Abstract

We present ArF laser-induced dynamics of Bragg grating (BG) growths in phosphosilicate-doped or germanosilicate-doped core photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). To this end, we have adapted the technique of H 2 loading, usually used in conventional fiber, to the case of microstructured fiber, allowing both the concentration of hydrogen in the PCFs to be kept nearly constant for the time of the exposure and the BG spectra to be easily recorded. We compared the characteristics of BG growths in the two types of PCF to those in conventional step-index fibers. We then conducted a study of the thermal stability of the BGs in PCFs through 30 min of isochronal annealing. At the same time we discuss the role played by the microstructuration and the doping with regard to the grating contrast and the Bragg wavelength stability.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Kurokawa, K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, T. Matsui, and I. Sankawa, "Penalty-free dispersion-managed soliton transmission over 100 km low loss PCF," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), PDP21.
  2. J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, L. B. Nielsen, T. P. Hansen, J. R. Folkenberg, J. Riishede, D. Noordegraaf, K. Nielsen, A. Carlsen, and A. Bjarklev, "Photonic crystal fiber based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of biomolecules in aqueous solutions," Opt. Lett. 29, 1974-1976 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Groothoff, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, and J. Zagari, "Gratings in air-silica structured fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 233-235 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spälter, and T. A. Strasser, "Grating resonances in air-silica microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 24, 1460-1462 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, "Microstructured optical fiber devices," Opt. Express 9, 698-713 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Canning, N. Groothoff, E. Buckley, T. Ryan, K. Lyytikainen, and J. Digweed, "All-fiber photonic crystal distributed Bragg reflector (PC-DBR) fiber laser," Opt. Express 11, 1995-2000 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. H. Park, J. Kim, T. J. Eom, B. H. Lee, and U. C. Paek, "Sensing characteristics of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber imprinted by CO2 laser," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), OThQ6.
  10. B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, C. A. White, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding mode-resonances in air-silica microstructure optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1084-1100 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Sorensen, J. B. Jensen, F. Bruyere, and K. P. Hansen, "Practical hydrogen loading of air silica fibers," in Bragg Gratings Photosensitivity & Poling in Glass Waveguides, Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005).
  12. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "Reliability of optical fibers exposed to hydrogen: prediction of long-term loss increases," Opt. Eng. 30, 780-789 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. H. Chong and M. K. Rao, "Development of a system for laser splicing photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 11, 1365-1360 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Canning and A. L. G. Carter, "Modal interferometer for in situ measurements of induced core index change in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 22, 561-563 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. Gonthier, S. Lacroix, F. Ladouceur, R. J. Black, J. Bures, J. Canning, and A. L. G. Carter, "Circularly symmetric modal interferometer: equalization wavelength and equivalent step determination for matched-cladding fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 8, 217-225 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. A. Strasser, A. E. White, M. F. Yan, P. J. Lemaire, and T. Erdogan, "Strong Bragg phase gratings in phosphorous-doped fiber induced by ArF excimer radiation," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), WN2.
  18. D. Ramecourt, P. Niay, P. Bernage, I. Riant, and M. Douay, "Growth of strength of Bragg gratings written in H2 loaded telecommunication fibre during CW UV postexposure," Electron. Lett. 35, 329-331 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. A. Strasser, "Photosensitivity in phosphorous fibers," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), TuO1.
  21. B. Leconte, "Contribution à l'Étude de la Photosensibilité des fibres en Silice sous l'Effet d'une Insolation par un laser à ArF," Ph.D. dissertation n.2379 (University of Lille, France, 1998).

2005 (1)

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, C. A. White, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding mode-resonances in air-silica microstructure optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1084-1100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spälter, and T. A. Strasser, "Grating resonances in air-silica microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 24, 1460-1462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Ramecourt, P. Niay, P. Bernage, I. Riant, and M. Douay, "Growth of strength of Bragg gratings written in H2 loaded telecommunication fibre during CW UV postexposure," Electron. Lett. 35, 329-331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "Reliability of optical fibers exposed to hydrogen: prediction of long-term loss increases," Opt. Eng. 30, 780-789 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

F. Gonthier, S. Lacroix, F. Ladouceur, R. J. Black, J. Bures, J. Canning, and A. L. G. Carter, "Circularly symmetric modal interferometer: equalization wavelength and equivalent step determination for matched-cladding fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 8, 217-225 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "Reliability of optical fibers exposed to hydrogen: prediction of long-term loss increases," Opt. Eng. 30, 780-789 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernage, P.

