Abstract

A scanning beam interferometer installed on the Frascati tokamak upgrade (FTU) experiment is presented. The scanning beam scheme combined with the small dimensions of the beams produces a system with very high spatial resolution: more than 30 adjacent (nonoverlapping) chords sample most of the plasma cross section. A good time resolution is achieved by the use of a proper scanning device, with a scanning frequency 8  kHz. Very fast events are measured by three additional fixed lines of sight providing a time resolution 100  kHz. The instrument is a two-color medium-infrared-compensated-type interferometer; two wavelengths (colors) are used to measure both the density and the mechanical vibrations of optical components. A CO2 laser (λ=10.6  μm) is the main light source, and a CO laser (λ=5.4  μm) is the compensation one. The optical scheme is a double pass Mach–Zehnder type. All the retroreflector mirrors are mounted directly on the FTU mechanical structure thanks to the compensation system that allows for large vibration amplitudes of optical components. Heterodyne detection at 30 and 40  MHz is obtained by frequency shifting the reference beams with two acousto-optic modulators (Bragg cells). Many features are implemented to achieve high measurement accuracy and reliability. A real-time system computes the integral density measured on one of the fixed lines of sight and provides an analog signal for density feedback control. The interferometer was used to measure density profiles both in medium-density discharges (ne1020m3) and in high-density pellet injected discharges (ne78×1020m3). The measurement error is 2×1018m2 under optimal conditions but can be higher in some cases, mainly because of the large tilt of the retroreflector mirrors.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  17. C. Mazzotta, O. Tudisco, A. Canton, P. Innocente, M. DeBenedetti, E. Giovannozzi, D. Marocco, P. Micozzi, G. Monari, and G. Rocchi, "Measurement of density profiles using the new infrared scanning interferometer for FTU," Phys. Scr. T123, 79-83 (2006).
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2006 (1)

C. Mazzotta, O. Tudisco, A. Canton, P. Innocente, M. DeBenedetti, E. Giovannozzi, D. Marocco, P. Micozzi, G. Monari, and G. Rocchi, "Measurement of density profiles using the new infrared scanning interferometer for FTU," Phys. Scr. T123, 79-83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

A. Pizzuto, C. Annino, M. Baldarelli, L. Bettinali, G. Brolatti, C. Crescenzi, G. Maddaluno, B. Riccardi, G. B. Righetti, M. Roccella, and L. Semeraro, "The FTU machine--design, construction, and assembly," Fusion Sci. and Technol. 45, 422-436 (2004).

B. M. Angelini, M. L. Apicella, G. Buceti, C. Centioli, F. Crisanti, F. Iannone, G. Mazza, G. Mazzitelli, M. Panella, and V. Vitale, "The FTU team, FTU Operation," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 427-458 (2004).

2001 (1)

A. Canton, P. Innocente, S. Martini, L. Tasinato, and O. Tudisco, "Spatially scanned two- color mid-infrared interferometer for FTU," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1085-1088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

P. Innocente, S. Martini, A. Canton, and L. Tasinato, "Upgrade of the RFX CO2 interferometer using in-vessel optics for extended edge resolution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 694-697 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Warr, B. D. Blackwell, J. Wach, and J. Howard, "First results from the three-view far- infrared interferometer for the H1 heliac," Fusion Eng. Des. , 34-35, 387-391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

P. Innocente and S. Martini, "Development of a vibration-compensated CO2 interferometer for the RFX experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 4996-4998 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente, S. Martini, and Ch. Ferrer Roca, "An infrared vibration compensated interferometer for the MST experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 4999-5001 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

T. W. Fredian and J. A. Stillerman, "X-windows-based user interface for data acquisition and display," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3283-328 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente, S. Martini, A. Schio, and Ch. Ferrer Roca, "Development of a vibration-compensated CO2 interferometer for the RFX experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2885-2887 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Braithwaite, N. Gottardi, G. Magyar, J. O'Rourke, J. Ryan, and D. Veron, "JET polarinterferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2825-2834 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

T. N. Carlstrom, D. R. Ahlgren, and J. Crosbie, "Real-time, vibration-compensated CO2 interferometer operation on the DIII-D tokamak," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1063-1066 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente and S. Martini, "Two-color CO2 interferometer with single Bragg cell and improved vibration compensation at 3.39 μm," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1571-1573 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1966 (1)

Ahlgren, D. R.

