Abstract

An experimental setup, based on the laser-induced deflection technique, is developed to measure simultaneously the 244 nm laser absorption, scattering, and luminescence on optical components. The different techniques and methods that have been specifically developed to obtain both high resolution (micronic) and sensitivity (a few 107 of the incident power for the absorption, 108 for scattering and fluorescence) are presented. Different applications are then explored: the study of losses in deep UV multilayer coatings (HfO2/SiO2 mirrors) and the analysis of contamination defects on bare substrate and structural defects in optical coatings.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Ravel, 'Optical coatings for high power lasers,' in Optical Interference Coating 2004.
  2. A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristan, M. Trovo and M. Danailov, 'Toward resistant VUV coatings for free electron laser down to 150 nm,' (submitted to Appl. Opt.).
  3. H. Bercegol, P. Bouchut, L. Lamaignère, B. Le Garrec, and G. Razé, 'The impact of laser damage on the lifetime of optical components in fusion lasers,' in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 312-324 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Kaiser and H. Pulker, Optical Interference Coatings (Springer, 2003).
  5. E. Welsh and D. Ristau, 'Photothermal measurements on optical thin films,' Appl. Opt. 34, 7339-7253 (1995).
  6. Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Koslowski, 'Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,' Opt. Eng. 36, 251-262 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. G. Demos and M. Staggs, 'Application of fluorescence microscopy for noninvasive detection of surface contamination and precursors to laser damage,' Appl. Opt. 41, 1444-1450 (2002).
  8. A. During, M. Commandré, C. Fossati, B. Bertussi, J. Y. Natoli, J. L. Rullier, H. Bercegol, and P. Bouchut, 'Integrated photothermal microscope and laser damage test facility for in-situ investigation of nanodefect induced damage,' Opt. Express 11, 2497-2501 (2003).
  9. M. Commandré and P. Roche, 'Characterization of optical coatings by photothermal deflection,' Appl. Opt. 35, pp. 5021-5034 (1996).
  10. V. Loriette and C. Boccara, 'Absorption of low-loss optical materials measured at 1064 nm by a position-modulated collinear photothermal detection technique,' Appl. Opt. 42, 649-656 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Amra, 'Light scattering from multilayer optics. II. Application to experiment,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, pp. 211-226 (1994).
  13. S. Maure, G. Albrand, and C. Amra, 'Low-level scattering and localized defects,' Appl. Opt. 35, 5573-5582 (1996).
  14. A. Gatto and M. Commandré, 'Multiscale mapping technique for the simultaneous estimation of absorption and partial scattering in optical coatings,' Appl. Opt. 41, 225-234 (2002)
  15. A. During, C. Fossati, and M. Commandré, 'Multiwavelength imaging of defects in ultraviolet optical materials,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3118-3126 (2002).
  16. S. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. Radousky, and J. De Yoreo, 'Microscopic fluorescence imaging of bulk defect clusters in KH2PO4 crystals,' Opt. Lett. 24, 268-270 (1999).
  17. Ch. Mühlig, W. Triebel, S. Bark-Zollmann, and D. Grebner, 'In situ diagnostics of pulse laser-induced defects in DUV transparent fused silica glasses,' Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. B 168, 698-703 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, W. Jackson, and N. M. Amer, 'Sensitive photothermal deflection technique for measuring absorption in optically thin media,' Opt. Lett. 5, 377-379 (1980).
  19. M. Commandré and E. Pelletier, 'Measurement of absorption losses in TiO2 films by a collinear photothermal deflection technique,' Appl. Opt. 29, 4276-4283 (1990).
  20. S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, 'Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica,' J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150-5153 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, and D. Fournier, 'Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection,' Appl. Opt. 20, 1333-1344 (1981).
  22. M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, and A. C. Boccara, 'Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solid and surfaces,' Appl. Phys. 32, 141-154 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters (Adam Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1986).
  24. D. Ristau and J. Ebert, 'Development of a thermographic laser calorimeter,' Appl. Opt. 25, 4571-4578 (1986).
  25. J. Lambropoulos, M. Jolly, S. Amsden, S. Gilman, M. Sinicropi, D. Diakomihalis, and S. Jacobs, 'Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,' J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230-4242 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Z. Wu, M. Reichling, X. Hu, K. Balasubramanian, and K. Guenther, 'Absorption and thermal conductivity of oxide thin films measured by photothermal displacement and reflectance methods,' Appl. Opt. 32, 5660-5665 (1993).
  27. H. Machlab, W. McGahan, J. Woollam, and K. Cole, 'Thermal characterization of thin films by photothermally induced laser beam deflection,' Thin Solid Films 224, 22-27 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Rohde, 'Photoacoustic characterization of thermal transport properties in thin films and microsctructures,' Thin Solid Films 238, 199-206 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. Lee, D. Cahill, and T. Allen, 'Thermal conductivity of sputtered oxide films,' Phys. Rev. B 52, 253-257 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  30. E. Drouard, P. Huguet-Chantôme, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory, '∂n/∂T measurements performed with guided waves and their application to the temperature sensitivity of wavelength-division multiplexing filters,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3192-3136 (2002).
  31. L. Gallais and M. Commandré, 'Photothermal deflection in multilayer coatings: modeling and experiment,' Applied Optics (to be published).
  32. 'Test methods for radiation scattered by optical components,' Norm ISO 13696:2002 (International Organization for Standardization, 2002).
  33. L. Gallais, P. Voarino, and C. Amra, 'Optical measurement of size and complex index of laser damage precursors: the inverse problem,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1073-1080 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  34. P. Torchio, A. Gatto, M. Alvisi, G. Albrand, N. Kaiser, and C. Amra, 'High-reflectivity HfO2/SiO2 ultraviolet mirrors,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3156-3261 (2002).
  35. N. Leclerc, C. Pfeiderer, J. Wolfrum, K. Greulich, W. P. Leung, M. Kulkarni, and A. C. Tam, 'Transient absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy in fused silica induced by pulsed KrF excimer laser irradiation,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3369-3371 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  36. N. Kuzuu and M. Murahara, 'Excimer-induced emissions bands in fused quartz,' Phys. Rev. B 47, 3083-3088 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. Watanabe, S. Juodkasis, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, 'Luminescence and defect formation by visible and near-infrared irradiation of vitreous silica,' Phys. Rev. B 60, 9959-9964 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. During, C. Fossati, and M. Commandré, 'Photothermal deflection microscopy for imaging submicronic defects in optical materials,' Opt. Commun. 230, 279-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

