Abstract

The adequacy of commercial quasi-continuous high-power laser diode arrays (HPLDAs) as pump sources for spaceborne lasers has been assessed by endurance tests up to 3×109 shots under various stress conditions, vacuum operation up to 0.36×109 shots, and proton radiation tests. Observations of the evolution of the electro-optic parameters and of the near-field patterns of the HPLDAs during endurance tests have revealed that some diode bars could reach the required lifetime of a multibillion shots, suggesting how to build long lifetime HPLDAs by proper selection of the diode bars. The robustness of the HPLDAs against the proton environment experienced in a typical low Earth orbit has been checked. Finally, high-power laser diode arrays have been operated under vacuum, showing a behavior similar to that of HPLDAs operating in atmospheric conditions.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. L. Dallas, R. S. Afzal, and M. A. Stephen, "Demonstration and characterization of a multibillion-shot, 2.5 mJ, 4 ns, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Opt. 35, 1427-1429 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Armandillo, C. Norrie, A. Consentino, P. Laporta, P. Wazen, and P. Maine, "Diode-pumped high efficiency high-brightness, Q-switched Nd:YAG slab laser," Opt. Lett. 22, 1168-1170 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Schillinger, D. Morancais, F. Fabre, M. Endemann, and A. Culoma, "ALADIN: the LIDAR instrument for the AEOLUS mission," in Sensor, System and Next Generation Satellites VI, H.Fujisada, J.B.Luire, M.L.Aten, and K.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4881, 40-51 (2003).
  12. F. Amzajerdian, B. Meadows, N. Baker, R. S. Baggott, U. N. Singh, and M. Kavaya, "Advancement of high power quasi-cw laser diodes arrays for space-based laser instrument," in Enabling Sensor and Platform Technologies for Spaceborne Remote Sensing, G.J.Komar and J.Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE 5659, 157-162 (2005).
  13. W. Heaps and A. M. Novo-Gradac, "Progress in laser risk reduction for 1 micron lasers at Goddard Space Flight Center," in Proceedings of the Fifth Earth-Sun System Technology Conference (2005), paper B7P2.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2005

C. Bibeau, "Mercury diode pumped solid state laser," presented at the 12th High Average Power Laser Program Workshop, Livermore, Calif. 20-21 June 2005.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Anderson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, "The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 73-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Krebs, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, S. X. Li, S. J. Lindauer, R. S. Afzal, and A. W. Yu, "Compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for the MESSENGER mission to Mercury," Appl. Opt. 44, 1715-1718 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

1997

1996

1994

Afzal, R. S.

Alahautala, T.

Allan, G. R.

M. A. Stephen, A. Vasilyev, J. Schafer, and G. R. Allan, "Qualification of laser diode arrays for mercury laser altimeter," in Proceeding of the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference, G.Pappalardo and A.Amodeo, eds. (ESA, 2004) pp. 215-218.

Amzajerdian, F.

F. Amzajerdian, B. Meadows, N. Baker, R. S. Baggott, U. N. Singh, and M. Kavaya, "Advancement of high power quasi-cw laser diodes arrays for space-based laser instrument," in Enabling Sensor and Platform Technologies for Spaceborne Remote Sensing, G.J.Komar and J.Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE 5659, 157-162 (2005).

Anderson, E.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Anderson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, "The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 73-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Armandillo, E.

Baggott, R. S.

F. Amzajerdian, B. Meadows, N. Baker, R. S. Baggott, U. N. Singh, and M. Kavaya, "Advancement of high power quasi-cw laser diodes arrays for space-based laser instrument," in Enabling Sensor and Platform Technologies for Spaceborne Remote Sensing, G.J.Komar and J.Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE 5659, 157-162 (2005).

Baker, N.

F. Amzajerdian, B. Meadows, N. Baker, R. S. Baggott, U. N. Singh, and M. Kavaya, "Advancement of high power quasi-cw laser diodes arrays for space-based laser instrument," in Enabling Sensor and Platform Technologies for Spaceborne Remote Sensing, G.J.Komar and J.Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE 5659, 157-162 (2005).

Bauman, J.

Bibeau, C.

C. Bibeau, "Mercury diode pumped solid state laser," presented at the 12th High Average Power Laser Program Workshop, Livermore, Calif. 20-21 June 2005.

Cheng, L.

A. K. Chin, Z. Xu, K. Luo, L. Cheng, A. Nelson, and W. Gao, "Reliable, high-power, single-mode GaAlAs/GaAs laser diodes mounted epi-side up," in High-Power Diode Laser Technology and Applications II, M. S. Zediker, ed., Proc. SPIE 5336, 49-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chin, A. K.

A. K. Chin, Z. Xu, K. Luo, L. Cheng, A. Nelson, and W. Gao, "Reliable, high-power, single-mode GaAlAs/GaAs laser diodes mounted epi-side up," in High-Power Diode Laser Technology and Applications II, M. S. Zediker, ed., Proc. SPIE 5336, 49-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Consentino, A.