T. N. Carlstrom, D. R. Ahlgren, and J. Crosbie, "Real-time, vibration-compensated CO2 interferometer operation on the DIII-D tokamak," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1063-1066 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, H. M.

Angelini, B. M.

B. M. Angelini, M. L. Apicella, G. Buceti, C. Centioli, F. Crisanti, F. Iannone, G. Mazza, G. Mazzitelli, M. Panella, and V. Vitale, "The FTU team, FTU Operation," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 427-458 (2004).

Annino, C.

A. Pizzuto, C. Annino, M. Baldarelli, L. Bettinali, G. Brolatti, C. Crescenzi, G. Maddaluno, B. Riccardi, G. B. Righetti, M. Roccella, and L. Semeraro, "The FTU machine--design, construction, and assembly," Fusion Sci. and Technol. 45, 422-436 (2004).

Apicella, M. L.

B. M. Angelini, M. L. Apicella, G. Buceti, C. Centioli, F. Crisanti, F. Iannone, G. Mazza, G. Mazzitelli, M. Panella, and V. Vitale, "The FTU team, FTU Operation," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 427-458 (2004).

Apruzzese, G. M.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Baldarelli, M.

A. Pizzuto, C. Annino, M. Baldarelli, L. Bettinali, G. Brolatti, C. Crescenzi, G. Maddaluno, B. Riccardi, G. B. Righetti, M. Roccella, and L. Semeraro, "The FTU machine--design, construction, and assembly," Fusion Sci. and Technol. 45, 422-436 (2004).

Bettinali, L.

A. Pizzuto, C. Annino, M. Baldarelli, L. Bettinali, G. Brolatti, C. Crescenzi, G. Maddaluno, B. Riccardi, G. B. Righetti, M. Roccella, and L. Semeraro, "The FTU machine--design, construction, and assembly," Fusion Sci. and Technol. 45, 422-436 (2004).

Blackwell, B. D.

G. B. Warr, B. D. Blackwell, J. Wach, and J. Howard, "First results from the three-view far- infrared interferometer for the H1 heliac," Fusion Eng. Des. , 34-35, 387-391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Braithwaite, G.

G. Braithwaite, N. Gottardi, G. Magyar, J. O'Rourke, J. Ryan, and D. Veron, "JET polarinterferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2825-2834 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brolatti, G.

A. Pizzuto, C. Annino, M. Baldarelli, L. Bettinali, G. Brolatti, C. Crescenzi, G. Maddaluno, B. Riccardi, G. B. Righetti, M. Roccella, and L. Semeraro, "The FTU machine--design, construction, and assembly," Fusion Sci. and Technol. 45, 422-436 (2004).

Buceti, G.

B. M. Angelini, M. L. Apicella, G. Buceti, C. Centioli, F. Crisanti, F. Iannone, G. Mazza, G. Mazzitelli, M. Panella, and V. Vitale, "The FTU team, FTU Operation," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 427-458 (2004).

Buchenauer, C. J.

C. J. Buchenauer, Acoustically Compensated Two-Wavelength Interferometry for Plasma Density Measurements: One-Dimensional Theory and Applications (Report LA-9880-MS Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1984).

Buratti, P.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Cantarini, L.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Canton, A.

C. Mazzotta, O. Tudisco, A. Canton, P. Innocente, M. DeBenedetti, E. Giovannozzi, D. Marocco, P. Micozzi, G. Monari, and G. Rocchi, "Measurement of density profiles using the new infrared scanning interferometer for FTU," Phys. Scr. T123, 79-83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

A. Canton, P. Innocente, S. Martini, L. Tasinato, and O. Tudisco, "Spatially scanned two- color mid-infrared interferometer for FTU," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1085-1088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente, S. Martini, A. Canton, and L. Tasinato, "Upgrade of the RFX CO2 interferometer using in-vessel optics for extended edge resolution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 694-697 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carlstrom, T. N.