2002 (5)

P. Torchio, A. Gatto, M. Alvisi, G. Albrand, N. Kaiser, and C. Amra, 'High-reflectivity HfO2/SiO2 ultraviolet mirrors,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3156-3261 (2002).

E. Drouard, P. Huguet-Chantôme, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory, '∂n/∂T measurements performed with guided waves and their application to the temperature sensitivity of wavelength-division multiplexing filters,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3192-3136 (2002).

A. Gatto and M. Commandré, 'Multiscale mapping technique for the simultaneous estimation of absorption and partial scattering in optical coatings,' Appl. Opt. 41, 225-234 (2002)

A. During, C. Fossati, and M. Commandré, 'Multiwavelength imaging of defects in ultraviolet optical materials,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3118-3126 (2002).

S. G. Demos and M. Staggs, 'Application of fluorescence microscopy for noninvasive detection of surface contamination and precursors to laser damage,' Appl. Opt. 41, 1444-1450 (2002).

2000 (1)

Ch. Mühlig, W. Triebel, S. Bark-Zollmann, and D. Grebner, 'In situ diagnostics of pulse laser-induced defects in DUV transparent fused silica glasses,' Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. B 168, 698-703 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. Radousky, and J. De Yoreo, 'Microscopic fluorescence imaging of bulk defect clusters in KH2PO4 crystals,' Opt. Lett. 24, 268-270 (1999).

