Abstract

The spectral responsivity of HgCdTe detectors operating in the thermal infrared region was observed to drift slowly with time. The characteristics of the drift were investigated and were shown to have a different origin from the drifts previously reported by one of the authors. Those drifts were caused by a thin film of water ice depositing on the active area of the cold detector. The source of the new drift is far more serious because it is fundamental, making the acquisition of accurate radiometric measurements with these detectors very difficult. It is demonstrated that the source of the new drift is the nonlinearity in the response of the HgCdTe detectors, coupled with the fluctuations of the irradiance reaching them. These fluctuations are due to variations in the thermal background caused by changes in the temperature of objects in the field of view of the detectors. This phenomenon is expected to provide a practical limit to the accuracy of radiometric measurements using not only HgCdTe detectors but also other detectors whose linearity is a function of the thermal background.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, and T. R. Prior, "A comparison of the performance of infrared detectors for radiometric applications," in Optical Radiation Measurements III, Proc. SPIE 2815,56-69, 1996.
  2. E. Theocharous and J. Birch, "Detectors for mid and far infrared spectroscopy: selection and use," in The Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J.M.Chalmers and P.R.Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 349-367.
  3. E. Theocharous and N. P. Fox, "Reversible and apparent ageing effects in infrared detectors," Metrologia 40, S136-S140 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Theocharous, "On the stability of the spectral responsivity of cryogenically cooled HgCdTe infrared detectors," Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 175-180 (2006).
  5. W. M. Irvine and J. B. Pollack, "Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres," Icarus 8, 324-360 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Theocharous, G. Hawkins, and N. P. Fox "Reversible ageing effects in cryogenically cooled infrared filter radiometers," Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 339-349 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Theocharous and N. P. Fox "Ageing effects in cryogenically cooled InSb infrared filtered detectors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 578-582 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Theocharous, "Drifts in cryogenically cooled photodetectors: causes and cures," Photonics Spectra (April 2006), pp. 175-180.
  9. E. Theocharous, J. Ishii, and N. P. Fox, "A comparison of the performance of a photovoltaic HgCdTe detector with that of a large area single pixel QWIP for infrared radiometric applications," Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 309-322 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Theocharous, "Absolute linearity measurements on PbS detectors in the infrared," Appl. Opt. 45, 2381-2386 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Lei and J. Fischer, "Characterisation of photodiodes in the UV and the visible spectral region based on cryogenic radiometry," Metrologia 30, 297-303 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Theocharous, J. Ishii, and N. P. Fox, "Absolute linearity measurements on HgCdTe detectors in the infrared," Appl. Opt. 43, 4182-4188 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. E. Petersen, "Auger recombination in mercury cadmium telluride," in Semiconductors and Semimetals, R.K.Willardson and A.C.Beer, eds. (Academic, 1981), Vol. 18, Chap. 4, pp. 121-155.
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Kudman, Infrared Associates Incorporated (private communication, 2006).
  15. E. Theocharous, T. R. Prior, P. R. Haycocks, and N. P. Fox, "High-accuracy, infrared, spectral responsivity scale," Metrologia 35, 543-548 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

E. Theocharous, "On the stability of the spectral responsivity of cryogenically cooled HgCdTe infrared detectors," Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 175-180 (2006).

I. Kudman, Infrared Associates Incorporated (private communication, 2006).

E. Theocharous, "Absolute linearity measurements on PbS detectors in the infrared," Appl. Opt. 45, 2381-2386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

E. Theocharous and N. P. Fox "Ageing effects in cryogenically cooled InSb infrared filtered detectors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 578-582 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, J. Ishii, and N. P. Fox, "A comparison of the performance of a photovoltaic HgCdTe detector with that of a large area single pixel QWIP for infrared radiometric applications," Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 309-322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

E. Theocharous, J. Ishii, and N. P. Fox, "Absolute linearity measurements on HgCdTe detectors in the infrared," Appl. Opt. 43, 4182-4188 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Theocharous, G. Hawkins, and N. P. Fox "Reversible ageing effects in cryogenically cooled infrared filter radiometers," Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 339-349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

E. Theocharous and N. P. Fox, "Reversible and apparent ageing effects in infrared detectors," Metrologia 40, S136-S140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. Theocharous and J. Birch, "Detectors for mid and far infrared spectroscopy: selection and use," in The Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J.M.Chalmers and P.R.Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 349-367.

