Abstract

Light scattering in the atmosphere by particles and molecules gives rise to an aureole surrounding the source image that tends to reduce the contrast of the source with respect to the background. However, UV scattering phase functions of the haze droplets present a very important forward peak. The spreading of a detected signal in the UV is not as important as in the case of a clear atmosphere where Rayleigh scattering predominates. This physical property has to be taken into account to evaluate the potential of UV radiation as an aircraft landing aid under low visibility conditions. Different results characterizing UV runway lights, simulations of UV radiation propagation in the atmosphere, and the use of a simple detection algorithm applied to one particular sensor are presented.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (1)

1999 (1)

1995 (1)

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

M. Blumthaler and W. Ambach, "Solar UVB albedo of various surfaces," Photochem. Photobiol. 48, 85-88 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (3)

Abreu, L. W.

L. W. Abreu and G. P. Anderson, "The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 Model," prepared by Ontar Corporation for Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate (1996).

Acevedo, P. A.

R. H. Giza, P. A. Acevedo, and J. D. Bliss, "Ultraviolet scene simulation for missile approach warning system testing," in Technologies for Synthetic Environments: Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing II, R. L. Murrer, ed., Proc. SPIE 3084,282-291 (1997).

D. J. Meyer, P. A. Acevedo, and B. E. O'Toole, "Improvements to real-time ultraviolet scene simulation for sensor testing," in Technologies for Synthetic Environments: Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing III, R.L. Murrer, Jr., ed., Proc. SPIE 3368,310-320 (1998).

Ambach, W.

M. Blumthaler and W. Ambach, "Solar UVB albedo of various surfaces," Photochem. Photobiol. 48, 85-88 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. E.

Anderson, G. P.

L. W. Abreu and G. P. Anderson, "The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 Model," prepared by Ontar Corporation for Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate (1996).

Bliss, J. D.

R. H. Giza, P. A. Acevedo, and J. D. Bliss, "Ultraviolet scene simulation for missile approach warning system testing," in Technologies for Synthetic Environments: Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing II, R. L. Murrer, ed., Proc. SPIE 3084,282-291 (1997).

Blumthaler, M.

M. Blumthaler and W. Ambach, "Solar UVB albedo of various surfaces," Photochem. Photobiol. 48, 85-88 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulcholtz, A.

Chazette, P.

Chervet, P.

Currie, D. G.

V. J. Norris, R. S. Evans, and D. G. Currie, "Performance comparison of visual, infrared and ultraviolet sensors for landing aircraft in fog," in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, J.G.Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE 3691,2-20 (1999).

V. J. Norris and D. G. Currie, "Autonomous UV-enhanced vision system for landing on CAT I runways during CAT IIIa weather conditions," in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, J.G.Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE 4363,9-20 (2001).

Denton, M. B.

J. V. Sweedler, K. L. Ratzlaff, and M. B. Denton, Charge-Transfer Devices in Spectroscopy (Wiley, 1994).

Elstein, S.

M. Lindner, S. Elstein, and P. Lindner, "Solar blind and bispectral imaging with ICCD, BCCD and EBCCD cameras," in Image Intensifiers and Applications, C.B. Johnson, T.D. Maclay, and F.A. Allahdadi, eds., Proc. SPIE 3434,22-31 (1998).

Evans, R. S.

V. J. Norris, R. S. Evans, and D. G. Currie, "Performance comparison of visual, infrared and ultraviolet sensors for landing aircraft in fog," in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, J.G.Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE 3691,2-20 (1999).

Girasole, T.

Giza, R. H.

R. H. Giza, P. A. Acevedo, and J. D. Bliss, "Ultraviolet scene simulation for missile approach warning system testing," in Technologies for Synthetic Environments: Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing II, R. L. Murrer, ed., Proc. SPIE 3084,282-291 (1997).

Green, A. E. S.

Heymsfield, A.

Kreiss, W.

Langlois, S.

Lavigne, C.

Lee, J. S.

Lindner, M.

M. Lindner, S. Elstein, and P. Lindner, "Solar blind and bispectral imaging with ICCD, BCCD and EBCCD cameras," in Image Intensifiers and Applications, C.B. Johnson, T.D. Maclay, and F.A. Allahdadi, eds., Proc. SPIE 3434,22-31 (1998).

Lindner, P.

M. Lindner, S. Elstein, and P. Lindner, "Solar blind and bispectral imaging with ICCD, BCCD and EBCCD cameras," in Image Intensifiers and Applications, C.B. Johnson, T.D. Maclay, and F.A. Allahdadi, eds., Proc. SPIE 3434,22-31 (1998).