D. Ramecourt, P. Niay, P. Bernage, I. Riant, and M. Douay, "Growth of strength of Bragg gratings written in H2 loaded telecommunication fibre during CW UV postexposure," Electron. Lett. 35, 329-331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, F.

Birks, T. A.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

Black, R. J.

F. Gonthier, S. Lacroix, F. Ladouceur, R. J. Black, J. Bures, J. Canning, and A. L. G. Carter, "Circularly symmetric modal interferometer: equalization wavelength and equivalent step determination for matched-cladding fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 8, 217-225 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bruyere, F.

H. Sorensen, J. B. Jensen, F. Bruyere, and K. P. Hansen, "Practical hydrogen loading of air silica fibers," in Bragg Gratings Photosensitivity & Poling in Glass Waveguides, Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005).

Buckley, E.

Burdge, G. L.

Bures, J.

F. Gonthier, S. Lacroix, F. Ladouceur, R. J. Black, J. Bures, J. Canning, and A. L. G. Carter, "Circularly symmetric modal interferometer: equalization wavelength and equivalent step determination for matched-cladding fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 8, 217-225 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

Carlsen, A.

Carter, A. L. G.

J. Canning and A. L. G. Carter, "Modal interferometer for in situ measurements of induced core index change in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 22, 561-563 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gonthier, S. Lacroix, F. Ladouceur, R. J. Black, J. Bures, J. Canning, and A. L. G. Carter, "Circularly symmetric modal interferometer: equalization wavelength and equivalent step determination for matched-cladding fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 8, 217-225 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chong, J. H.

Couny, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Digweed, J.

Douay, M.

D. Ramecourt, P. Niay, P. Bernage, I. Riant, and M. Douay, "Growth of strength of Bragg gratings written in H2 loaded telecommunication fibre during CW UV postexposure," Electron. Lett. 35, 329-331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Eom, T. J.

B. H. Park, J. Kim, T. J. Eom, B. H. Lee, and U. C. Paek, "Sensing characteristics of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber imprinted by CO2 laser," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), OThQ6.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Strasser, A. E. White, M. F. Yan, P. J. Lemaire, and T. Erdogan, "Strong Bragg phase gratings in phosphorous-doped fiber induced by ArF excimer radiation," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), WN2.

Folkenberg, J. R.

Gonthier, F.

F. Gonthier, S. Lacroix, F. Ladouceur, R. J. Black, J. Bures, J. Canning, and A. L. G. Carter, "Circularly symmetric modal interferometer: equalization wavelength and equivalent step determination for matched-cladding fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 8, 217-225 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Groothoff, N.

Hale, A.

Hänsch, T. W.

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, K. P.

H. Sorensen, J. B. Jensen, F. Bruyere, and K. P. Hansen, "Practical hydrogen loading of air silica fibers," in Bragg Gratings Photosensitivity & Poling in Glass Waveguides, Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005).

Hansen, T. P.

Hoiby, P. E.

Holzwarth, R.

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, J. B.

J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, L. B. Nielsen, T. P. Hansen, J. R. Folkenberg, J. Riishede, D. Noordegraaf, K. Nielsen, A. Carlsen, and A. Bjarklev, "Photonic crystal fiber based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of biomolecules in aqueous solutions," Opt. Lett. 29, 1974-1976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sorensen, J. B. Jensen, F. Bruyere, and K. P. Hansen, "Practical hydrogen loading of air silica fibers," in Bragg Gratings Photosensitivity & Poling in Glass Waveguides, Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005).

Joly, N.

Kerbage, C.

Kim, J.

B. H. Park, J. Kim, T. J. Eom, B. H. Lee, and U. C. Paek, "Sensing characteristics of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber imprinted by CO2 laser," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), OThQ6.

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurokawa, K.

K. Kurokawa, K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, T. Matsui, and I. Sankawa, "Penalty-free dispersion-managed soliton transmission over 100 km low loss PCF," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), PDP21.

Lacroix, S.

F. Gonthier, S. Lacroix, F. Ladouceur, R. J. Black, J. Bures, J. Canning, and A. L. G. Carter, "Circularly symmetric modal interferometer: equalization wavelength and equivalent step determination for matched-cladding fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 8, 217-225 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ladouceur, F.

F. Gonthier, S. Lacroix, F. Ladouceur, R. J. Black, J. Bures, J. Canning, and A. L. G. Carter, "Circularly symmetric modal interferometer: equalization wavelength and equivalent step determination for matched-cladding fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 8, 217-225 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Leconte, B.

B. Leconte, "Contribution à l'Étude de la Photosensibilité des fibres en Silice sous l'Effet d'une Insolation par un laser à ArF," Ph.D. dissertation n.2379 (University of Lille, France, 1998).

