Abstract

A semianalytical approach to the problem of determining inherent optical properties from satellite and in situ ocean color data is presented. The model uses empirically derived spectral slopes between neighboring wavebands in combination with radiative transfer modeling to determine the spectral absorption (a) and backscatter (b b); these values are then further decomposed into absorption due to phytoplankton, detrital, and colored dissolved organic matter components. When compared with over 400 in situ data points the model makes good retrievals of the total absorption and backscatter across the entire spectrum, with regression slopes close to unity, little or no bias, high percentage of variance explained, and low rms errors.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

T. J. Smyth, G. F. Moore, T. Hirata, and J. Aiken, "Semianalytical model for the derivation of ocean color inherent optical properties: description, implementation, and performance assessment: erratum," Appl. Opt. 46, 429-430 (2007)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-46-3-429

References

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    [CrossRef]

2005 (5)

F. Gohin, S. Loyer, M. Lunven, C. Labry, J. M. Froidefond, D. Delmas, M. Hurret, and A. Herbland, "Satellite-derived parameters for biological modelling in coastal waters: Illustration over the eastern continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay," Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 29-46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, "An improved in situ data set for bio-optical algorithm development and ocean color satellite validation," Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Le Quere, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, "Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models," Global Change Biology 11, 2016-2040 (2005).

T. J. Smyth, G. H. Tilstone, and S. B. Groom, "Integration of radiative transfer into satellite models of ocean primary production," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C10014, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, "Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19, GB1006, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

J. C. Blackford, J. I. Allen, and F. J. Gilbert, "Ecosystem dynamics at six contrasting sites: a generic modelling study," J. Mar. Syst. 52, 191-215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee and K. L. Carder, "Absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments derived from hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 361-368 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. P. Cannizzaro, J. W. Campbell, and B. G. Mitchell, "Performance of the MODIS semianalytical ocean color algorithm for chlorophyll-a," Adv. Space Res. 33, 1152-1159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Blondeau-Patissier, G. H. Tilstone, V. Martinez-Vicente, and G. F. Moore, "Comparison of biophysical marine products from SeaWiFS MODIS and a bio-optical model with in situ measurements from Northern European waters," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 875-889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Darecki and D. Stramski, "An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 326-350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, C7, 3211; doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Eisner, M. S. Twardowski, T. J. Cowles, and M. J. Perry, "Resolving phytoplankton photoprotective : photosynthetic carotenoid ratios on fine scales using in situ spectral absorption measurements," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 632-646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, L. Alberotanza, R. Doerffer, J. Aiken, M. Wernand, S. Boxall, R. Santer, and O. Ni Cheileachair, "Coastal region long-term measurements for colour remote sensing development and validation (COLORS) project status," in MAS3-CT97-0087, COLORS Project Dataset CD-ROM (2001).

2000 (2)

1999 (4)

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and P. M. Martinolich, "Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in case 1 and case 2 waters," Appl. Opt. 38, 2377-2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and S. J. Lavender, "The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II waters: application to MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713-1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, "Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 38, 495-504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, and S. K. Hawes, "Semianalytic moderate resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a re-examination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955-24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, "Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements, Appl. Opt. 36, 8710-8722 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver and D. A. Siegel, "Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607-18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

F. E. Hoge and P. E. Lyon, "Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631-16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem," Appl. Opt. 35, 4860-4862 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, "An alternative approach to absorption measurement of aquatic particles retained on filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1358-1368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler and M. J. Perry, "In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279-13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. H. Evans and H. R. Gordon, "Coastal zone color scanner 'system calibration': a retrospective examination," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293-7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, "Modelling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

S. Sugihara and M. Kishino, "An algorithm for estimating the water quality parameters from irradiance just below the sea surface," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10857-10862 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, "Optical modelling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749-10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. W. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, and V. Heyman, "Estimating ocean primary production from satellite chlorophyll--introduction to regional differences and statistics for the Southern Californian Bight," J. Plankton Res. 7, 57-70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

A. Morel, "In-water and remote measurements of ocean color," Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177-201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

T. J. Petzold, "Volume scattering functions for selected natural waters," Technical Report 71-78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, San Diego, Calif., 1972).

1954 (1)

C. Cox and W. Munk, "Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter," J. Mar. Res. 13, 198-227 (1954).

Abbott, M. R.

R. W. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, and V. Heyman, "Estimating ocean primary production from satellite chlorophyll--introduction to regional differences and statistics for the Southern Californian Bight," J. Plankton Res. 7, 57-70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, J.