Liou, K. N.

Luettgen, M. R.

Meier, R. R.

Meyer, D. J.

D. J. Meyer, P. A. Acevedo, and B. E. O'Toole, "Improvements to real-time ultraviolet scene simulation for sensor testing," in Technologies for Synthetic Environments: Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing III, R.L. Murrer, Jr., ed., Proc. SPIE 3368,310-320 (1998).

Norris, V. J.

V. J. Norris, R. S. Evans, and D. G. Currie, "Performance comparison of visual, infrared and ultraviolet sensors for landing aircraft in fog," in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, J.G.Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE 3691,2-20 (1999).

V. J. Norris, "Autonomous UV-enhanced vision system that prevents runway incursions at medium size airports," in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, J.G.Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE 4363,67-75 (2001).

V. J. Norris and D. G. Currie, "Autonomous UV-enhanced vision system for landing on CAT I runways during CAT IIIa weather conditions," in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, J.G.Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE 4363,9-20 (2001).

V. J. Norris, "Autonomous low-cost electro-optical system that prevents runway incursion by providing direct warnings to flight crews," in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, J.G.Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE 5081,109-123 (2003).

V. J. Norris, "FAA evaluation of UV technology for runway incursion prevention and low visibility landings," in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, J.G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE 5081,1-10 (2003).

O'Toole, B. E.

D. J. Meyer, P. A. Acevedo, and B. E. O'Toole, "Improvements to real-time ultraviolet scene simulation for sensor testing," in Technologies for Synthetic Environments: Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing III, R.L. Murrer, Jr., ed., Proc. SPIE 3368,310-320 (1998).

Ou, S. C.

Outters, V.

Pollock, D. H.

D. H. Pollock, "Countermeasure Systems," in The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (SPIE Press, 1993), Vol. 7, Chap. 1.

Ratzlaff, K. L.

J. V. Sweedler, K. L. Ratzlaff, and M. B. Denton, Charge-Transfer Devices in Spectroscopy (Wiley, 1994).

Reilly, D. M.

Riewe, F.

Roblin, A.

Rozé, C.

Shapiro, J. H.

Simons, J. C.

J. C. Simons, "Optical filters for high resolution imaging systems," in Ultraviolet Technology II, R.E. Huffman, ed., Proc. SPIE 932, pp. 148-152.

Sweedler, J. V.

J. V. Sweedler, K. L. Ratzlaff, and M. B. Denton, Charge-Transfer Devices in Spectroscopy (Wiley, 1994).

Takano, Y.

Zaccanti, G.

Zachor, A. S.

Appl. Opt. (8)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

M. Blumthaler and W. Ambach, "Solar UVB albedo of various surfaces," Photochem. Photobiol. 48, 85-88 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (13)

J. C. Simons, "Optical filters for high resolution imaging systems," in Ultraviolet Technology II, R.E. Huffman, ed., Proc. SPIE 932, pp. 148-152.

J. V. Sweedler, K. L. Ratzlaff, and M. B. Denton, Charge-Transfer Devices in Spectroscopy (Wiley, 1994).

D. H. Pollock, "Countermeasure Systems," in The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (SPIE Press, 1993), Vol. 7, Chap. 1.

V. J. Norris, "Autonomous low-cost electro-optical system that prevents runway incursion by providing direct warnings to flight crews," in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, J.G.Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE 5081,109-123 (2003).

V. J. Norris, "FAA evaluation of UV technology for runway incursion prevention and low visibility landings," in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, J.G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE 5081,1-10 (2003).

C. Lavigne, "Etude théorique et expérimentale de la propagation du rayonnement UV dans la basse atmosphère," Ph. D. dissertation (Université de Rouen, 2001).

L. W. Abreu and G. P. Anderson, "The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 Model," prepared by Ontar Corporation for Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate (1996).

M. Lindner, S. Elstein, and P. Lindner, "Solar blind and bispectral imaging with ICCD, BCCD and EBCCD cameras," in Image Intensifiers and Applications, C.B. Johnson, T.D. Maclay, and F.A. Allahdadi, eds., Proc. SPIE 3434,22-31 (1998).

V. J. Norris, R. S. Evans, and D. G. Currie, "Performance comparison of visual, infrared and ultraviolet sensors for landing aircraft in fog," in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, J.G.Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE 3691,2-20 (1999).

V. J. Norris and D. G. Currie, "Autonomous UV-enhanced vision system for landing on CAT I runways during CAT IIIa weather conditions," in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, J.G.Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE 4363,9-20 (2001).

V. J. Norris, "Autonomous UV-enhanced vision system that prevents runway incursions at medium size airports," in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, J.G.Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE 4363,67-75 (2001).