T. N. Carlstrom, D. R. Ahlgren, and J. Crosbie, "Real-time, vibration-compensated CO2 interferometer operation on the DIII-D tokamak," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1063-1066 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carraro, L.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Centioli, C.

B. M. Angelini, M. L. Apicella, G. Buceti, C. Centioli, F. Crisanti, F. Iannone, G. Mazza, G. Mazzitelli, M. Panella, and V. Vitale, "The FTU team, FTU Operation," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 427-458 (2004).

Chouinard, R.

Clifton, B. J.

Cocilovo, V.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Crescenzi, C.

A. Pizzuto, C. Annino, M. Baldarelli, L. Bettinali, G. Brolatti, C. Crescenzi, G. Maddaluno, B. Riccardi, G. B. Righetti, M. Roccella, and L. Semeraro, "The FTU machine--design, construction, and assembly," Fusion Sci. and Technol. 45, 422-436 (2004).

Crisanti, F.

B. M. Angelini, M. L. Apicella, G. Buceti, C. Centioli, F. Crisanti, F. Iannone, G. Mazza, G. Mazzitelli, M. Panella, and V. Vitale, "The FTU team, FTU Operation," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 427-458 (2004).

Crosbie, J.

T. N. Carlstrom, D. R. Ahlgren, and J. Crosbie, "Real-time, vibration-compensated CO2 interferometer operation on the DIII-D tokamak," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1063-1066 (1988).
[CrossRef]

de Angelis, R.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

de Benedetti, M.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

DeBenedetti, M.

C. Mazzotta, O. Tudisco, A. Canton, P. Innocente, M. DeBenedetti, E. Giovannozzi, D. Marocco, P. Micozzi, G. Monari, and G. Rocchi, "Measurement of density profiles using the new infrared scanning interferometer for FTU," Phys. Scr. T123, 79-83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Esposito, B.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Ferrer Roca, Ch.

P. Innocente, S. Martini, and Ch. Ferrer Roca, "An infrared vibration compensated interferometer for the MST experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 4999-5001 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente, S. Martini, A. Schio, and Ch. Ferrer Roca, "Development of a vibration-compensated CO2 interferometer for the RFX experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2885-2887 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Foote, V. S.

Fredian, T. W.

T. W. Fredian and J. A. Stillerman, "X-windows-based user interface for data acquisition and display," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3283-328 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gabellieri, L.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Giovannozzi, E.

C. Mazzotta, O. Tudisco, A. Canton, P. Innocente, M. DeBenedetti, E. Giovannozzi, D. Marocco, P. Micozzi, G. Monari, and G. Rocchi, "Measurement of density profiles using the new infrared scanning interferometer for FTU," Phys. Scr. T123, 79-83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Gottardi, N.

G. Braithwaite, N. Gottardi, G. Magyar, J. O'Rourke, J. Ryan, and D. Veron, "JET polarinterferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2825-2834 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Granucci, G.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Grosso, G.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Grosso, L. A.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Howard, J.

G. B. Warr, B. D. Blackwell, J. Wach, and J. Howard, "First results from the three-view far- infrared interferometer for the H1 heliac," Fusion Eng. Des. , 34-35, 387-391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Iannone, F.

B. M. Angelini, M. L. Apicella, G. Buceti, C. Centioli, F. Crisanti, F. Iannone, G. Mazza, G. Mazzitelli, M. Panella, and V. Vitale, "The FTU team, FTU Operation," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 427-458 (2004).

Innocente, P.

