Abstract

Ordered bundles of silver-halide fibers, which are highly transparent in the middle infrared, are fabricated by multiple extrusions from single crystals. We fabricate and characterize the optical properties of thin and flexible bundles of diameters of 0.72.0  mm that incorporate 100 individual fibers. The measurements include attenuation, resolution, cross talk, near-field scanning of single fibers in the bundle, and bending losses. Bundles of lengths of several meters transmit thermal images of bodies whose temperature is near room temperature. These bundles would be useful for medical, industrial, and military applications, and in particular for endoscopic thermal imaging.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Katzir, Laser and Optical Fibers in Medicine (Academic, 1993).
  2. A. Kosterin, V. Temyanko, M. Fallahi, and M. Masuripur, "Tapered fiber bundles for combining pump lasers used in fiber amplifiers and lasers," Appl. Opt. 43, 3893-3900 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. J. Anderson, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, "Fibre-optic-bundle delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2675-2679 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Zhang, S. Yoshikado, and T. Aruga, "Shift multiplexing for holographic storage system using fiber bundle referencing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 25-27 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Saito, M. Takizawa, S. Sakuragi, and F. Tanei, "Infrared image guide with bundled As-S glass fibers," Appl. Opt. 24, 2304-2309 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Klocek, M. Roth, and R. D. Rock, "Chalcogenide glass optical fibers and image bundles: properties and applications," Opt. Eng. 26, 88-95 (1987).
  7. J. Nishii, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, "Coherent infrared fiber image bundle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639-2641 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Rave, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, "Ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting AgClBr fibers: optical characterization of individual fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1237-1239 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, "Thermal imaging through ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting silver-halide fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795-1797 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Rave and A. Katzir, "Ordered bundles of infrared transmitting silver halide fibers: attenuation, resolution and crosstalk in flexible bundles," Opt. Eng. 41, 1467-1468 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Shalem, A. German, N. Barkay, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, "Mechanical and optical properties of silver-halide infrared transmitting fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 27-54 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. A. Harrington, Infrared Fiber Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2001).
  13. H. S. Wong, "Effect of knife-edge skew on modulation transfer function measurements of charge coupled device imagers employing a scanning knife edge," Opt. Eng. 30, 1394-1398 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. P. Tzannes and J. M. Mooney, "Measurement of the modulation transfer function of infrared cameras," Opt. Eng. 34, 1808-1817 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Gloge, "Bending loss in multimode fibers with graded and ungraded core index," Appl. Opt. 11, 2506-2514 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

J. Zhang, S. Yoshikado, and T. Aruga, "Shift multiplexing for holographic storage system using fiber bundle referencing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 25-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. Rave and A. Katzir, "Ordered bundles of infrared transmitting silver halide fibers: attenuation, resolution and crosstalk in flexible bundles," Opt. Eng. 41, 1467-1468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

E. Rave, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, "Ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting AgClBr fibers: optical characterization of individual fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1237-1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, "Thermal imaging through ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting silver-halide fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795-1797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Shalem, A. German, N. Barkay, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, "Mechanical and optical properties of silver-halide infrared transmitting fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 27-54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. J. Anderson, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, "Fibre-optic-bundle delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2675-2679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. P. Tzannes and J. M. Mooney, "Measurement of the modulation transfer function of infrared cameras," Opt. Eng. 34, 1808-1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

H. S. Wong, "Effect of knife-edge skew on modulation transfer function measurements of charge coupled device imagers employing a scanning knife edge," Opt. Eng. 30, 1394-1398 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, "Coherent infrared fiber image bundle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639-2641 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

P. Klocek, M. Roth, and R. D. Rock, "Chalcogenide glass optical fibers and image bundles: properties and applications," Opt. Eng. 26, 88-95 (1987).

1985 (1)

1972 (1)

Anderson, D. J.

D. J. Anderson, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, "Fibre-optic-bundle delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2675-2679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aruga, T.

J. Zhang, S. Yoshikado, and T. Aruga, "Shift multiplexing for holographic storage system using fiber bundle referencing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 25-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barkay, N.

S. Shalem, A. German, N. Barkay, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, "Mechanical and optical properties of silver-halide infrared transmitting fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 27-54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Easson, W. J.

D. J. Anderson, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, "Fibre-optic-bundle delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2675-2679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fallahi, M.

German, A.

S. Shalem, A. German, N. Barkay, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, "Mechanical and optical properties of silver-halide infrared transmitting fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 27-54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gloge, D.

Greated, C. A.

D. J. Anderson, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, "Fibre-optic-bundle delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2675-2679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. A.

J. A. Harrington, Infrared Fiber Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2001).

Jones, J. D. C.

D. J. Anderson, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, "Fibre-optic-bundle delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2675-2679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Katzir, A.

E. Rave and A. Katzir, "Ordered bundles of infrared transmitting silver halide fibers: attenuation, resolution and crosstalk in flexible bundles," Opt. Eng. 41, 1467-1468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Rave, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, "Ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting AgClBr fibers: optical characterization of individual fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1237-1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, "Thermal imaging through ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting silver-halide fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795-1797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Shalem, A. German, N. Barkay, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, "Mechanical and optical properties of silver-halide infrared transmitting fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 27-54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Katzir, Laser and Optical Fibers in Medicine (Academic, 1993).

Klocek, P.

P. Klocek, M. Roth, and R. D. Rock, "Chalcogenide glass optical fibers and image bundles: properties and applications," Opt. Eng. 26, 88-95 (1987).

