Abstract

Mirrors for storage ring free-electron lasers in the vacuum ultraviolet must provide adequate reflectivity and resistance against synchrotron radiation. The free-electron laser system at ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy) is targeted to lase in the spectral range between 155 and 200  nm. It was demonstrated that dense oxide multilayer coatings allow lasing down to 189.9  nm. However, pure oxide systems show significant absorption at lower wavelengths and cannot be employed below 189.9 nm. Fluoride stacks can be deposited down to 130  nm with high reflection values above 95%, but their resistance against the harsh synchrotron environment is poor. They rapidly degrade; lasing cannot be realized with this mirror approach. For the range between 170 and 190  nm, hybrid systems—combining fluoride and oxide materials—have been manufactured. With appropriate deposition procedures, mirrors achieve reflectance values up to 99% and an adequate radiation resistance simultaneously. A mirror based on a conventional fluoride stack protected by a dense silicon dioxide protection layer was deposited and successfully employed for free-electron lasing at 176.4  nm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Trovo, L. A. Clarke, M. E. Couprie, G. Dattoli, D. Garzella, A. Gatto, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, N. Kaiser, M. Marsi, M. W. Poole, D. Ristau, and R. P. Walker, "Operation of the European storage ring FEL at ELETTRA down to 190 nm," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 157-161 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. P. Walker, L. Giannessi, G. Dattoli, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, J. A. Clarke, and M. W. Poole, "Operation and performance of a free electron laser oscillator down to 190 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2851-2853 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Thielsch, "Optical coatings for the DUV/VUV," in Optical Interference Coatings, N.Kaiser and H.-K.Pulker, eds., Vol. 88 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2003), pp. 257-280.
  4. St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, M. Danailov, M. Trovo, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, F. Sarto, D. Flori, and F. Menchini, "Radiation resistance of single and multilayer coatings against synchrotron radiation," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C.Amra, N.Kaiser, and H.A.Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250,146-157 (2003).
  5. D. Jacob, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coatings grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes," Thin Solid Films 360, 133-138 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Ristau, St. Günster, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, J. Ferre-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, "Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation," Appl. Opt. 41, 3196-3204 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Gatto, M. Yang, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. Trovo, and M. Danailov, "Towards resistant VUV coatings for free electron laser down to 150 nm," in Optical Interference Coatings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper WF9.
  8. St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, B. Diviacco, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, F. Sarto, S. Scaglione, and E. Masetti, "Radiation resistance of optical materials against synchrotron radiation," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G.J.Exarhos, A.H.Guenther, N.Kaiser, K.L.Lewis, M.J.Soileau, C.J.Stolz, A.Giesen, and H.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932,422-428 (2002).

2002

M. Trovo, L. A. Clarke, M. E. Couprie, G. Dattoli, D. Garzella, A. Gatto, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, N. Kaiser, M. Marsi, M. W. Poole, D. Ristau, and R. P. Walker, "Operation of the European storage ring FEL at ELETTRA down to 190 nm," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 157-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. P. Walker, L. Giannessi, G. Dattoli, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, J. A. Clarke, and M. W. Poole, "Operation and performance of a free electron laser oscillator down to 190 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2851-2853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, St. Günster, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, J. Ferre-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, "Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation," Appl. Opt. 41, 3196-3204 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. Jacob, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coatings grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes," Thin Solid Films 360, 133-138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blaschke, H.

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, M. Danailov, M. Trovo, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, F. Sarto, D. Flori, and F. Menchini, "Radiation resistance of single and multilayer coatings against synchrotron radiation," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C.Amra, N.Kaiser, and H.A.Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250,146-157 (2003).

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, B. Diviacco, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, F. Sarto, S. Scaglione, and E. Masetti, "Radiation resistance of optical materials against synchrotron radiation," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G.J.Exarhos, A.H.Guenther, N.Kaiser, K.L.Lewis, M.J.Soileau, C.J.Stolz, A.Giesen, and H.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932,422-428 (2002).