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkasis, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, 'Luminescence and defect formation by visible and near-infrared irradiation of vitreous silica,' Phys. Rev. B 60, 9959-9964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, 'Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica,' J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150-5153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Koslowski, 'Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,' Opt. Eng. 36, 251-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1995 (2)

E. Welsh and D. Ristau, 'Photothermal measurements on optical thin films,' Appl. Opt. 34, 7339-7253 (1995).

S. Lee, D. Cahill, and T. Allen, 'Thermal conductivity of sputtered oxide films,' Phys. Rev. B 52, 253-257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. Rohde, 'Photoacoustic characterization of thermal transport properties in thin films and microsctructures,' Thin Solid Films 238, 199-206 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Amra, 'Light scattering from multilayer optics. II. Application to experiment,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, pp. 211-226 (1994).

1993 (3)

Z. Wu, M. Reichling, X. Hu, K. Balasubramanian, and K. Guenther, 'Absorption and thermal conductivity of oxide thin films measured by photothermal displacement and reflectance methods,' Appl. Opt. 32, 5660-5665 (1993).

H. Machlab, W. McGahan, J. Woollam, and K. Cole, 'Thermal characterization of thin films by photothermally induced laser beam deflection,' Thin Solid Films 224, 22-27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Kuzuu and M. Murahara, 'Excimer-induced emissions bands in fused quartz,' Phys. Rev. B 47, 3083-3088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

N. Leclerc, C. Pfeiderer, J. Wolfrum, K. Greulich, W. P. Leung, M. Kulkarni, and A. C. Tam, 'Transient absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy in fused silica induced by pulsed KrF excimer laser irradiation,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3369-3371 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

J. Lambropoulos, M. Jolly, S. Amsden, S. Gilman, M. Sinicropi, D. Diakomihalis, and S. Jacobs, 'Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,' J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230-4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, and A. C. Boccara, 'Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solid and surfaces,' Appl. Phys. 32, 141-154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

Adamik, M.

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, 'Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica,' J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150-5153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Albrand, G.

Allen, T.

S. Lee, D. Cahill, and T. Allen, 'Thermal conductivity of sputtered oxide films,' Phys. Rev. B 52, 253-257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alvisi, M.

Amer, N. M.

Amra, C.

Amsden, S.

J. Lambropoulos, M. Jolly, S. Amsden, S. Gilman, M. Sinicropi, D. Diakomihalis, and S. Jacobs, 'Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,' J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230-4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramanian, K.

Bark-Zollmann, S.

Ch. Mühlig, W. Triebel, S. Bark-Zollmann, and D. Grebner, 'In situ diagnostics of pulse laser-induced defects in DUV transparent fused silica glasses,' Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. B 168, 698-703 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bercegol, H.

H. Bercegol, P. Bouchut, L. Lamaignère, B. Le Garrec, and G. Razé, 'The impact of laser damage on the lifetime of optical components in fusion lasers,' in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 312-324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. During, M. Commandré, C. Fossati, B. Bertussi, J. Y. Natoli, J. L. Rullier, H. Bercegol, and P. Bouchut, 'Integrated photothermal microscope and laser damage test facility for in-situ investigation of nanodefect induced damage,' Opt. Express 11, 2497-2501 (2003).

Bertussi, B.

Boccara, A. C.

Boccara, C.

Bouchut, P.

A. During, M. Commandré, C. Fossati, B. Bertussi, J. Y. Natoli, J. L. Rullier, H. Bercegol, and P. Bouchut, 'Integrated photothermal microscope and laser damage test facility for in-situ investigation of nanodefect induced damage,' Opt. Express 11, 2497-2501 (2003).

H. Bercegol, P. Bouchut, L. Lamaignère, B. Le Garrec, and G. Razé, 'The impact of laser damage on the lifetime of optical components in fusion lasers,' in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 312-324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cahill, D.