G. Zibordi, L. Alberotanza, R. Doerffer, J. Aiken, M. Wernand, S. Boxall, R. Santer, and O. Ni Cheileachair, "Coastal region long-term measurements for colour remote sensing development and validation (COLORS) project status," in MAS3-CT97-0087, COLORS Project Dataset CD-ROM (2001).

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and S. J. Lavender, "The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II waters: application to MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713-1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, C. Trees, S. Hooker, and D. Clark, "The SeaWiFS CZCS-type pigment algorithm," in NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA, 1995), Vol. 29, p. 34.

Alberotanza, L.

G. Zibordi, L. Alberotanza, R. Doerffer, J. Aiken, M. Wernand, S. Boxall, R. Santer, and O. Ni Cheileachair, "Coastal region long-term measurements for colour remote sensing development and validation (COLORS) project status," in MAS3-CT97-0087, COLORS Project Dataset CD-ROM (2001).

Allen, J. I.

J. C. Blackford, J. I. Allen, and F. J. Gilbert, "Ecosystem dynamics at six contrasting sites: a generic modelling study," J. Mar. Syst. 52, 191-215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R. A.

Aumont, O.

C. Le Quere, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, "Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models," Global Change Biology 11, 2016-2040 (2005).

Austin, R. W.

J. L. Mueller and R. W. Austin, "SeaWiFS Technical Report Series: Ocean optics protocols for SeaWiFS validation, Revision 1," in NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA, 1995), Vol. 25.

Babin, M.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, C7, 3211; doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, "An improved in situ data set for bio-optical algorithm development and ocean color satellite validation," Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A.

A. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955-24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, "Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19, GB1006, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blackford, J. C.

J. C. Blackford, J. I. Allen, and F. J. Gilbert, "Ecosystem dynamics at six contrasting sites: a generic modelling study," J. Mar. Syst. 52, 191-215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blondeau-Patissier, D.

D. Blondeau-Patissier, G. H. Tilstone, V. Martinez-Vicente, and G. F. Moore, "Comparison of biophysical marine products from SeaWiFS MODIS and a bio-optical model with in situ measurements from Northern European waters," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 875-889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bopp, L.

C. Le Quere, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, "Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models," Global Change Biology 11, 2016-2040 (2005).

Boss, E.

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, "Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19, GB1006, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boxall, S.

G. Zibordi, L. Alberotanza, R. Doerffer, J. Aiken, M. Wernand, S. Boxall, R. Santer, and O. Ni Cheileachair, "Coastal region long-term measurements for colour remote sensing development and validation (COLORS) project status," in MAS3-CT97-0087, COLORS Project Dataset CD-ROM (2001).

Bricaud, A.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, C7, 3211; doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Buitenhuis, E. T.

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[CrossRef]

Perry, M. J.

L. B. Eisner, M. S. Twardowski, T. J. Cowles, and M. J. Perry, "Resolving phytoplankton photoprotective : photosynthetic carotenoid ratios on fine scales using in situ spectral absorption measurements," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 632-646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler and M. J. Perry, "In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279-13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, "Modelling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, A. R.

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, "Volume scattering functions for selected natural waters," Technical Report 71-78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, San Diego, Calif., 1972).

Platt, T.

C. Le Quere, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, "Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models," Global Change Biology 11, 2016-2040 (2005).

Poole, L. R.

Pope, R. M.

Prentice, I. C.

C. Le Quere, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, "Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models," Global Change Biology 11, 2016-2040 (2005).

Rivkin, R. B.

C. Le Quere, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, "Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models," Global Change Biology 11, 2016-2040 (2005).

Robinson, W.

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler and M. J. Perry, "In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279-13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, "Modelling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Santer, R.

G. Zibordi, L. Alberotanza, R. Doerffer, J. Aiken, M. Wernand, S. Boxall, R. Santer, and O. Ni Cheileachair, "Coastal region long-term measurements for colour remote sensing development and validation (COLORS) project status," in MAS3-CT97-0087, COLORS Project Dataset CD-ROM (2001).

R. Santer and C. Schmechtig, "Adjacency effects on water surfaces: primary scattering approximation and sensitivity study," Appl. Opt. 39, 361-375 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

C. Le Quere, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, "Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models," Global Change Biology 11, 2016-2040 (2005).

Schmechtig, C.

Shea, D. M.