Bosch, S.

Clarke, J. A.

M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. P. Walker, L. Giannessi, G. Dattoli, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, J. A. Clarke, and M. W. Poole, "Operation and performance of a free electron laser oscillator down to 190 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2851-2853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, L. A.

M. Trovo, L. A. Clarke, M. E. Couprie, G. Dattoli, D. Garzella, A. Gatto, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, N. Kaiser, M. Marsi, M. W. Poole, D. Ristau, and R. P. Walker, "Operation of the European storage ring FEL at ELETTRA down to 190 nm," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 157-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Couprie, M. E.

M. Trovo, L. A. Clarke, M. E. Couprie, G. Dattoli, D. Garzella, A. Gatto, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, N. Kaiser, M. Marsi, M. W. Poole, D. Ristau, and R. P. Walker, "Operation of the European storage ring FEL at ELETTRA down to 190 nm," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 157-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. P. Walker, L. Giannessi, G. Dattoli, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, J. A. Clarke, and M. W. Poole, "Operation and performance of a free electron laser oscillator down to 190 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2851-2853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Danailov, M.

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, M. Danailov, M. Trovo, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, F. Sarto, D. Flori, and F. Menchini, "Radiation resistance of single and multilayer coatings against synchrotron radiation," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C.Amra, N.Kaiser, and H.A.Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250,146-157 (2003).

A. Gatto, M. Yang, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. Trovo, and M. Danailov, "Towards resistant VUV coatings for free electron laser down to 150 nm," in Optical Interference Coatings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper WF9.

Dattoli, G.

M. Trovo, L. A. Clarke, M. E. Couprie, G. Dattoli, D. Garzella, A. Gatto, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, N. Kaiser, M. Marsi, M. W. Poole, D. Ristau, and R. P. Walker, "Operation of the European storage ring FEL at ELETTRA down to 190 nm," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 157-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. P. Walker, L. Giannessi, G. Dattoli, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, J. A. Clarke, and M. W. Poole, "Operation and performance of a free electron laser oscillator down to 190 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2851-2853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Diviacco, B.

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, B. Diviacco, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, F. Sarto, S. Scaglione, and E. Masetti, "Radiation resistance of optical materials against synchrotron radiation," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G.J.Exarhos, A.H.Guenther, N.Kaiser, K.L.Lewis, M.J.Soileau, C.J.Stolz, A.Giesen, and H.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932,422-428 (2002).

Duparre, A.

Ferre-Borrull, J.

Flori, D.

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, M. Danailov, M. Trovo, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, F. Sarto, D. Flori, and F. Menchini, "Radiation resistance of single and multilayer coatings against synchrotron radiation," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C.Amra, N.Kaiser, and H.A.Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250,146-157 (2003).

Garzella, D.

M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. P. Walker, L. Giannessi, G. Dattoli, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, J. A. Clarke, and M. W. Poole, "Operation and performance of a free electron laser oscillator down to 190 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2851-2853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Trovo, L. A. Clarke, M. E. Couprie, G. Dattoli, D. Garzella, A. Gatto, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, N. Kaiser, M. Marsi, M. W. Poole, D. Ristau, and R. P. Walker, "Operation of the European storage ring FEL at ELETTRA down to 190 nm," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 157-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gatto, A.

M. Trovo, L. A. Clarke, M. E. Couprie, G. Dattoli, D. Garzella, A. Gatto, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, N. Kaiser, M. Marsi, M. W. Poole, D. Ristau, and R. P. Walker, "Operation of the European storage ring FEL at ELETTRA down to 190 nm," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 157-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. P. Walker, L. Giannessi, G. Dattoli, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, J. A. Clarke, and M. W. Poole, "Operation and performance of a free electron laser oscillator down to 190 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2851-2853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, M. Danailov, M. Trovo, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, F. Sarto, D. Flori, and F. Menchini, "Radiation resistance of single and multilayer coatings against synchrotron radiation," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C.Amra, N.Kaiser, and H.A.Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250,146-157 (2003).