S. Lee, D. Cahill, and T. Allen, 'Thermal conductivity of sputtered oxide films,' Phys. Rev. B 52, 253-257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cole, K.

H. Machlab, W. McGahan, J. Woollam, and K. Cole, 'Thermal characterization of thin films by photothermally induced laser beam deflection,' Thin Solid Films 224, 22-27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Commandré, M.

Danailov, M.

A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristan, M. Trovo and M. Danailov, 'Toward resistant VUV coatings for free electron laser down to 150 nm,' (submitted to Appl. Opt.).

De Yoreo, J.

Demos, S.

Demos, S. G.

S. G. Demos and M. Staggs, 'Application of fluorescence microscopy for noninvasive detection of surface contamination and precursors to laser damage,' Appl. Opt. 41, 1444-1450 (2002).

Diakomihalis, D.

J. Lambropoulos, M. Jolly, S. Amsden, S. Gilman, M. Sinicropi, D. Diakomihalis, and S. Jacobs, 'Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,' J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230-4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Drouard, E.

E. Drouard, P. Huguet-Chantôme, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory, '∂n/∂T measurements performed with guided waves and their application to the temperature sensitivity of wavelength-division multiplexing filters,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3192-3136 (2002).

During, A.

Ebert, J.

Escoubas, L.

E. Drouard, P. Huguet-Chantôme, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory, '∂n/∂T measurements performed with guided waves and their application to the temperature sensitivity of wavelength-division multiplexing filters,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3192-3136 (2002).

Flory, F.

E. Drouard, P. Huguet-Chantôme, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory, '∂n/∂T measurements performed with guided waves and their application to the temperature sensitivity of wavelength-division multiplexing filters,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3192-3136 (2002).

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, 'Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica,' J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150-5153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fossati, C.

Fournier, D.

Gallais, L.

L. Gallais, P. Voarino, and C. Amra, 'Optical measurement of size and complex index of laser damage precursors: the inverse problem,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1073-1080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallais and M. Commandré, 'Photothermal deflection in multilayer coatings: modeling and experiment,' Applied Optics (to be published).

Gatto, A.

P. Torchio, A. Gatto, M. Alvisi, G. Albrand, N. Kaiser, and C. Amra, 'High-reflectivity HfO2/SiO2 ultraviolet mirrors,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3156-3261 (2002).

A. Gatto and M. Commandré, 'Multiscale mapping technique for the simultaneous estimation of absorption and partial scattering in optical coatings,' Appl. Opt. 41, 225-234 (2002)

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, 'Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica,' J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150-5153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristan, M. Trovo and M. Danailov, 'Toward resistant VUV coatings for free electron laser down to 150 nm,' (submitted to Appl. Opt.).

Gilman, S.

J. Lambropoulos, M. Jolly, S. Amsden, S. Gilman, M. Sinicropi, D. Diakomihalis, and S. Jacobs, 'Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,' J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230-4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Grebner, D.

Ch. Mühlig, W. Triebel, S. Bark-Zollmann, and D. Grebner, 'In situ diagnostics of pulse laser-induced defects in DUV transparent fused silica glasses,' Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. B 168, 698-703 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Greulich, K.

N. Leclerc, C. Pfeiderer, J. Wolfrum, K. Greulich, W. P. Leung, M. Kulkarni, and A. C. Tam, 'Transient absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy in fused silica induced by pulsed KrF excimer laser irradiation,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3369-3371 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K.

Günster, S.

A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristan, M. Trovo and M. Danailov, 'Toward resistant VUV coatings for free electron laser down to 150 nm,' (submitted to Appl. Opt.).

Hu, X.

Huguet-Chantôme, P.

E. Drouard, P. Huguet-Chantôme, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory, '∂n/∂T measurements performed with guided waves and their application to the temperature sensitivity of wavelength-division multiplexing filters,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3192-3136 (2002).