D. J. Meyer, P. A. Acevedo, and B. E. O'Toole, "Improvements to real-time ultraviolet scene simulation for sensor testing," in Technologies for Synthetic Environments: Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing III, R.L. Murrer, Jr., ed., Proc. SPIE 3368,310-320 (1998).

R. H. Giza, P. A. Acevedo, and J. D. Bliss, "Ultraviolet scene simulation for missile approach warning system testing," in Technologies for Synthetic Environments: Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing II, R. L. Murrer, ed., Proc. SPIE 3084,282-291 (1997).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the one-source axisymmetric case. C is the last photon collision location and x k is the photon path direction before the collision.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral radiance of a runway lamp measured between 240 and 330 nm once the Pyrex lenses are removed (continuous curve) and the equivalent blackbody spectrum for T = 3150 K (dashed curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Angular dependency of runway light intensity in polar coordinates, horizontal plane. (b) Positioning of light sources along the runway.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MODTRAN aerosol phase functions relative to scattering angles for two atmospheric humidities.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Comparison of the average radiance calculated [from Eq. (7)] at 280 nm with the Monte Carlo and the semiempirical methods. (b) Details for small scattering angles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Event number (digital counts) received by a nonintensified CCD camera in the 247.5–287.5 nm spectral band for a distance from touchdown equal to 700 m in case of (a) CAT1C conditions, (b) CAT3A(1) conditions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Histograms relative to the images presented in (a) Fig. 6(a) with a mean value equal to 2.46 and a standard deviation of 3.79 and (b) Fig. 6(b) with a mean value equal to 2.46 and a standard deviation of 3.76.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

P D and P F as functions of the relative threshold ( s / σ ) for two detection distances and a sequence made up of two images in the case of (a) CAT1C conditions and (b) CAT3A(1) conditions. σ = 3.76 is the standard deviation of a typical image.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

P D and P F as functions of the relative threshold ( s / σ ) for two detection distances and a sequence made up of three images in the case of (a) CAT1C conditions and (b) CAT3A(1) conditions. σ = 3.76 is the standard deviation of a typical image.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 MODTRAN Atmospheric Parameters for CAT1C and CAT3A Conditions

Tables Icon

Table 2 Atmospheric Input Data for the Semiempirical Model and the Monte Carlo Code

Tables Icon

Table 3 Aerosol Properties at 280 nm for the Three Atmospheric Conditions a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Sensor Characteristics

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I S ( u ^ 0 · e ^ z ) = I ¯ S S ( cos θ 0 ) = I ¯ S S ( μ 0 ) ,
0 1 S ( μ ) d u = 2.
l = ln r 1 k scat ,
H j k = P ( cos θ sca ) × exp ( k e x t d j k ) × δ S cos γ d 2 ,
T ( τ , Θ ) = exp ( τ ) + γ j = 1 N T k = 1 n col j H j k W j k F ( γ ; Θ ) N T 4 π φ 0 φ 0 + δ φ 0 θ 0 θ 0 + δ θ 0 S ( cos θ ) sin θ d θ d φ .
T ( τ , Θ ) = exp ( τ ) + d 2 I ¯ S S ( cos θ 0 ) 0 2 π 0 θ / 2 B ( τ , γ , φ ) × c o s γ s i n γ d γ d φ .
B ¯ ( τ , γ ) = 1 2 π 0 2 π B ( τ , γ , φ ) d φ .
E dir = I S ( cos θ 0 ) × exp ( τ ) d 2 × S d S p ,
E p s c a t = B ( τ , γ p , φ p ) × δ Ω p cos γ p × S d S p ,
τ ( S S ) = exp ( k abs + η ( S S ) k scat ) d S ,
η ( S S ) 1    as   long   as   ω 0 0
η ( S S ) 0    as   long   as   ω 0 1 .
η ( S S ) = 2 π θ i π f ( θ , S S ) sin θ d θ ,
f ( θ , S S ) P ( cos θ ) as   long   as   S S ¯ 0 ,
f ( θ , S S ) 1 4 π as   long   as   S S ¯ .
s ( i , j ) s b ( i , j ) = 1
s ( i , j ) < s b ( i , j ) = 0 ,
P d = i = 1 N p j = 1 N S ( s ( i , j ) s )  and   ( i A ) N p A N S ,
P f a = i = 1 N p j = 1 N S ( s ( i , j ) s )   and   ( i C ) N p C N S ,
P D = P d 2 m .
P F = 1 ( 1 P f a m ) N p .
P D 0.95 ,
P F < 10 6 .

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