A. Gatto, M. Yang, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. Trovo, and M. Danailov, "Towards resistant VUV coatings for free electron laser down to 150 nm," in Optical Interference Coatings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper WF9.

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, B. Diviacco, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, F. Sarto, S. Scaglione, and E. Masetti, "Radiation resistance of optical materials against synchrotron radiation," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G.J.Exarhos, A.H.Guenther, N.Kaiser, K.L.Lewis, M.J.Soileau, C.J.Stolz, A.Giesen, and H.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932,422-428 (2002).

Giannessi, L.

M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. P. Walker, L. Giannessi, G. Dattoli, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, J. A. Clarke, and M. W. Poole, "Operation and performance of a free electron laser oscillator down to 190 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2851-2853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Trovo, L. A. Clarke, M. E. Couprie, G. Dattoli, D. Garzella, A. Gatto, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, N. Kaiser, M. Marsi, M. W. Poole, D. Ristau, and R. P. Walker, "Operation of the European storage ring FEL at ELETTRA down to 190 nm," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 157-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guenster, St.

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, B. Diviacco, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, F. Sarto, S. Scaglione, and E. Masetti, "Radiation resistance of optical materials against synchrotron radiation," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G.J.Exarhos, A.H.Guenther, N.Kaiser, K.L.Lewis, M.J.Soileau, C.J.Stolz, A.Giesen, and H.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932,422-428 (2002).

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, M. Danailov, M. Trovo, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, F. Sarto, D. Flori, and F. Menchini, "Radiation resistance of single and multilayer coatings against synchrotron radiation," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C.Amra, N.Kaiser, and H.A.Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250,146-157 (2003).

Gunster, S.

M. Trovo, L. A. Clarke, M. E. Couprie, G. Dattoli, D. Garzella, A. Gatto, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, N. Kaiser, M. Marsi, M. W. Poole, D. Ristau, and R. P. Walker, "Operation of the European storage ring FEL at ELETTRA down to 190 nm," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 157-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Günster, S.

M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. P. Walker, L. Giannessi, G. Dattoli, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, J. A. Clarke, and M. W. Poole, "Operation and performance of a free electron laser oscillator down to 190 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2851-2853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatto, M. Yang, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. Trovo, and M. Danailov, "Towards resistant VUV coatings for free electron laser down to 150 nm," in Optical Interference Coatings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper WF9.

Günster, St.

Heber, J.

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, B. Diviacco, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, F. Sarto, S. Scaglione, and E. Masetti, "Radiation resistance of optical materials against synchrotron radiation," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G.J.Exarhos, A.H.Guenther, N.Kaiser, K.L.Lewis, M.J.Soileau, C.J.Stolz, A.Giesen, and H.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932,422-428 (2002).

Jacob, D.

D. Jacob, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coatings grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes," Thin Solid Films 360, 133-138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. P. Walker, L. Giannessi, G. Dattoli, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, J. A. Clarke, and M. W. Poole, "Operation and performance of a free electron laser oscillator down to 190 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2851-2853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Trovo, L. A. Clarke, M. E. Couprie, G. Dattoli, D. Garzella, A. Gatto, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, N. Kaiser, M. Marsi, M. W. Poole, D. Ristau, and R. P. Walker, "Operation of the European storage ring FEL at ELETTRA down to 190 nm," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 157-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, M. Danailov, M. Trovo, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, F. Sarto, D. Flori, and F. Menchini, "Radiation resistance of single and multilayer coatings against synchrotron radiation," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C.Amra, N.Kaiser, and H.A.Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250,146-157 (2003).

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, B. Diviacco, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, F. Sarto, S. Scaglione, and E. Masetti, "Radiation resistance of optical materials against synchrotron radiation," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G.J.Exarhos, A.H.Guenther, N.Kaiser, K.L.Lewis, M.J.Soileau, C.J.Stolz, A.Giesen, and H.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932,422-428 (2002).