Jackson, W.

Jackson, W. B.

Jacobs, S.

J. Lambropoulos, M. Jolly, S. Amsden, S. Gilman, M. Sinicropi, D. Diakomihalis, and S. Jacobs, 'Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,' J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230-4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jolly, M.

J. Lambropoulos, M. Jolly, S. Amsden, S. Gilman, M. Sinicropi, D. Diakomihalis, and S. Jacobs, 'Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,' J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230-4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Juodkasis, S.

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkasis, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, 'Luminescence and defect formation by visible and near-infrared irradiation of vitreous silica,' Phys. Rev. B 60, 9959-9964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

P. Torchio, A. Gatto, M. Alvisi, G. Albrand, N. Kaiser, and C. Amra, 'High-reflectivity HfO2/SiO2 ultraviolet mirrors,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3156-3261 (2002).

A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristan, M. Trovo and M. Danailov, 'Toward resistant VUV coatings for free electron laser down to 150 nm,' (submitted to Appl. Opt.).

N. Kaiser and H. Pulker, Optical Interference Coatings (Springer, 2003).

Kohn, S.

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, and A. C. Boccara, 'Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solid and surfaces,' Appl. Phys. 32, 141-154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Koslowski, M.

Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Koslowski, 'Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,' Opt. Eng. 36, 251-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kovacs, I.

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, 'Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica,' J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150-5153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M.

N. Leclerc, C. Pfeiderer, J. Wolfrum, K. Greulich, W. P. Leung, M. Kulkarni, and A. C. Tam, 'Transient absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy in fused silica induced by pulsed KrF excimer laser irradiation,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3369-3371 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, P.

Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Koslowski, 'Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,' Opt. Eng. 36, 251-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuzuu, N.

N. Kuzuu and M. Murahara, 'Excimer-induced emissions bands in fused quartz,' Phys. Rev. B 47, 3083-3088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lamaignère, L.

H. Bercegol, P. Bouchut, L. Lamaignère, B. Le Garrec, and G. Razé, 'The impact of laser damage on the lifetime of optical components in fusion lasers,' in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 312-324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lambropoulos, J.

J. Lambropoulos, M. Jolly, S. Amsden, S. Gilman, M. Sinicropi, D. Diakomihalis, and S. Jacobs, 'Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,' J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230-4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Le Garrec, B.

H. Bercegol, P. Bouchut, L. Lamaignère, B. Le Garrec, and G. Razé, 'The impact of laser damage on the lifetime of optical components in fusion lasers,' in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 312-324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leclerc, N.

N. Leclerc, C. Pfeiderer, J. Wolfrum, K. Greulich, W. P. Leung, M. Kulkarni, and A. C. Tam, 'Transient absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy in fused silica induced by pulsed KrF excimer laser irradiation,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3369-3371 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

S. Lee, D. Cahill, and T. Allen, 'Thermal conductivity of sputtered oxide films,' Phys. Rev. B 52, 253-257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leung, W. P.

N. Leclerc, C. Pfeiderer, J. Wolfrum, K. Greulich, W. P. Leung, M. Kulkarni, and A. C. Tam, 'Transient absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy in fused silica induced by pulsed KrF excimer laser irradiation,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3369-3371 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Loriette, V.

Lu, Y.

Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Koslowski, 'Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,' Opt. Eng. 36, 251-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Machlab, H.

H. Machlab, W. McGahan, J. Woollam, and K. Cole, 'Thermal characterization of thin films by photothermally induced laser beam deflection,' Thin Solid Films 224, 22-27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters (Adam Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1986).

Matsuo, S.

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkasis, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, 'Luminescence and defect formation by visible and near-infrared irradiation of vitreous silica,' Phys. Rev. B 60, 9959-9964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maure, S.

McGahan, W.