1998 (1)

E. Theocharous, T. R. Prior, P. R. Haycocks, and N. P. Fox, "High-accuracy, infrared, spectral responsivity scale," Metrologia 35, 543-548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, and T. R. Prior, "A comparison of the performance of infrared detectors for radiometric applications," in Optical Radiation Measurements III, Proc. SPIE 2815,56-69, 1996.

1993 (1)

F. Lei and J. Fischer, "Characterisation of photodiodes in the UV and the visible spectral region based on cryogenic radiometry," Metrologia 30, 297-303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

P. E. Petersen, "Auger recombination in mercury cadmium telluride," in Semiconductors and Semimetals, R.K.Willardson and A.C.Beer, eds. (Academic, 1981), Vol. 18, Chap. 4, pp. 121-155.
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. M. Irvine and J. B. Pollack, "Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres," Icarus 8, 324-360 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Birch, J.

E. Theocharous and J. Birch, "Detectors for mid and far infrared spectroscopy: selection and use," in The Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J.M.Chalmers and P.R.Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 349-367.

Fischer, J.

F. Lei and J. Fischer, "Characterisation of photodiodes in the UV and the visible spectral region based on cryogenic radiometry," Metrologia 30, 297-303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fox, N. P.

E. Theocharous and N. P. Fox "Ageing effects in cryogenically cooled InSb infrared filtered detectors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 578-582 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, J. Ishii, and N. P. Fox, "A comparison of the performance of a photovoltaic HgCdTe detector with that of a large area single pixel QWIP for infrared radiometric applications," Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 309-322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, G. Hawkins, and N. P. Fox "Reversible ageing effects in cryogenically cooled infrared filter radiometers," Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 339-349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, J. Ishii, and N. P. Fox, "Absolute linearity measurements on HgCdTe detectors in the infrared," Appl. Opt. 43, 4182-4188 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Theocharous and N. P. Fox, "Reversible and apparent ageing effects in infrared detectors," Metrologia 40, S136-S140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, T. R. Prior, P. R. Haycocks, and N. P. Fox, "High-accuracy, infrared, spectral responsivity scale," Metrologia 35, 543-548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, and T. R. Prior, "A comparison of the performance of infrared detectors for radiometric applications," in Optical Radiation Measurements III, Proc. SPIE 2815,56-69, 1996.

Hawkins, G.

E. Theocharous, G. Hawkins, and N. P. Fox "Reversible ageing effects in cryogenically cooled infrared filter radiometers," Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 339-349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haycocks, P. R.

E. Theocharous, T. R. Prior, P. R. Haycocks, and N. P. Fox, "High-accuracy, infrared, spectral responsivity scale," Metrologia 35, 543-548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Irvine, W. M.

W. M. Irvine and J. B. Pollack, "Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres," Icarus 8, 324-360 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, J.

E. Theocharous, J. Ishii, and N. P. Fox, "A comparison of the performance of a photovoltaic HgCdTe detector with that of a large area single pixel QWIP for infrared radiometric applications," Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 309-322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, J. Ishii, and N. P. Fox, "Absolute linearity measurements on HgCdTe detectors in the infrared," Appl. Opt. 43, 4182-4188 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kudman, I.

I. Kudman, Infrared Associates Incorporated (private communication, 2006).

Lei, F.

F. Lei and J. Fischer, "Characterisation of photodiodes in the UV and the visible spectral region based on cryogenic radiometry," Metrologia 30, 297-303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, P. E.

P. E. Petersen, "Auger recombination in mercury cadmium telluride," in Semiconductors and Semimetals, R.K.Willardson and A.C.Beer, eds. (Academic, 1981), Vol. 18, Chap. 4, pp. 121-155.
[CrossRef]

Pollack, J. B.

W. M. Irvine and J. B. Pollack, "Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres," Icarus 8, 324-360 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Prior, T. R.

E. Theocharous, T. R. Prior, P. R. Haycocks, and N. P. Fox, "High-accuracy, infrared, spectral responsivity scale," Metrologia 35, 543-548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, and T. R. Prior, "A comparison of the performance of infrared detectors for radiometric applications," in Optical Radiation Measurements III, Proc. SPIE 2815,56-69, 1996.

Theocharous, E.

E. Theocharous, "On the stability of the spectral responsivity of cryogenically cooled HgCdTe infrared detectors," Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 175-180 (2006).