Kosterin, A.

Masuripur, M.

Mooney, J. M.

A. P. Tzannes and J. M. Mooney, "Measurement of the modulation transfer function of infrared cameras," Opt. Eng. 34, 1808-1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moser, F.

S. Shalem, A. German, N. Barkay, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, "Mechanical and optical properties of silver-halide infrared transmitting fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 27-54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nagli, L.

Nishii, J.

J. Nishii, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, "Coherent infrared fiber image bundle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639-2641 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rave, E.

E. Rave and A. Katzir, "Ordered bundles of infrared transmitting silver halide fibers: attenuation, resolution and crosstalk in flexible bundles," Opt. Eng. 41, 1467-1468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Rave, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, "Ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting AgClBr fibers: optical characterization of individual fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1237-1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, "Thermal imaging through ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting silver-halide fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795-1797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rock, R. D.

P. Klocek, M. Roth, and R. D. Rock, "Chalcogenide glass optical fibers and image bundles: properties and applications," Opt. Eng. 26, 88-95 (1987).

Roth, M.

P. Klocek, M. Roth, and R. D. Rock, "Chalcogenide glass optical fibers and image bundles: properties and applications," Opt. Eng. 26, 88-95 (1987).

Saito, M.

Sakuragi, S.

Shalem, S.

S. Shalem, A. German, N. Barkay, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, "Mechanical and optical properties of silver-halide infrared transmitting fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 27-54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shemesh, D.

E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, "Thermal imaging through ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting silver-halide fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795-1797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takizawa, M.

Tanei, F.

Temyanko, V.

Tzannes, A. P.

A. P. Tzannes and J. M. Mooney, "Measurement of the modulation transfer function of infrared cameras," Opt. Eng. 34, 1808-1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wong, H. S.

H. S. Wong, "Effect of knife-edge skew on modulation transfer function measurements of charge coupled device imagers employing a scanning knife edge," Opt. Eng. 30, 1394-1398 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yamagishi, T.

J. Nishii, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, "Coherent infrared fiber image bundle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639-2641 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

J. Nishii, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, "Coherent infrared fiber image bundle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639-2641 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikado, S.

J. Zhang, S. Yoshikado, and T. Aruga, "Shift multiplexing for holographic storage system using fiber bundle referencing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 25-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, S. Yoshikado, and T. Aruga, "Shift multiplexing for holographic storage system using fiber bundle referencing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 25-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. Nishii, T. Yamashita, and T. Yamagishi, "Coherent infrared fiber image bundle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639-2641 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, S. Yoshikado, and T. Aruga, "Shift multiplexing for holographic storage system using fiber bundle referencing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 25-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, "Thermal imaging through ordered bundles of infrared-transmitting silver-halide fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795-1797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

S. Shalem, A. German, N. Barkay, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, "Mechanical and optical properties of silver-halide infrared transmitting fibers," Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 27-54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (4)

H. S. Wong, "Effect of knife-edge skew on modulation transfer function measurements of charge coupled device imagers employing a scanning knife edge," Opt. Eng. 30, 1394-1398 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Tzannes and J. M. Mooney, "Measurement of the modulation transfer function of infrared cameras," Opt. Eng. 34, 1808-1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Klocek, M. Roth, and R. D. Rock, "Chalcogenide glass optical fibers and image bundles: properties and applications," Opt. Eng. 26, 88-95 (1987).

E. Rave and A. Katzir, "Ordered bundles of infrared transmitting silver halide fibers: attenuation, resolution and crosstalk in flexible bundles," Opt. Eng. 41, 1467-1468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. J. Anderson, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, "Fibre-optic-bundle delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2675-2679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Katzir, Laser and Optical Fibers in Medicine (Academic, 1993).

J. A. Harrington, Infrared Fiber Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2001).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thermal images of the output intensity from a single fiber in (a) a bundle with a diameter of 0.7 mm and (b) a bundle with a diameter of 2   mm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Total output intensity during a knife-edge measurement. The solid curve is the best fit to the formula given in Eq. (3).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MTF of the 0.7 and 2   mm diameter bundles, calculated by the knife-edge method.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

2D intensity plot of four individual fibers within the bundle with a diameter of 0.7   mm . The output of the fibers was scanned by a tapered fiber of 25 μm aperture. An intensity scale is presented on the right-hand side.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

2D plot of the output intensity profile of a single fiber in the bundle with a diameter of 2   mm . The output of a fiber was scanned by a tapered fiber of 5 μm aperture.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Best-fit combination of the evolved modes to the scanned intensity profile plotted in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Intensity plots of the output from a single fiber, scanned by a tapered fiber. (b) Intensity obtained by the best-fit combination of the calculated modes.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup for measuring the power transmission of flexible bundles while being bent.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Intensities transmitted through bent bundles, relative to the intensity transmitted by a straight bundle, for radii of curvature of R=52 .5 , 37, 23, 10, and 5   mm .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Thermal images of five pairs of lines in a bar chart. (a) Direct image (without a bundle), (b) image transmitted through a bundle.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Thermal images of a heated ring: (a) direct image and (b) image transmitted through a bundle.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P o u t = P i n ( 1 R ) 2 10 α L / 10 .
C = Σ P s u r r o u n d Σ P s u r r o u n d + P f i b e r .
Y = a 1 + exp [ k ( x x c ) ] + d ,
R c = 4 a ( cos 1    n 2 n 1 ) 2 2 a Δ .

Metrics