C. Mazzotta, O. Tudisco, A. Canton, P. Innocente, M. DeBenedetti, E. Giovannozzi, D. Marocco, P. Micozzi, G. Monari, and G. Rocchi, "Measurement of density profiles using the new infrared scanning interferometer for FTU," Phys. Scr. T123, 79-83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

A. Canton, P. Innocente, S. Martini, L. Tasinato, and O. Tudisco, "Spatially scanned two- color mid-infrared interferometer for FTU," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1085-1088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente, S. Martini, A. Canton, and L. Tasinato, "Upgrade of the RFX CO2 interferometer using in-vessel optics for extended edge resolution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 694-697 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente, S. Martini, and Ch. Ferrer Roca, "An infrared vibration compensated interferometer for the MST experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 4999-5001 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente and S. Martini, "Development of a vibration-compensated CO2 interferometer for the RFX experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 4996-4998 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente, S. Martini, A. Schio, and Ch. Ferrer Roca, "Development of a vibration-compensated CO2 interferometer for the RFX experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2885-2887 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente and S. Martini, "Two-color CO2 interferometer with single Bragg cell and improved vibration compensation at 3.39 μm," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1571-1573 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. C.

Kogelnik, M.

Kroegler, H.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Leigheb, M.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Li, T.

Ma, C. H.

Maddaluno, G.

A. Pizzuto, C. Annino, M. Baldarelli, L. Bettinali, G. Brolatti, C. Crescenzi, G. Maddaluno, B. Riccardi, G. B. Righetti, M. Roccella, and L. Semeraro, "The FTU machine--design, construction, and assembly," Fusion Sci. and Technol. 45, 422-436 (2004).

Magyar, G.

G. Braithwaite, N. Gottardi, G. Magyar, J. O'Rourke, J. Ryan, and D. Veron, "JET polarinterferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2825-2834 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mansfield, D. K.

Marocco, D.

C. Mazzotta, O. Tudisco, A. Canton, P. Innocente, M. DeBenedetti, E. Giovannozzi, D. Marocco, P. Micozzi, G. Monari, and G. Rocchi, "Measurement of density profiles using the new infrared scanning interferometer for FTU," Phys. Scr. T123, 79-83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martini, S.

A. Canton, P. Innocente, S. Martini, L. Tasinato, and O. Tudisco, "Spatially scanned two- color mid-infrared interferometer for FTU," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1085-1088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente, S. Martini, A. Canton, and L. Tasinato, "Upgrade of the RFX CO2 interferometer using in-vessel optics for extended edge resolution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 694-697 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente, S. Martini, and Ch. Ferrer Roca, "An infrared vibration compensated interferometer for the MST experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 4999-5001 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente and S. Martini, "Development of a vibration-compensated CO2 interferometer for the RFX experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 4996-4998 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente, S. Martini, A. Schio, and Ch. Ferrer Roca, "Development of a vibration-compensated CO2 interferometer for the RFX experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2885-2887 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente and S. Martini, "Two-color CO2 interferometer with single Bragg cell and improved vibration compensation at 3.39 μm," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1571-1573 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mazza, G.

B. M. Angelini, M. L. Apicella, G. Buceti, C. Centioli, F. Crisanti, F. Iannone, G. Mazza, G. Mazzitelli, M. Panella, and V. Vitale, "The FTU team, FTU Operation," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 427-458 (2004).

Mazzitelli, G.

B. M. Angelini, M. L. Apicella, G. Buceti, C. Centioli, F. Crisanti, F. Iannone, G. Mazza, G. Mazzitelli, M. Panella, and V. Vitale, "The FTU team, FTU Operation," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 427-458 (2004).

Mazzotta, C.

C. Mazzotta, O. Tudisco, A. Canton, P. Innocente, M. DeBenedetti, E. Giovannozzi, D. Marocco, P. Micozzi, G. Monari, and G. Rocchi, "Measurement of density profiles using the new infrared scanning interferometer for FTU," Phys. Scr. T123, 79-83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Micozzi, P.

C. Mazzotta, O. Tudisco, A. Canton, P. Innocente, M. DeBenedetti, E. Giovannozzi, D. Marocco, P. Micozzi, G. Monari, and G. Rocchi, "Measurement of density profiles using the new infrared scanning interferometer for FTU," Phys. Scr. T123, 79-83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Monari, G.

C. Mazzotta, O. Tudisco, A. Canton, P. Innocente, M. DeBenedetti, E. Giovannozzi, D. Marocco, P. Micozzi, G. Monari, and G. Rocchi, "Measurement of density profiles using the new infrared scanning interferometer for FTU," Phys. Scr. T123, 79-83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

O'Rourke, J.