H. Machlab, W. McGahan, J. Woollam, and K. Cole, 'Thermal characterization of thin films by photothermally induced laser beam deflection,' Thin Solid Films 224, 22-27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkasis, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, 'Luminescence and defect formation by visible and near-infrared irradiation of vitreous silica,' Phys. Rev. B 60, 9959-9964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mühlig, Ch.

Ch. Mühlig, W. Triebel, S. Bark-Zollmann, and D. Grebner, 'In situ diagnostics of pulse laser-induced defects in DUV transparent fused silica glasses,' Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. B 168, 698-703 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murahara, M.

N. Kuzuu and M. Murahara, 'Excimer-induced emissions bands in fused quartz,' Phys. Rev. B 47, 3083-3088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Natoli, J. Y.

Olmstead, M. A.

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, and A. C. Boccara, 'Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solid and surfaces,' Appl. Phys. 32, 141-154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, E.

Pfeiderer, C.

N. Leclerc, C. Pfeiderer, J. Wolfrum, K. Greulich, W. P. Leung, M. Kulkarni, and A. C. Tam, 'Transient absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy in fused silica induced by pulsed KrF excimer laser irradiation,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3369-3371 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H.

N. Kaiser and H. Pulker, Optical Interference Coatings (Springer, 2003).

Radousky, H.

Ravel, G.

G. Ravel, 'Optical coatings for high power lasers,' in Optical Interference Coating 2004.

Razé, G.

H. Bercegol, P. Bouchut, L. Lamaignère, B. Le Garrec, and G. Razé, 'The impact of laser damage on the lifetime of optical components in fusion lasers,' in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 312-324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reichling, M.

Ristan, D.

A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristan, M. Trovo and M. Danailov, 'Toward resistant VUV coatings for free electron laser down to 150 nm,' (submitted to Appl. Opt.).

Ristau, D.

E. Welsh and D. Ristau, 'Photothermal measurements on optical thin films,' Appl. Opt. 34, 7339-7253 (1995).

D. Ristau and J. Ebert, 'Development of a thermographic laser calorimeter,' Appl. Opt. 25, 4571-4578 (1986).

Roche, P.

Rohde, M.

M. Rohde, 'Photoacoustic characterization of thermal transport properties in thin films and microsctructures,' Thin Solid Films 238, 199-206 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roux, L.

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, 'Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica,' J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150-5153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rullier, J. L.

Sinicropi, M.

J. Lambropoulos, M. Jolly, S. Amsden, S. Gilman, M. Sinicropi, D. Diakomihalis, and S. Jacobs, 'Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,' J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230-4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Staggs, M.

S. G. Demos and M. Staggs, 'Application of fluorescence microscopy for noninvasive detection of surface contamination and precursors to laser damage,' Appl. Opt. 41, 1444-1450 (2002).

S. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. Radousky, and J. De Yoreo, 'Microscopic fluorescence imaging of bulk defect clusters in KH2PO4 crystals,' Opt. Lett. 24, 268-270 (1999).

Stolz, C.

Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Koslowski, 'Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,' Opt. Eng. 36, 251-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkasis, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, 'Luminescence and defect formation by visible and near-infrared irradiation of vitreous silica,' Phys. Rev. B 60, 9959-9964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tam, A. C.

N. Leclerc, C. Pfeiderer, J. Wolfrum, K. Greulich, W. P. Leung, M. Kulkarni, and A. C. Tam, 'Transient absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy in fused silica induced by pulsed KrF excimer laser irradiation,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3369-3371 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, M.

Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Koslowski, 'Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,' Opt. Eng. 36, 251-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tisserand, S.

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, 'Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica,' J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150-5153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Torchio, P.

Triebel, W.

Ch. Mühlig, W. Triebel, S. Bark-Zollmann, and D. Grebner, 'In situ diagnostics of pulse laser-induced defects in DUV transparent fused silica glasses,' Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. B 168, 698-703 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trovo, M.

A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristan, M. Trovo and M. Danailov, 'Toward resistant VUV coatings for free electron laser down to 150 nm,' (submitted to Appl. Opt.).