Coyle, D. B.

Culoma, A.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Anderson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, "The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 73-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Schillinger, D. Morancais, F. Fabre, M. Endemann, and A. Culoma, "ALADIN: the LIDAR instrument for the AEOLUS mission," in Sensor, System and Next Generation Satellites VI, H.Fujisada, J.B.Luire, M.L.Aten, and K.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4881, 40-51 (2003).

Dallas, J. L.

Endemann, M.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Anderson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, "The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 73-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Schillinger, D. Morancais, F. Fabre, M. Endemann, and A. Culoma, "ALADIN: the LIDAR instrument for the AEOLUS mission," in Sensor, System and Next Generation Satellites VI, H.Fujisada, J.B.Luire, M.L.Aten, and K.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4881, 40-51 (2003).

Fabre, F.

M. Schillinger, D. Morancais, F. Fabre, M. Endemann, and A. Culoma, "ALADIN: the LIDAR instrument for the AEOLUS mission," in Sensor, System and Next Generation Satellites VI, H.Fujisada, J.B.Luire, M.L.Aten, and K.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4881, 40-51 (2003).

Flamant, P.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Anderson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, "The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 73-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Flesch, G. J.

Gao, W.

A. K. Chin, Z. Xu, K. Luo, L. Cheng, A. Nelson, and W. Gao, "Reliable, high-power, single-mode GaAlAs/GaAs laser diodes mounted epi-side up," in High-Power Diode Laser Technology and Applications II, M. S. Zediker, ed., Proc. SPIE 5336, 49-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haberle, R.

Heaps, W.

W. Heaps and A. M. Novo-Gradac, "Progress in laser risk reduction for 1 micron lasers at Goddard Space Flight Center," in Proceedings of the Fifth Earth-Sun System Technology Conference (2005), paper B7P2.

Hemberg, R.

Ingmann, P.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Anderson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, "The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 73-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Isaksen, L.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Anderson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, "The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 73-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Källen, E.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Anderson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, "The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 73-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kavaya, M.

F. Amzajerdian, B. Meadows, N. Baker, R. S. Baggott, U. N. Singh, and M. Kavaya, "Advancement of high power quasi-cw laser diodes arrays for space-based laser instrument," in Enabling Sensor and Platform Technologies for Spaceborne Remote Sensing, G.J.Komar and J.Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE 5659, 157-162 (2005).

Kawashima, T.

T. Kawashima, "The HALNA project: diode-pumped solid-state laser for inertial fusion energy," in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Science, FO25.2 (2005) (to be published).

Kay, R. B.

Krebs, D. J.

Laporta, P.

Lassila, E.

Li, S. X.

Lindauer, S. J.

Luo, K.

A. K. Chin, Z. Xu, K. Luo, L. Cheng, A. Nelson, and W. Gao, "Reliable, high-power, single-mode GaAlAs/GaAs laser diodes mounted epi-side up," in High-Power Diode Laser Technology and Applications II, M. S. Zediker, ed., Proc. SPIE 5336, 49-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maine, P.

Mansour, K.

Meadows, B.

F. Amzajerdian, B. Meadows, N. Baker, R. S. Baggott, U. N. Singh, and M. Kavaya, "Advancement of high power quasi-cw laser diodes arrays for space-based laser instrument," in Enabling Sensor and Platform Technologies for Spaceborne Remote Sensing, G.J.Komar and J.Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE 5659, 157-162 (2005).

Meynart, R.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Anderson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, "The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 73-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morancais, D.

M. Schillinger, D. Morancais, F. Fabre, M. Endemann, and A. Culoma, "ALADIN: the LIDAR instrument for the AEOLUS mission," in Sensor, System and Next Generation Satellites VI, H.Fujisada, J.B.Luire, M.L.Aten, and K.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4881, 40-51 (2003).

Nelson, A.

A. K. Chin, Z. Xu, K. Luo, L. Cheng, A. Nelson, and W. Gao, "Reliable, high-power, single-mode GaAlAs/GaAs laser diodes mounted epi-side up," in High-Power Diode Laser Technology and Applications II, M. S. Zediker, ed., Proc. SPIE 5336, 49-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nieuwsma, D. E.

D. E. Nieuwsma and J. Wang, "Design of an advanced diode-pumped solid-state laser for high-altitude airborne operation," in Enabling Sensor and Platform Technologies for Spaceborne Remote Sensing, G. J. Komar and J. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE 5659, 163-170 (2005).

Norrie, C.

Novo-Gradac, A. M.

W. Heaps and A. M. Novo-Gradac, "Progress in laser risk reduction for 1 micron lasers at Goddard Space Flight Center," in Proceedings of the Fifth Earth-Sun System Technology Conference (2005), paper B7P2.

Novo-Gradac, A.-M.

Pailleux, J.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Anderson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, "The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 73-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poulios, D.

Schafer, J.