E. Theocharous, "Absolute linearity measurements on PbS detectors in the infrared," Appl. Opt. 45, 2381-2386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Theocharous and N. P. Fox "Ageing effects in cryogenically cooled InSb infrared filtered detectors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 578-582 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, J. Ishii, and N. P. Fox, "A comparison of the performance of a photovoltaic HgCdTe detector with that of a large area single pixel QWIP for infrared radiometric applications," Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 309-322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, G. Hawkins, and N. P. Fox "Reversible ageing effects in cryogenically cooled infrared filter radiometers," Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 339-349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, J. Ishii, and N. P. Fox, "Absolute linearity measurements on HgCdTe detectors in the infrared," Appl. Opt. 43, 4182-4188 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Theocharous and N. P. Fox, "Reversible and apparent ageing effects in infrared detectors," Metrologia 40, S136-S140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous and J. Birch, "Detectors for mid and far infrared spectroscopy: selection and use," in The Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J.M.Chalmers and P.R.Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 349-367.

E. Theocharous, T. R. Prior, P. R. Haycocks, and N. P. Fox, "High-accuracy, infrared, spectral responsivity scale," Metrologia 35, 543-548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, and T. R. Prior, "A comparison of the performance of infrared detectors for radiometric applications," in Optical Radiation Measurements III, Proc. SPIE 2815,56-69, 1996.

E. Theocharous, "Drifts in cryogenically cooled photodetectors: causes and cures," Photonics Spectra (April 2006), pp. 175-180.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Icarus (1)

W. M. Irvine and J. B. Pollack, "Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres," Icarus 8, 324-360 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (2)

E. Theocharous, G. Hawkins, and N. P. Fox "Reversible ageing effects in cryogenically cooled infrared filter radiometers," Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 339-349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, J. Ishii, and N. P. Fox, "A comparison of the performance of a photovoltaic HgCdTe detector with that of a large area single pixel QWIP for infrared radiometric applications," Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 309-322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

E. Theocharous and N. P. Fox "Ageing effects in cryogenically cooled InSb infrared filtered detectors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 578-582 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (3)

E. Theocharous and N. P. Fox, "Reversible and apparent ageing effects in infrared detectors," Metrologia 40, S136-S140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Lei and J. Fischer, "Characterisation of photodiodes in the UV and the visible spectral region based on cryogenic radiometry," Metrologia 30, 297-303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, T. R. Prior, P. R. Haycocks, and N. P. Fox, "High-accuracy, infrared, spectral responsivity scale," Metrologia 35, 543-548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

P. E. Petersen, "Auger recombination in mercury cadmium telluride," in Semiconductors and Semimetals, R.K.Willardson and A.C.Beer, eds. (Academic, 1981), Vol. 18, Chap. 4, pp. 121-155.
[CrossRef]

I. Kudman, Infrared Associates Incorporated (private communication, 2006).

E. Theocharous, "On the stability of the spectral responsivity of cryogenically cooled HgCdTe infrared detectors," Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 175-180 (2006).

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, and T. R. Prior, "A comparison of the performance of infrared detectors for radiometric applications," in Optical Radiation Measurements III, Proc. SPIE 2815,56-69, 1996.

E. Theocharous and J. Birch, "Detectors for mid and far infrared spectroscopy: selection and use," in The Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J.M.Chalmers and P.R.Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 349-367.

E. Theocharous, "Drifts in cryogenically cooled photodetectors: causes and cures," Photonics Spectra (April 2006), pp. 175-180.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the stability of response measurement facility.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized response of the PC CMT9 HgCdTe detector to incident radiation of 10.3 μm wavelength as a function of time. The temperature inside the chamber (also plotted here) was cycled during this period.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Change in the normalized response of the CMT9 PC HgCdTe detector at 10.3 and 4.7 μm due to the action of a soldering iron. The plots are similar, demonstrating that the effect is independent of the wavelength of the modulated radiation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Change in the normalized response of the PV HgCdTe detector at 10.3 and 4.7 μm due to the action of a soldering iron. The plots are similar, demonstrating that the effect is independent of the wavelength of the modulated radiation. However, the magnitude of the change is only half that observed with the PC HgCdTe detectors.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized response of the CMT9 detector at 10.3 μm versus time as the temperature of the FOV was raised in steps of approximately 3 ° C . Also plotted here are the values of the temperature.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot the normalized response of the CMT9 detector at 10.3 μm for different temperatures in its FOV.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized response of the CMT9 detector at 4.7 μm versus time as the temperature of the FOV was raised in steps of approximately 3 ° C . Also plotted here are the values of the temperature.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Plot the normalized response of the CMT9 detector at 4.7 μm for different temperatures in its FOV.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized response of the InSb detector at 4.7 μm versus time as the temperature of the FOV was raised in steps of approximately 3 ° C . Also plotted here are the values of the temperature.

Metrics