A. Gatto, M. Yang, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. Trovo, and M. Danailov, "Towards resistant VUV coatings for free electron laser down to 150 nm," in Optical Interference Coatings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper WF9.

Kiriakidis, G.

Marsi, M.

M. Trovo, L. A. Clarke, M. E. Couprie, G. Dattoli, D. Garzella, A. Gatto, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, N. Kaiser, M. Marsi, M. W. Poole, D. Ristau, and R. P. Walker, "Operation of the European storage ring FEL at ELETTRA down to 190 nm," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 157-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. P. Walker, L. Giannessi, G. Dattoli, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, J. A. Clarke, and M. W. Poole, "Operation and performance of a free electron laser oscillator down to 190 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2851-2853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, B. Diviacco, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, F. Sarto, S. Scaglione, and E. Masetti, "Radiation resistance of optical materials against synchrotron radiation," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G.J.Exarhos, A.H.Guenther, N.Kaiser, K.L.Lewis, M.J.Soileau, C.J.Stolz, A.Giesen, and H.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932,422-428 (2002).

Masetti, E.

D. Ristau, St. Günster, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, J. Ferre-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, "Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation," Appl. Opt. 41, 3196-3204 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, B. Diviacco, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, F. Sarto, S. Scaglione, and E. Masetti, "Radiation resistance of optical materials against synchrotron radiation," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G.J.Exarhos, A.H.Guenther, N.Kaiser, K.L.Lewis, M.J.Soileau, C.J.Stolz, A.Giesen, and H.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932,422-428 (2002).

Menchini, F.

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, M. Danailov, M. Trovo, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, F. Sarto, D. Flori, and F. Menchini, "Radiation resistance of single and multilayer coatings against synchrotron radiation," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C.Amra, N.Kaiser, and H.A.Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250,146-157 (2003).

Peiro, F.

Peiró, F.

D. Jacob, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coatings grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes," Thin Solid Films 360, 133-138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poole, M. W.

M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. P. Walker, L. Giannessi, G. Dattoli, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, J. A. Clarke, and M. W. Poole, "Operation and performance of a free electron laser oscillator down to 190 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2851-2853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Trovo, L. A. Clarke, M. E. Couprie, G. Dattoli, D. Garzella, A. Gatto, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, N. Kaiser, M. Marsi, M. W. Poole, D. Ristau, and R. P. Walker, "Operation of the European storage ring FEL at ELETTRA down to 190 nm," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 157-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Quesnel, E.

Ristau, D.

M. Trovo, L. A. Clarke, M. E. Couprie, G. Dattoli, D. Garzella, A. Gatto, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, N. Kaiser, M. Marsi, M. W. Poole, D. Ristau, and R. P. Walker, "Operation of the European storage ring FEL at ELETTRA down to 190 nm," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 157-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. P. Walker, L. Giannessi, G. Dattoli, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, J. A. Clarke, and M. W. Poole, "Operation and performance of a free electron laser oscillator down to 190 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2851-2853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, St. Günster, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, J. Ferre-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, "Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation," Appl. Opt. 41, 3196-3204 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jacob, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coatings grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes," Thin Solid Films 360, 133-138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, M. Danailov, M. Trovo, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, F. Sarto, D. Flori, and F. Menchini, "Radiation resistance of single and multilayer coatings against synchrotron radiation," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C.Amra, N.Kaiser, and H.A.Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250,146-157 (2003).

A. Gatto, M. Yang, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. Trovo, and M. Danailov, "Towards resistant VUV coatings for free electron laser down to 150 nm," in Optical Interference Coatings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper WF9.