Lee, B. H.

B. H. Park, J. Kim, T. J. Eom, B. H. Lee, and U. C. Paek, "Sensing characteristics of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber imprinted by CO2 laser," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), OThQ6.

Lemaire, P. J.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "Reliability of optical fibers exposed to hydrogen: prediction of long-term loss increases," Opt. Eng. 30, 780-789 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Strasser, A. E. White, M. F. Yan, P. J. Lemaire, and T. Erdogan, "Strong Bragg phase gratings in phosphorous-doped fiber induced by ArF excimer radiation," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), WN2.

Lyytikainen, K.

Matsui, T.

K. Kurokawa, K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, T. Matsui, and I. Sankawa, "Penalty-free dispersion-managed soliton transmission over 100 km low loss PCF," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), PDP21.

Mizrahi, V.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "Reliability of optical fibers exposed to hydrogen: prediction of long-term loss increases," Opt. Eng. 30, 780-789 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, D.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, K.

K. Kurokawa, K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, T. Matsui, and I. Sankawa, "Penalty-free dispersion-managed soliton transmission over 100 km low loss PCF," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), PDP21.

Niay, P.

D. Ramecourt, P. Niay, P. Bernage, I. Riant, and M. Douay, "Growth of strength of Bragg gratings written in H2 loaded telecommunication fibre during CW UV postexposure," Electron. Lett. 35, 329-331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, K.

Nielsen, L. B.

Noordegraaf, D.

Paek, U. C.

B. H. Park, J. Kim, T. J. Eom, B. H. Lee, and U. C. Paek, "Sensing characteristics of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber imprinted by CO2 laser," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), OThQ6.

Park, B. H.

B. H. Park, J. Kim, T. J. Eom, B. H. Lee, and U. C. Paek, "Sensing characteristics of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber imprinted by CO2 laser," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), OThQ6.

Pedersen, L. H.

Ramecourt, D.

D. Ramecourt, P. Niay, P. Bernage, I. Riant, and M. Douay, "Growth of strength of Bragg gratings written in H2 loaded telecommunication fibre during CW UV postexposure," Electron. Lett. 35, 329-331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rao, M. K.

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "Reliability of optical fibers exposed to hydrogen: prediction of long-term loss increases," Opt. Eng. 30, 780-789 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Riant, I.

D. Ramecourt, P. Niay, P. Bernage, I. Riant, and M. Douay, "Growth of strength of Bragg gratings written in H2 loaded telecommunication fibre during CW UV postexposure," Electron. Lett. 35, 329-331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Riishede, J.

Russell, P. St. J.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryan, T.

Sankawa, I.

K. Kurokawa, K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, T. Matsui, and I. Sankawa, "Penalty-free dispersion-managed soliton transmission over 100 km low loss PCF," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), PDP21.

Sorensen, H.

H. Sorensen, J. B. Jensen, F. Bruyere, and K. P. Hansen, "Practical hydrogen loading of air silica fibers," in Bragg Gratings Photosensitivity & Poling in Glass Waveguides, Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005).

Spälter, S.

Strasser, T. A.

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spälter, and T. A. Strasser, "Grating resonances in air-silica microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 24, 1460-1462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Strasser, A. E. White, M. F. Yan, P. J. Lemaire, and T. Erdogan, "Strong Bragg phase gratings in phosphorous-doped fiber induced by ArF excimer radiation," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), WN2.

T. A. Strasser, "Photosensitivity in phosphorous fibers," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), TuO1.

Tajima, K.

K. Kurokawa, K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, T. Matsui, and I. Sankawa, "Penalty-free dispersion-managed soliton transmission over 100 km low loss PCF," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), PDP21.

Udem, Th.

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westbrook, P. S.

White, A. E.

T. A. Strasser, A. E. White, M. F. Yan, P. J. Lemaire, and T. Erdogan, "Strong Bragg phase gratings in phosphorous-doped fiber induced by ArF excimer radiation," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), WN2.

White, C. A.

Windeler, R. S.

Yan, M. F.

T. A. Strasser, A. E. White, M. F. Yan, P. J. Lemaire, and T. Erdogan, "Strong Bragg phase gratings in phosphorous-doped fiber induced by ArF excimer radiation," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), WN2.

Zagari, J.

Zhou, J.

K. Kurokawa, K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, T. Matsui, and I. Sankawa, "Penalty-free dispersion-managed soliton transmission over 100 km low loss PCF," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), PDP21.