G. Braithwaite, N. Gottardi, G. Magyar, J. O'Rourke, J. Ryan, and D. Veron, "JET polarinterferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2825-2834 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pacella, D.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Panaccione, L.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Panella, M.

B. M. Angelini, M. L. Apicella, G. Buceti, C. Centioli, F. Crisanti, F. Iannone, G. Mazza, G. Mazzitelli, M. Panella, and V. Vitale, "The FTU team, FTU Operation," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 427-458 (2004).

Park, H. K.

Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Pizzicaroli, G.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Pizzuto, A.

A. Pizzuto, C. Annino, M. Baldarelli, L. Bettinali, G. Brolatti, C. Crescenzi, G. Maddaluno, B. Riccardi, G. B. Righetti, M. Roccella, and L. Semeraro, "The FTU machine--design, construction, and assembly," Fusion Sci. and Technol. 45, 422-436 (2004).

Podda, S.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Puiatti, M. E.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Riccardi, B.

A. Pizzuto, C. Annino, M. Baldarelli, L. Bettinali, G. Brolatti, C. Crescenzi, G. Maddaluno, B. Riccardi, G. B. Righetti, M. Roccella, and L. Semeraro, "The FTU machine--design, construction, and assembly," Fusion Sci. and Technol. 45, 422-436 (2004).

Righetti, G. B.

A. Pizzuto, C. Annino, M. Baldarelli, L. Bettinali, G. Brolatti, C. Crescenzi, G. Maddaluno, B. Riccardi, G. B. Righetti, M. Roccella, and L. Semeraro, "The FTU machine--design, construction, and assembly," Fusion Sci. and Technol. 45, 422-436 (2004).

Roccella, M.

A. Pizzuto, C. Annino, M. Baldarelli, L. Bettinali, G. Brolatti, C. Crescenzi, G. Maddaluno, B. Riccardi, G. B. Righetti, M. Roccella, and L. Semeraro, "The FTU machine--design, construction, and assembly," Fusion Sci. and Technol. 45, 422-436 (2004).

Rocchi, G.

C. Mazzotta, O. Tudisco, A. Canton, P. Innocente, M. DeBenedetti, E. Giovannozzi, D. Marocco, P. Micozzi, G. Monari, and G. Rocchi, "Measurement of density profiles using the new infrared scanning interferometer for FTU," Phys. Scr. T123, 79-83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Ryan, J.

G. Braithwaite, N. Gottardi, G. Magyar, J. O'Rourke, J. Ryan, and D. Veron, "JET polarinterferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2825-2834 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schio, A.

P. Innocente, S. Martini, A. Schio, and Ch. Ferrer Roca, "Development of a vibration-compensated CO2 interferometer for the RFX experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2885-2887 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Semeraro, L.

A. Pizzuto, C. Annino, M. Baldarelli, L. Bettinali, G. Brolatti, C. Crescenzi, G. Maddaluno, B. Riccardi, G. B. Righetti, M. Roccella, and L. Semeraro, "The FTU machine--design, construction, and assembly," Fusion Sci. and Technol. 45, 422-436 (2004).

Sibio, A.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Simonetto, A.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Smeulders, P.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Stillerman, J. A.

T. W. Fredian and J. A. Stillerman, "X-windows-based user interface for data acquisition and display," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3283-328 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tartari, U.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Tartoni, N.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Tasinato, L.

A. Canton, P. Innocente, S. Martini, L. Tasinato, and O. Tudisco, "Spatially scanned two- color mid-infrared interferometer for FTU," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1085-1088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente, S. Martini, A. Canton, and L. Tasinato, "Upgrade of the RFX CO2 interferometer using in-vessel optics for extended edge resolution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 694-697 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tilia, B.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Tudisco, O.

C. Mazzotta, O. Tudisco, A. Canton, P. Innocente, M. DeBenedetti, E. Giovannozzi, D. Marocco, P. Micozzi, G. Monari, and G. Rocchi, "Measurement of density profiles using the new infrared scanning interferometer for FTU," Phys. Scr. T123, 79-83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

A. Canton, P. Innocente, S. Martini, L. Tasinato, and O. Tudisco, "Spatially scanned two- color mid-infrared interferometer for FTU," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1085-1088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Valisa, M.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Veron, D.