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, "Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19, GB1006, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, "Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19, GB1006, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, "Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications," Appl. Opt. 41, 2705-2714 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Siegel, M. H. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, "Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption," Appl. Opt. 39, 3582-3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver and D. A. Siegel, "Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607-18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, T. J.

T. J. Smyth, G. H. Tilstone, and S. B. Groom, "Integration of radiative transfer into satellite models of ocean primary production," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C10014, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, E.

R. W. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, and V. Heyman, "Estimating ocean primary production from satellite chlorophyll--introduction to regional differences and statistics for the Southern Californian Bight," J. Plankton Res. 7, 57-70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

M. Darecki and D. Stramski, "An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 326-350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, C7, 3211; doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, S.

S. Sugihara and M. Kishino, "An algorithm for estimating the water quality parameters from irradiance just below the sea surface," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10857-10862 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

Tassan, S.

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, "An alternative approach to absorption measurement of aquatic particles retained on filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1358-1368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tilstone, G. H.

T. J. Smyth, G. H. Tilstone, and S. B. Groom, "Integration of radiative transfer into satellite models of ocean primary production," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C10014, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Blondeau-Patissier, G. H. Tilstone, V. Martinez-Vicente, and G. F. Moore, "Comparison of biophysical marine products from SeaWiFS MODIS and a bio-optical model with in situ measurements from Northern European waters," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 875-889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trees, C.

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, C. Trees, S. Hooker, and D. Clark, "The SeaWiFS CZCS-type pigment algorithm," in NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA, 1995), Vol. 29, p. 34.

Twardowski, M. S.

L. B. Eisner, M. S. Twardowski, T. J. Cowles, and M. J. Perry, "Resolving phytoplankton photoprotective : photosynthetic carotenoid ratios on fine scales using in situ spectral absorption measurements," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 632-646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uitz, J.

C. Le Quere, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, "Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models," Global Change Biology 11, 2016-2040 (2005).

Usry, J. W.

Wang, M. H.

Watson, A. J.

C. Le Quere, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, "Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models," Global Change Biology 11, 2016-2040 (2005).

Werdell, P. J.

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, "An improved in situ data set for bio-optical algorithm development and ocean color satellite validation," Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wernand, M.

G. Zibordi, L. Alberotanza, R. Doerffer, J. Aiken, M. Wernand, S. Boxall, R. Santer, and O. Ni Cheileachair, "Coastal region long-term measurements for colour remote sensing development and validation (COLORS) project status," in MAS3-CT97-0087, COLORS Project Dataset CD-ROM (2001).

Whitlock, C. H.

Witte, W. G.

Wolf-Gladrow, D.

C. Le Quere, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, "Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models," Global Change Biology 11, 2016-2040 (2005).

Wright, C. W.

Yungel, J. K.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

A. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955-24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zibordi, G.

G. Zibordi, L. Alberotanza, R. Doerffer, J. Aiken, M. Wernand, S. Boxall, R. Santer, and O. Ni Cheileachair, "Coastal region long-term measurements for colour remote sensing development and validation (COLORS) project status," in MAS3-CT97-0087, COLORS Project Dataset CD-ROM (2001).

Adv. Space Res. (1)

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. P. Cannizzaro, J. W. Campbell, and B. G. Mitchell, "Performance of the MODIS semianalytical ocean color algorithm for chlorophyll-a," Adv. Space Res. 33, 1152-1159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (11)

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem," Appl. Opt. 35, 4860-4862 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Whitlock, L. R. Poole, J. W. Usry, W. M. Houghton, W. G. Witte, W. D. Morris, and E. A. Gurganus, "Comparison of reflectance with backscatter and absorption parameters for turbid waters," Appl. Opt. 20, 517-522 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, "Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 38, 495-504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution," Appl. Opt. 30, 4427-4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bi-directional aspects," Appl. Opt. 32, 6864-6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and P. M. Martinolich, "Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in case 1 and case 2 waters," Appl. Opt. 38, 2377-2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Santer and C. Schmechtig, "Adjacency effects on water surfaces: primary scattering approximation and sensitivity study," Appl. Opt. 39, 361-375 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. H. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, "Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption," Appl. Opt. 39, 3582-3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, "Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements, Appl. Opt. 36, 8710-8722 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, "Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications," Appl. Opt. 41, 2705-2714 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 5755-5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boundary-Layer Meteorol. (1)

A. Morel, "In-water and remote measurements of ocean color," Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177-201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Global Biogeochem. Cycles (1)

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, "Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19, GB1006, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Global Change Biology (1)

C. Le Quere, S. P. Harrison, I. C. Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, "Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models," Global Change Biology 11, 2016-2040 (2005).