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. Ramecourt, P. Niay, P. Bernage, I. Riant, and M. Douay, "Growth of strength of Bragg gratings written in H2 loaded telecommunication fibre during CW UV postexposure," Electron. Lett. 35, 329-331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

F. Gonthier, S. Lacroix, F. Ladouceur, R. J. Black, J. Bures, J. Canning, and A. L. G. Carter, "Circularly symmetric modal interferometer: equalization wavelength and equivalent step determination for matched-cladding fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 8, 217-225 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nature (1)

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "Reliability of optical fibers exposed to hydrogen: prediction of long-term loss increases," Opt. Eng. 30, 780-789 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

K. Kurokawa, K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, T. Matsui, and I. Sankawa, "Penalty-free dispersion-managed soliton transmission over 100 km low loss PCF," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), PDP21.

B. H. Park, J. Kim, T. J. Eom, B. H. Lee, and U. C. Paek, "Sensing characteristics of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber imprinted by CO2 laser," in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), OThQ6.

H. Sorensen, J. B. Jensen, F. Bruyere, and K. P. Hansen, "Practical hydrogen loading of air silica fibers," in Bragg Gratings Photosensitivity & Poling in Glass Waveguides, Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005).

T. A. Strasser, "Photosensitivity in phosphorous fibers," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), TuO1.

B. Leconte, "Contribution à l'Étude de la Photosensibilité des fibres en Silice sous l'Effet d'une Insolation par un laser à ArF," Ph.D. dissertation n.2379 (University of Lille, France, 1998).

T. A. Strasser, A. E. White, M. F. Yan, P. J. Lemaire, and T. Erdogan, "Strong Bragg phase gratings in phosphorous-doped fiber induced by ArF excimer radiation," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), WN2.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM showing a cross section of the phosphosilicate PCF. A zoom of the microstructured cladding is shown in the inset.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM showing a cross section of the germanosilicate PCF. A zoom of the microstructured cladding is shown in the inset.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Typical transmission spectrum of the SMF-spliced P-doped PCF. The inset is a zoom on the resonance at 1555   nm and the power profiles of the two modes corresponding to the two resonances are extracted from a FEM simulation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dynamics of BG growth in H 2 -loaded step-index phosphosilicate fibers ( λ p = 193   nm ) . The evolution of the refractive index modulation with the number of writing pulses N i is presented for different mean fluences per pulse F i . The curves are a guide for the eye.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dynamics of BG growth in H 2 -loaded step-index phosphosilicate fibers ( λ p = 193   nm ) . Comparison of the kinetics of UV-induced mean index changes with that of modulation for F i = 220 mJ / cm 2 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dynamics of BG growth in H 2 -loaded phosphosilicate PCF ( λ p = 193   nm ) . The evolution of the refractive index modulation with the number of writing pulses N i is presented for different mean fluences per pulse F i . The curves are a guide for the eye.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dynamics of BG growth in H 2 -loaded phosphosilicate PCF ( λ p = 193   nm ) . Comparison of the kinetics of UV-induced mean index change with that of modulation for F i = 260 mJ / cm 2 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dynamics of BG growth in H 2 -loaded germanosilicate step-index fiber ( λ p = 193   nm ) . Comparison between the kinetics of UV-induced mean index change and that of modulation for F i = 40 mJ / cm 2 . The curves are a guide for the eye.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dynamics of BG growth in H 2 -loaded germanosilicate PCF ( λ p = 193   nm ) . The evolution of the refractive index modulation with the number of writing pulses N i is represented for different mean fluences per pulse F i . The curves are a guide for the eye.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dynamics of BG growth in H 2 -loaded germanosilicate PCF ( λ p = 193   nm ) . Comparison of the kinetics of UV-induced mean index changes with that of modulation for F i = 260 mJ / cm 2 .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Normalized integrated coupling constant ( NICC ) ( t = 30 min , T a ) for a BG written either in H 2 -loaded germanosilicate PCF (filled squares) or in H 2 -loaded phosphosilicate PCF (empty squares).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Shifts in the Bragg wavelength experienced by the s written either in H 2 -loaded germanosilicate PCF (filled squares) or in H 2 -loaded phosphosilicate PCF (empty squares) as a function of the 30 min isochronal annealing temperature.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Simulation of the optical power distribution across the PCF cross section after propagation of a plane wave at normal incidence transversally to the PCF. The electric field propagating from left to right has a wavelength equal to 193   nm .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Characteristics of Fibers and Phase Mask Used in the Experiments and Methodology Followed for Hydrogenation Treatments

Equations (1)

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NICC = tanh - 1 R ( 30 min , T a ) tanh - 1 R ( 0 ,295   K ) ,

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