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, B. Diviacco, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, F. Sarto, S. Scaglione, and E. Masetti, "Radiation resistance of optical materials against synchrotron radiation," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G.J.Exarhos, A.H.Guenther, N.Kaiser, K.L.Lewis, M.J.Soileau, C.J.Stolz, A.Giesen, and H.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932,422-428 (2002).

Sarto, F.

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, B. Diviacco, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, F. Sarto, S. Scaglione, and E. Masetti, "Radiation resistance of optical materials against synchrotron radiation," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G.J.Exarhos, A.H.Guenther, N.Kaiser, K.L.Lewis, M.J.Soileau, C.J.Stolz, A.Giesen, and H.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932,422-428 (2002).

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, M. Danailov, M. Trovo, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, F. Sarto, D. Flori, and F. Menchini, "Radiation resistance of single and multilayer coatings against synchrotron radiation," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C.Amra, N.Kaiser, and H.A.Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250,146-157 (2003).

Scaglione, S.

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, B. Diviacco, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, F. Sarto, S. Scaglione, and E. Masetti, "Radiation resistance of optical materials against synchrotron radiation," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G.J.Exarhos, A.H.Guenther, N.Kaiser, K.L.Lewis, M.J.Soileau, C.J.Stolz, A.Giesen, and H.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932,422-428 (2002).

Thielsch, R.

R. Thielsch, "Optical coatings for the DUV/VUV," in Optical Interference Coatings, N.Kaiser and H.-K.Pulker, eds., Vol. 88 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2003), pp. 257-280.

Tikhonravov, A.

Trovo, M.

M. Trovo, L. A. Clarke, M. E. Couprie, G. Dattoli, D. Garzella, A. Gatto, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, N. Kaiser, M. Marsi, M. W. Poole, D. Ristau, and R. P. Walker, "Operation of the European storage ring FEL at ELETTRA down to 190 nm," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 157-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, M. Danailov, M. Trovo, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, F. Sarto, D. Flori, and F. Menchini, "Radiation resistance of single and multilayer coatings against synchrotron radiation," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C.Amra, N.Kaiser, and H.A.Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250,146-157 (2003).

A. Gatto, M. Yang, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. Trovo, and M. Danailov, "Towards resistant VUV coatings for free electron laser down to 150 nm," in Optical Interference Coatings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper WF9.

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, B. Diviacco, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, F. Sarto, S. Scaglione, and E. Masetti, "Radiation resistance of optical materials against synchrotron radiation," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G.J.Exarhos, A.H.Guenther, N.Kaiser, K.L.Lewis, M.J.Soileau, C.J.Stolz, A.Giesen, and H.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932,422-428 (2002).

Trovò, M.

M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. P. Walker, L. Giannessi, G. Dattoli, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, J. A. Clarke, and M. W. Poole, "Operation and performance of a free electron laser oscillator down to 190 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2851-2853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. P.

M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. P. Walker, L. Giannessi, G. Dattoli, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, J. A. Clarke, and M. W. Poole, "Operation and performance of a free electron laser oscillator down to 190 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2851-2853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Trovo, L. A. Clarke, M. E. Couprie, G. Dattoli, D. Garzella, A. Gatto, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, N. Kaiser, M. Marsi, M. W. Poole, D. Ristau, and R. P. Walker, "Operation of the European storage ring FEL at ELETTRA down to 190 nm," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 157-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

A. Gatto, M. Yang, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. Trovo, and M. Danailov, "Towards resistant VUV coatings for free electron laser down to 150 nm," in Optical Interference Coatings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper WF9.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. P. Walker, L. Giannessi, G. Dattoli, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. E. Couprie, D. Garzella, J. A. Clarke, and M. W. Poole, "Operation and performance of a free electron laser oscillator down to 190 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2851-2853 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

M. Trovo, L. A. Clarke, M. E. Couprie, G. Dattoli, D. Garzella, A. Gatto, L. Giannessi, S. Gunster, N. Kaiser, M. Marsi, M. W. Poole, D. Ristau, and R. P. Walker, "Operation of the European storage ring FEL at ELETTRA down to 190 nm," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 157-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

D. Jacob, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coatings grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes," Thin Solid Films 360, 133-138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Thielsch, "Optical coatings for the DUV/VUV," in Optical Interference Coatings, N.Kaiser and H.-K.Pulker, eds., Vol. 88 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2003), pp. 257-280.