Voarino, P.

Watanabe, M.

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkasis, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, 'Luminescence and defect formation by visible and near-infrared irradiation of vitreous silica,' Phys. Rev. B 60, 9959-9964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, E.

E. Welsh and D. Ristau, 'Photothermal measurements on optical thin films,' Appl. Opt. 34, 7339-7253 (1995).

Wolfrum, J.

N. Leclerc, C. Pfeiderer, J. Wolfrum, K. Greulich, W. P. Leung, M. Kulkarni, and A. C. Tam, 'Transient absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy in fused silica induced by pulsed KrF excimer laser irradiation,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3369-3371 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Woollam, J.

H. Machlab, W. McGahan, J. Woollam, and K. Cole, 'Thermal characterization of thin films by photothermally induced laser beam deflection,' Thin Solid Films 224, 22-27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Koslowski, 'Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,' Opt. Eng. 36, 251-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, M. Reichling, X. Hu, K. Balasubramanian, and K. Guenther, 'Absorption and thermal conductivity of oxide thin films measured by photothermal displacement and reflectance methods,' Appl. Opt. 32, 5660-5665 (1993).

Yan, M.

Appl. Opt. (13)

E. Welsh and D. Ristau, 'Photothermal measurements on optical thin films,' Appl. Opt. 34, 7339-7253 (1995).

S. G. Demos and M. Staggs, 'Application of fluorescence microscopy for noninvasive detection of surface contamination and precursors to laser damage,' Appl. Opt. 41, 1444-1450 (2002).

S. Maure, G. Albrand, and C. Amra, 'Low-level scattering and localized defects,' Appl. Opt. 35, 5573-5582 (1996).

A. Gatto and M. Commandré, 'Multiscale mapping technique for the simultaneous estimation of absorption and partial scattering in optical coatings,' Appl. Opt. 41, 225-234 (2002)

A. During, C. Fossati, and M. Commandré, 'Multiwavelength imaging of defects in ultraviolet optical materials,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3118-3126 (2002).

M. Commandré and P. Roche, 'Characterization of optical coatings by photothermal deflection,' Appl. Opt. 35, pp. 5021-5034 (1996).

V. Loriette and C. Boccara, 'Absorption of low-loss optical materials measured at 1064 nm by a position-modulated collinear photothermal detection technique,' Appl. Opt. 42, 649-656 (2003).

M. Commandré and E. Pelletier, 'Measurement of absorption losses in TiO2 films by a collinear photothermal deflection technique,' Appl. Opt. 29, 4276-4283 (1990).

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, and D. Fournier, 'Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection,' Appl. Opt. 20, 1333-1344 (1981).

D. Ristau and J. Ebert, 'Development of a thermographic laser calorimeter,' Appl. Opt. 25, 4571-4578 (1986).

Z. Wu, M. Reichling, X. Hu, K. Balasubramanian, and K. Guenther, 'Absorption and thermal conductivity of oxide thin films measured by photothermal displacement and reflectance methods,' Appl. Opt. 32, 5660-5665 (1993).

E. Drouard, P. Huguet-Chantôme, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory, '∂n/∂T measurements performed with guided waves and their application to the temperature sensitivity of wavelength-division multiplexing filters,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3192-3136 (2002).

P. Torchio, A. Gatto, M. Alvisi, G. Albrand, N. Kaiser, and C. Amra, 'High-reflectivity HfO2/SiO2 ultraviolet mirrors,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3156-3261 (2002).