G. Braithwaite, N. Gottardi, G. Magyar, J. O'Rourke, J. Ryan, and D. Veron, "JET polarinterferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2825-2834 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Veron, "Interferometry in large plasma machines," in Course and Workshop on Diagnostics for Fusion Reactor Condictions, P.E.Stott, D.K.Akulina, G.G.Leotta, E.Sindoni, and C.Wharton, eds. (Commission of the European Communities, Bruxelles, 1987), pp. 199-223.

Vitale, V.

B. M. Angelini, M. L. Apicella, G. Buceti, C. Centioli, F. Crisanti, F. Iannone, G. Mazza, G. Mazzitelli, M. Panella, and V. Vitale, "The FTU team, FTU Operation," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 427-458 (2004).

Wach, J.

G. B. Warr, B. D. Blackwell, J. Wach, and J. Howard, "First results from the three-view far- infrared interferometer for the H1 heliac," Fusion Eng. Des. , 34-35, 387-391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Warr, G. B.

G. B. Warr, B. D. Blackwell, J. Wach, and J. Howard, "First results from the three-view far- infrared interferometer for the H1 heliac," Fusion Eng. Des. , 34-35, 387-391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zanza, V.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Zerbini, M.

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Fusion Eng. Des. (1)

G. B. Warr, B. D. Blackwell, J. Wach, and J. Howard, "First results from the three-view far- infrared interferometer for the H1 heliac," Fusion Eng. Des. , 34-35, 387-391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fusion Sci. and Technol. (1)

A. Pizzuto, C. Annino, M. Baldarelli, L. Bettinali, G. Brolatti, C. Crescenzi, G. Maddaluno, B. Riccardi, G. B. Righetti, M. Roccella, and L. Semeraro, "The FTU machine--design, construction, and assembly," Fusion Sci. and Technol. 45, 422-436 (2004).

Fusion Sci. Technol. (2)

B. M. Angelini, M. L. Apicella, G. Buceti, C. Centioli, F. Crisanti, F. Iannone, G. Mazza, G. Mazzitelli, M. Panella, and V. Vitale, "The FTU team, FTU Operation," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 427-458 (2004).

O. Tudisco, G. M. Apruzzese, P. Buratti, L. Cantarini, A. Canton, L. Carraro, V. Cocilovo, R. de Angelis, M. de Benedetti, B. Esposito, L. Gabellieri, E. Giovannozzi, G. Granucci, L. A. Grosso, G. Grosso, P. Innocente, H. Kroegler, M. Leigheb, G. Monari, D. Pacella, L. Panaccione, V. Pericoli-Ridolfini, G. Pizzicaroli, S. Podda, M. E. Puiatti, G. Rocchi, A. Sibio, A. Simonetto, P. Smeulders, U. Tartari, N. Tartoni, B. Tilia, M. Valisa, V. Zanza, and M. Zerbini, "The diagnostic systems in the FTU," Fusion Sci. Technol. 45, 402-421 (2004).

Phys. Scr. (1)

C. Mazzotta, O. Tudisco, A. Canton, P. Innocente, M. DeBenedetti, E. Giovannozzi, D. Marocco, P. Micozzi, G. Monari, and G. Rocchi, "Measurement of density profiles using the new infrared scanning interferometer for FTU," Phys. Scr. T123, 79-83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (9)