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and S. J. Lavender, "The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II waters: application to MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713-1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (13)

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, C7, 3211; doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver and D. A. Siegel, "Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607-18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955-24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Sugihara and M. Kishino, "An algorithm for estimating the water quality parameters from irradiance just below the sea surface," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10857-10862 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler and M. J. Perry, "In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279-13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, and S. K. Hawes, "Semianalytic moderate resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge and P. E. Lyon, "Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631-16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Evans and H. R. Gordon, "Coastal zone color scanner 'system calibration': a retrospective examination," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293-7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Smyth, G. H. Tilstone, and S. B. Groom, "Integration of radiative transfer into satellite models of ocean primary production," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C10014, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, "Optical modelling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749-10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

C. Cox and W. Munk, "Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter," J. Mar. Res. 13, 198-227 (1954).

J. Mar. Syst. (1)

J. C. Blackford, J. I. Allen, and F. J. Gilbert, "Ecosystem dynamics at six contrasting sites: a generic modelling study," J. Mar. Syst. 52, 191-215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

D. Blondeau-Patissier, G. H. Tilstone, V. Martinez-Vicente, and G. F. Moore, "Comparison of biophysical marine products from SeaWiFS MODIS and a bio-optical model with in situ measurements from Northern European waters," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 875-889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Plankton Res. (1)

R. W. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, and V. Heyman, "Estimating ocean primary production from satellite chlorophyll--introduction to regional differences and statistics for the Southern Californian Bight," J. Plankton Res. 7, 57-70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (4)

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, "Modelling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Eisner, M. S. Twardowski, T. J. Cowles, and M. J. Perry, "Resolving phytoplankton photoprotective : photosynthetic carotenoid ratios on fine scales using in situ spectral absorption measurements," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 632-646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, "An alternative approach to absorption measurement of aquatic particles retained on filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1358-1368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a re-examination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (4)

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, "An improved in situ data set for bio-optical algorithm development and ocean color satellite validation," Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee and K. L. Carder, "Absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments derived from hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 361-368 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Darecki and D. Stramski, "An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 326-350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Gohin, S. Loyer, M. Lunven, C. Labry, J. M. Froidefond, D. Delmas, M. Hurret, and A. Herbland, "Satellite-derived parameters for biological modelling in coastal waters: Illustration over the eastern continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay," Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 29-46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

J. Aiken, G. F. Moore, C. Trees, S. Hooker, and D. Clark, "The SeaWiFS CZCS-type pigment algorithm," in NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA, 1995), Vol. 29, p. 34.

C. D. Mobley. HYDROLIGHT 3.0 User's Guide (SRI International, 1995).

T. J. Petzold, "Volume scattering functions for selected natural waters," Technical Report 71-78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, San Diego, Calif., 1972).

A. Morel, "Optical properties of pure seawater," in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov and E. Steemann Nielsen, eds. (Academic, 1974) pp. 1-24.

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 2000).

J. L. Mueller and R. W. Austin, "SeaWiFS Technical Report Series: Ocean optics protocols for SeaWiFS validation, Revision 1," in NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA, 1995), Vol. 25.

G. Zibordi, L. Alberotanza, R. Doerffer, J. Aiken, M. Wernand, S. Boxall, R. Santer, and O. Ni Cheileachair, "Coastal region long-term measurements for colour remote sensing development and validation (COLORS) project status," in MAS3-CT97-0087, COLORS Project Dataset CD-ROM (2001).

