. Lupkovics, and A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE 1983, 1022-1023 (1993).

Zink, J. I.

F. Nishida, J. M. McKiernan, B. Dunn, J. I. Zink, C. J. Brinker, and A. J. Hurd, 'In situ fluorescence probing of the chemical changes during sol-gel thin film formation,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1640-1648 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Chem. Eng. Sci. (1)

R. P. Spiers, C. V. Subabaraman, and W. L. Wilkinson, 'Free coating of a Newtonian liquid onto a vertical surface,' Chem. Eng. Sci. 29, 389-396 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

L. A. Chiavacci, S. H. Pulcinelli, and C. V. Santilli, 'Structural and phenomenological characterization of the thermoreversible sol-gel transition of a zirconyl aqueous precursor modified by sulfuric acid,' Chem. Mater. 10, 986-993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

F. Nishida, J. M. McKiernan, B. Dunn, J. I. Zink, C. J. Brinker, and A. J. Hurd, 'In situ fluorescence probing of the chemical changes during sol-gel thin film formation,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1640-1648 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, 'A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,' J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. III (1)

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, and M. Green, 'Real-time optical monitoring of spin coating,' J. Phys. III 3, 2059-2063 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. (1)

L. E. Scriven, 'Physics and applications of dip coating and spin coating,' Mater. Res. Soc. 121, 717-729 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Fluids (1)

D. Qu, E. Rancé, and S. Garoff, 'Dip coated films of volatile liquids,' Phys. Fluids 14, 1154-1165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, P. Alcantara Jr., M. B. Pereira, A. P. Rizzato, and C. V. Santilli, 'Real-time interferometric monitoring of dip coating,' in Optics for the Next Millenium, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenter, and T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE 3749, 729-730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Haas, J. N. Quijada, S. J. Picone, and D. P. Birnie, 'Effect of solvent evaporation rate on skin formation during spin coating of complex solutions,' in Sol-Gel Optics V, B. Dunn, E. Pope, H. K. Schmidt, and M. Yamane, eds., Proc. SPIE 3943, 280-284 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, and A. Fardad, 'Optics as a key to spin coating sol-gel films,' in Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippenyi, G. Lupkovics, and A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE 1983, 1022-1023 (1993).

Other (5)

P. R. Schunk, A. J. Hurd, and C. J. Brinker, 'Free-meniscus coating processes,' in Liquid Film Coating, S. F. Kistler and P. M. Schweizer, eds. (Chapman & Hall, 1997), pp. 673-708.
[CrossRef]

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, H. P. Grieneisen, and J. A. Lisboa, 'Aparelho Monitorador para Medida Direta e Multi-Angular do Índice de Refração, Método e Uso do Mesmo,' Brazil patent 0305389-0 (28 June 2005).

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Macmillan, 1986).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Bernhdt, 'Film thickness and deposition rate monitoring devices and techniques of production films of uniform thickness,' in Physics of Thin Films, 6th ed.,D. E. Hass and R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, 1966), Vol. 3, pp. 1-59.

J. T. Chou and O. Arnon, 'Refractive index measurement of optical thin-film,' U.S. patent 4,335,961 (22 June 1982).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temporal evolution of reflectance (top, in arbitrary units) and relative optical thickness (bottom, in quarter-wave steps) for zirconyl solgel at λ = 660 nm during dip coating at a 0.6 mm / s withdrawal speed. Measurement realized at x 0 = 27 mm , with the following process parameters: zirconyl molarity, 0.5 mol L - 1 ; relative humidity, 40%; temperature, 22 °C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal evolution of physical thickness and refractive index during dip coating for a multicomponent zirconyl chloride aqueous solution at distinct withdrawal speeds. Measurement realized at x 0 = 27 mm , with the following process parameters: zirconyl molarity, 0.5 mol L - 1 ; relative humidity, 40%; temperature, 22 °C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Stability test of the refractive-index monitor during dip coating at a 2 mm / s withdrawal speed, using a Newtonian, nonvolatile oil standard at a constant temperature of 24 °C. The refractive index measured by the Abbe refractometry, also at 660 nm and 24 °C, was 1.470 ± 0.001 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reproducibility of the refractive index (n) and the physical-thickness (h) temporal evolution during dip coating at a 1 mm / s withdrawal speed, illustrated with four runs with a multicomponent zirconyl chloride aqueous solution. Measurement realized at x 0 = 27 mm with the following process parameters: zirconyl molarity, 0.5 mol L - 1 ; relative humidity, 40%; temperature, 22 °C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Illustration of the dip-coating batch process in which laser probing is shown: U is the withdrawal speed and h is the film's physical thickness on the y axis. The illuminated area under the measurement corresponds to a fixed value x 0 on the vertical x axis.

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