A. Canton, P. Innocente, S. Martini, L. Tasinato, and O. Tudisco, "Spatially scanned two- color mid-infrared interferometer for FTU," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1085-1088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente, S. Martini, and Ch. Ferrer Roca, "An infrared vibration compensated interferometer for the MST experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 4999-5001 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Braithwaite, N. Gottardi, G. Magyar, J. O'Rourke, J. Ryan, and D. Veron, "JET polarinterferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2825-2834 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Fredian and J. A. Stillerman, "X-windows-based user interface for data acquisition and display," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3283-328 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Carlstrom, D. R. Ahlgren, and J. Crosbie, "Real-time, vibration-compensated CO2 interferometer operation on the DIII-D tokamak," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1063-1066 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente and S. Martini, "Development of a vibration-compensated CO2 interferometer for the RFX experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 4996-4998 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente and S. Martini, "Two-color CO2 interferometer with single Bragg cell and improved vibration compensation at 3.39 μm," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1571-1573 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente, S. Martini, A. Schio, and Ch. Ferrer Roca, "Development of a vibration-compensated CO2 interferometer for the RFX experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2885-2887 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocente, S. Martini, A. Canton, and L. Tasinato, "Upgrade of the RFX CO2 interferometer using in-vessel optics for extended edge resolution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 694-697 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Veron, "Interferometry in large plasma machines," in Course and Workshop on Diagnostics for Fusion Reactor Condictions, P.E.Stott, D.K.Akulina, G.G.Leotta, E.Sindoni, and C.Wharton, eds. (Commission of the European Communities, Bruxelles, 1987), pp. 199-223.

C. J. Buchenauer, Acoustically Compensated Two-Wavelength Interferometry for Plasma Density Measurements: One-Dimensional Theory and Applications (Report LA-9880-MS Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1984).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

FTU device ports: (a) poloidal section, (b) apertures size.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Simplified optical scheme of one scanning chord, one fixed chord, and LO channel.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Toroidal path of the beams.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Interferometric measurements on three chords (major radii 0.90, 0.95, 1.00 m) of the beam scanning the center of the plasma for a 500 kA discharge. (a) Plasma current, (b) measured vibration, (c) measured tilt, (d) raw average electron density evaluation, and (e) electron density evaluation after tilt corrected.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Average density measured by the two chords of the two-channel interferometer (major radii 0.935, 1.135 m) and that measured by the scanning interferometer on two chords with the same major radius.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Line density measures for a multipellet discharge.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Sawtooth measured by the scanning interferometer. (a) Line density measured on the 33 chords of the two scanning beams: before (filled circles) and after (open circles) a sawtooth and line density variation (filled diamond). (b) Computed density profile before and after and profile variation. (c) Temperature variation measured by ECE during the same time interval.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Beam Diameters () at 1∕ e 2 of the Intensity and Interference Reduction ( A ) a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Amplification of the Noise on Density Line Integral Evaluation Owing to Compensation

Equations (21)

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λ K n e ,
K = 4 π c 2 ϵ 0 m e e 2 = 3.55 × 10 14 m 1 ,
ϕ = λ K L n e ( l ) d l ,
Φ = λ K L n e ( l ) d l + 2 π Δ λ .
L n e d l = K λ 1 Φ 1 λ 2 λ 1 Φ 2 1 ( λ 2 λ 1 ) 2 ,
Δ = λ 2 2 π Φ 2 λ 2 λ 1 Φ 1 1 ( λ 2 λ 1 ) 2 ,
ε n e = K 1 + ( λ 1 / λ 2 ) 2 1 ( λ 1 / λ 2 ) 2 ε Φ .
A ε = 1 + ( λ 1 / λ 2 ) 2 1 ( λ 1 / λ 2 ) 2 .
I = I 0 e ( 8 r 2 / d 2 ) ,
d = [ d 0 2 + θ 2 ( z z 0 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
R = ( z z 0 ) [ 1 + ( d 0 θ z ) 2 ] ,
θ = 4 λ π d 0 ,
I = I 1 I 2 e 2 [ ( δ / d 0 ) 2 + ( α / θ ) 2 ] .
F δ = e 2 ( δ / d 0 ) 2 ,
F α = e 2 ( α / θ ) 2 = e 2 ( α d 0 ( π / 4 λ ) ) 2 ,
I = I 1 I 2 F δ F α .
A = 1 F δ = 0.2 × 10 4 ,
A = 1 F α = 9.9 × 10 4 .
d 0 o p t = 4 λ π ( z z 0 ) ,
A α = 1 e 2 ( π / 4 λ ) ( z z 0 ) α 2 .
A π 2 λ ( z z 0 ) α 2 .

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