Mirrors for storage ring free-electron lasers in the vacuum ultraviolet must provide adequate reflectivity and resistance against synchrotron radiation. The free-electron laser system at ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy) is targeted to lase in the spectral range between 155 and . It was demonstrated that dense oxide multilayer coatings allow lasing down to . However, pure oxide systems show significant absorption at lower wavelengths and cannot be employed below 189.9 nm. Fluoride stacks can be deposited down to with high reflection values above , but their resistance against the harsh synchrotron environment is poor. They rapidly degrade; lasing cannot be realized with this mirror approach. For the range between 170 and , hybrid systems—combining fluoride and oxide materials—have been manufactured. With appropriate deposition procedures, mirrors achieve reflectance values up to and an adequate radiation resistance simultaneously. A mirror based on a conventional fluoride stack protected by a dense silicon dioxide protection layer was deposited and successfully employed for free-electron lasing at .
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