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, M. Danailov, M. Trovo, A. Gatto, N. Kaiser, F. Sarto, D. Flori, and F. Menchini, "Radiation resistance of single and multilayer coatings against synchrotron radiation," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C.Amra, N.Kaiser, and H.A.Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250,146-157 (2003).

A. Gatto, M. Yang, N. Kaiser, S. Günster, D. Ristau, M. Trovo, and M. Danailov, "Towards resistant VUV coatings for free electron laser down to 150 nm," in Optical Interference Coatings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper WF9.

St. Guenster, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, A. Gatto, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, B. Diviacco, M. Marsi, M. Trovo, F. Sarto, S. Scaglione, and E. Masetti, "Radiation resistance of optical materials against synchrotron radiation," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G.J.Exarhos, A.H.Guenther, N.Kaiser, K.L.Lewis, M.J.Soileau, C.J.Stolz, A.Giesen, and H.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932,422-428 (2002).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive index data for MgF2 (solid curve), SiO2 (electron-beam) (dotted curve), SiO2 (IBS) (dashed–dotted curve), and LaF3 (dashed curve) in the VUV and UV spectral ranges.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption index data for MgF2 (solid curve), SiO2 (electron-beam) (dotted curve), SiO2 (IBS) (dashed–dotted curve), and LaF3 (dashed curve) in the VUV and UV spectral ranges.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance spectra of mixed fluoride–oxide dielectric multilayer stacks: LaF3∕SiO2 stack (solid curve) and SiO2∕MgF2 (dashed curve). The mirrors were manufactured for a center wavelength of 180 nm. A pure fluoride stack is displayed for comparison (dotted curve). Solid curve, (HL)25H H:LaF3, L:SiO2; dashed curve, (HL)30H H:SiO2, L:MgF2; dotted curve, (HL)20H H:LaF3, L:MgF2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance spectra of fluoride dielectric multilayer systems protected with a thick SiO2 single layer (solid curve) and with an Al2O3∕SiO2∕Al2O3 structure (dashed curve). The mirrors were manufactured for a central wavelength of 180 nm. A pure fluoride stack is displayed for comparison (dotted curve). Solid curve, (HL)20H 2L + 6 λ∕4 SiO2; dashed curve, (HL)21 + 1 λ∕4 Al2O3 + 1 λ∕4 SiO2 1 λ∕4; dotted curve, (HL)20H.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectance spectra of a pure fluoride pi stack system before (dashed curve) and after (solid curve) irradiation at the ELETTRA synchrotron (lasing attempt). Multilayer design: (0.7H1.3L)20 0.7H; H:LaF3 L:MgF2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflectance spectra of a fluoride mirror with an electron-beam silicon dioxide protection layer before (dashed curve) and after (solid curve) irradiation exposure at the ELETTRA synchrotron with standard condition (electron beam at 2 GeV and bending magnet radiation only). Multilayer design: (HL)20 H + 6 λ∕4 SiO2 (electron-beam); H:LaF3 L:MgF2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectance spectra of a fluoride mirror with an IBS silicon dioxide protection layer before (dashed curve) and after (solid curve) lasing at 176.4 nm in the ELETTRA FEL (lasing at λ = 176.4 nm, electron-beam energy of 750 MeV, Imax = 26.3 mA, dose of 28.6 mAh). The mirror design is (HL)20 H + 1 λ∕4 SiO2 (electron-beam) + 7 λ∕4 SiO2 (IBS); H:LaF3 L:MgF2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Employed Deposition Methods

Tables Icon

Table 2 Set of Dielectric Multilayer Mirror Systems

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