D. K. Clark, "Phytoplankton pigment algorithms for the NIMBUS-7 CZCS," in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, 1981), pp. 227-237.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic flow diagram showing the operation of the IOP model.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of ϵ p h , ϵ d , ϵ y , ϵ d y , and ϵ a for the adjacent SeaWiFS band pairs. Data taken from the COLORS data set ( N=216 ) . The error bars are standard deviations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of modeled a t ( λ ) with in situ data taken from the NOMAD database.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of modeled b b p ( λ ) with in situ data taken from the NOMAD database.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of modeled a p h ( λ ) with in situ data taken from the NOMAD database.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of modeled a d y ( λ ) with in situ data taken from the NOMAD database.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of a t ( λ ) modeled using the Lee et al. (Ref. 9) algorithm with in situ data taken from the NOMAD database. This should be compared with Fig. 3.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sensitivity study for modeled a ( 490 ) varying (a) ϵ a ( 490 , 510 ) and (c) the spectral slope of backscatter (m); modeled b b ( 490 ) varying (b) ϵ a ( 490 , 510 ) and (d) m. Solid line is for low ( 0.044 m - 1 ) ; short dashed curve for medium ( 0.145 m - 1 ) and long dashed curve for high ( 1.091 m - 1 ) values of absorption.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Sensitivity study for modeled a dy for varying (a) S, (b) ϵ d y ( 412 , 443 ) , and (c) ϵ p h ( 412 , 443 ) . In (c) the solid curve is for low, the short dashed curve for medium, and the long dashed curve for high values of absorption.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) SeaWiFS data for 18 May 1998, 13.14 GMT over UK shelf seas and NE Atlantic Ocean, showing the model implementation for fields of (a) a ( 443 ) , (b) a d y ( 443 ) , (c) a p h ( 443 ) , and (d) b b p ( 555 ) .

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Symbols and Definitions

Tables Icon

Table 2 Values Used to Generate the HYDROLIGHT LUT a

Tables Icon

Table 3 ϵ bb (490, 510) Values Derived from the Literature

Tables Icon

Table 4 Values Used to Run the IOP Model a

Tables Icon

Table 5 Statistical Comparison between the Modeled and the in situ Data Set a

Tables Icon

Table 6 Statistical Comparison between the Lee the et al. (Ref. 9) Modeled and the in situ Data Set a

Equations (21)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ w ( λ i ) = π ( λ i ) [ f ( λ i ) Q ( λ i ) ] ( θ s , θ v , Δ ϕ ) [ b b t ( λ i ) a t ( λ i ) ] ,
ρ w ( i ) = i F i [ b b t ( i ) a t ( i ) ] .
a t ( i ) = a w ( i ) + a ph ( i ) + a d ( i ) + a y ( i ) ( m 1 ) ,
a ( i ) = a ph ( i ) + a d ( i ) + a y ( i ) ( m 1 ) .
b b t ( i ) = b b w ( i ) + b b p ( i ) ( m 1 ) ,
ρ w ( i ) = i F i [ b b w ( i ) + b b p ( i ) a w ( i ) + a ( i ) ] .
ϵ a ( i , j ) = a ( i ) / a ( j ) .
ϵ b b ( i , j ) = b b p ( i ) / b b p ( j ) ,
ρ w ( i ) = i F i [ b b w ( i ) + ϵ b b ( i , j ) b b p ( j ) a w ( i ) + ϵ a ( i , j ) a ( j ) ] ,
ρ w ( j ) = j F j [ b b w ( j ) + b b p ( j ) a w ( j ) + a ( j ) ] .
a ( j ) = j F j [ ϵ b b ( i , j ) b b w ( j ) b b w ( i ) ] + χ a w ( i ) ρ w ( i ) a w ( j ) ρ w ( j ) ϵ b b ( i , j ) ϵ b b ( i , j ) ρ w ( j ) χ ϵ a ( i , j ) ρ w ( i ) ,
b b p ( j ) = χ ϵ a ( i , j ) ρ w ( i ) b b w ( j ) ρ w ( j ) b b w ( i ) + [ ρ w ( i ) ρ w ( j ) i F i ] [ a w ( i ) ϵ a ( i , j ) a w ( j ) ] ϵ b b ( i , j ) ρ w ( j ) χ ϵ a ( i , j ) ρ w ( i ) ,
b b p ( λ ) = b b p ( j ) [ λ λ ( j ) ] m ,
a ( λ ) = ( λ ) F ( λ ) [ b b p ( λ ) + b b w ( λ ) ρ w ( λ ) ] a w ( λ ) .
a ( i ) = a ph ( i ) + a d y ( i ) ,
a ( j ) = a ph ( j ) + a d y ( j ) ,
ϵ d y ( i , j ) = a d y ( i ) / a d y ( j ) ,
ϵ ph ( i , j ) = a ph ( i ) / a ph ( j ) .
a d y ( i ) = a ( i ) ϵ d y ( i , j ) ϵ d y ( i , j ) ϵ ph ( i , j ) a ( j ) ϵ d y ( i , j ) ϵ ph ( i , j ) ϵ d y ( i , j ) ϵ ph ( i , j ) .
a d y ( λ ) = a d y ( λ 0 ) exp [ S ( λ - λ 0 ) ] ,
a ph ( λ ) = a ( λ ) a d y ( λ ) .

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