Appl. Phys. (1)

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, and A. C. Boccara, 'Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solid and surfaces,' Appl. Phys. 32, 141-154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Leclerc, C. Pfeiderer, J. Wolfrum, K. Greulich, W. P. Leung, M. Kulkarni, and A. C. Tam, 'Transient absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy in fused silica induced by pulsed KrF excimer laser irradiation,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3369-3371 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, 'Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica,' J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150-5153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lambropoulos, M. Jolly, S. Amsden, S. Gilman, M. Sinicropi, D. Diakomihalis, and S. Jacobs, 'Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films,' J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230-4242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. B (1)

Ch. Mühlig, W. Triebel, S. Bark-Zollmann, and D. Grebner, 'In situ diagnostics of pulse laser-induced defects in DUV transparent fused silica glasses,' Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. B 168, 698-703 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. During, C. Fossati, and M. Commandré, 'Photothermal deflection microscopy for imaging submicronic defects in optical materials,' Opt. Commun. 230, 279-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Koslowski, 'Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,' Opt. Eng. 36, 251-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

S. Lee, D. Cahill, and T. Allen, 'Thermal conductivity of sputtered oxide films,' Phys. Rev. B 52, 253-257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Kuzuu and M. Murahara, 'Excimer-induced emissions bands in fused quartz,' Phys. Rev. B 47, 3083-3088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkasis, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, 'Luminescence and defect formation by visible and near-infrared irradiation of vitreous silica,' Phys. Rev. B 60, 9959-9964 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Bercegol, P. Bouchut, L. Lamaignère, B. Le Garrec, and G. Razé, 'The impact of laser damage on the lifetime of optical components in fusion lasers,' in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 312-324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

H. Machlab, W. McGahan, J. Woollam, and K. Cole, 'Thermal characterization of thin films by photothermally induced laser beam deflection,' Thin Solid Films 224, 22-27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Rohde, 'Photoacoustic characterization of thermal transport properties in thin films and microsctructures,' Thin Solid Films 238, 199-206 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H. A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters (Adam Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1986).

L. Gallais and M. Commandré, 'Photothermal deflection in multilayer coatings: modeling and experiment,' Applied Optics (to be published).

'Test methods for radiation scattered by optical components,' Norm ISO 13696:2002 (International Organization for Standardization, 2002).

N. Kaiser and H. Pulker, Optical Interference Coatings (Springer, 2003).

G. Ravel, 'Optical coatings for high power lasers,' in Optical Interference Coating 2004.

A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristan, M. Trovo and M. Danailov, 'Toward resistant VUV coatings for free electron laser down to 150 nm,' (submitted to Appl. Opt.).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurement of the pump- and probe-beam profiles in the plane of the sample. Case of a 3 μm pump beam and a 6 μm probe beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption measurements by spectrophotometry of ion-implanted samples.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fig. 4.Variation of the PD signal with the thin-film parameters. Calculations made for the case of an absorbing thin film on a nonabsorbing substrate (F = 1500 Hz), for different probe-beam sizes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Nomarski image of the implanted sample. (b) Absorption mapping of the same sample (pump = 3 μm, probe = 6 μm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Nomarski image of the absorbing grating. (b) Absorption mapping of the same sample (pump = 3 μm, probe = 6 μm).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Particle size as a function of its imaginary index calculated from Eq. (5) in the following conditions: ΔA = 4 × 10−7, n′ = 2, dϕ∕dS = 2.8 × 1010, λ = 244 nm, ns = 1.52.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Absorption, scattering, and fluorescence mappings on HfO2∕SiO2 mirrors centered at 250 nm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Absorption, scattering, and fluorescence mappings of a micronic defect on a silica substrate. (The measurement was made with a pump beam of 6 μm diameter; then the result on the mapping is the convolution of the beam profile with the defect.)

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Luminescence spectra of a Herasil surface and a Herasil surface coated with a SiO2 thin film, under 244 nm irradiation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Range of Values for the Thin-Film Parameters a

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A CS = C CS P S CS ,
A S = C S P S S .
A S = K P S S P S CS A CS .
P D i = 1 n i n i T p a t h   i [ T i x ( x , y , z , t ) ] x = x 0 , y = y 0 d z ,
Δ A = 4 π ( n n n s ) β ( Δ ν λ ) ( d Φ d S ) .

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