M. A. Stephen, A. Vasilyev, J. Schafer, and G. R. Allan, "Qualification of laser diode arrays for mercury laser altimeter," in Proceeding of the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference, G.Pappalardo and A.Amodeo, eds. (ESA, 2004) pp. 215-218.

Schillinger, M.

M. Schillinger, D. Morancais, F. Fabre, M. Endemann, and A. Culoma, "ALADIN: the LIDAR instrument for the AEOLUS mission," in Sensor, System and Next Generation Satellites VI, H.Fujisada, J.B.Luire, M.L.Aten, and K.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4881, 40-51 (2003).

Schyberg, H.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Anderson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, "The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 73-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Singh, U. N.

F. Amzajerdian, B. Meadows, N. Baker, R. S. Baggott, U. N. Singh, and M. Kavaya, "Advancement of high power quasi-cw laser diodes arrays for space-based laser instrument," in Enabling Sensor and Platform Technologies for Spaceborne Remote Sensing, G.J.Komar and J.Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE 5659, 157-162 (2005).

Stephen, M. A.

J. L. Dallas, R. S. Afzal, and M. A. Stephen, "Demonstration and characterization of a multibillion-shot, 2.5 mJ, 4 ns, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Opt. 35, 1427-1429 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Stephen, A. Vasilyev, J. Schafer, and G. R. Allan, "Qualification of laser diode arrays for mercury laser altimeter," in Proceeding of the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference, G.Pappalardo and A.Amodeo, eds. (ESA, 2004) pp. 215-218.

Stoffelen, A.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Anderson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, "The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 73-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stysley, P. R.

Vasilyev, A.

M. A. Stephen, A. Vasilyev, J. Schafer, and G. R. Allan, "Qualification of laser diode arrays for mercury laser altimeter," in Proceeding of the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference, G.Pappalardo and A.Amodeo, eds. (ESA, 2004) pp. 215-218.

Vaughan, J. M.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Anderson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, "The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 73-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

D. E. Nieuwsma and J. Wang, "Design of an advanced diode-pumped solid-state laser for high-altitude airborne operation," in Enabling Sensor and Platform Technologies for Spaceborne Remote Sensing, G. J. Komar and J. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE 5659, 163-170 (2005).

Wazen, P.

Webster, C. R.

Wergen, W.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Anderson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, "The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 73-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

A. K. Chin, Z. Xu, K. Luo, L. Cheng, A. Nelson, and W. Gao, "Reliable, high-power, single-mode GaAlAs/GaAs laser diodes mounted epi-side up," in High-Power Diode Laser Technology and Applications II, M. S. Zediker, ed., Proc. SPIE 5336, 49-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, A. W.

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Anderson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, "The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 73-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

A. K. Chin, Z. Xu, K. Luo, L. Cheng, A. Nelson, and W. Gao, "Reliable, high-power, single-mode GaAlAs/GaAs laser diodes mounted epi-side up," in High-Power Diode Laser Technology and Applications II, M. S. Zediker, ed., Proc. SPIE 5336, 49-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. E. Nieuwsma and J. Wang, "Design of an advanced diode-pumped solid-state laser for high-altitude airborne operation," in Enabling Sensor and Platform Technologies for Spaceborne Remote Sensing, G. J. Komar and J. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE 5659, 163-170 (2005).

T. Kawashima, "The HALNA project: diode-pumped solid-state laser for inertial fusion energy," in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Science, FO25.2 (2005) (to be published).

C. Bibeau, "Mercury diode pumped solid state laser," presented at the 12th High Average Power Laser Program Workshop, Livermore, Calif. 20-21 June 2005.

M. Schillinger, D. Morancais, F. Fabre, M. Endemann, and A. Culoma, "ALADIN: the LIDAR instrument for the AEOLUS mission," in Sensor, System and Next Generation Satellites VI, H.Fujisada, J.B.Luire, M.L.Aten, and K.Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4881, 40-51 (2003).

F. Amzajerdian, B. Meadows, N. Baker, R. S. Baggott, U. N. Singh, and M. Kavaya, "Advancement of high power quasi-cw laser diodes arrays for space-based laser instrument," in Enabling Sensor and Platform Technologies for Spaceborne Remote Sensing, G.J.Komar and J.Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE 5659, 157-162 (2005).

W. Heaps and A. M. Novo-Gradac, "Progress in laser risk reduction for 1 micron lasers at Goddard Space Flight Center," in Proceedings of the Fifth Earth-Sun System Technology Conference (2005), paper B7P2.

M. A. Stephen, A. Vasilyev, J. Schafer, and G. R. Allan, "Qualification of laser diode arrays for mercury laser altimeter," in Proceeding of the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference, G.Pappalardo and A.Amodeo, eds. (ESA, 2004) pp. 215-218.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Current evolution of the autostacks necessary to reach the nominal output power of 500 W. HT, high temperature; HC, high current.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Case temperature and relative output power evolution of a stack running in burst mode. Discontinuities as marked by the arrows are due to the repositioning of the stack after electro-optic measurements are performed. The noise on the curve is related to the data acquisition system, which is not synchronized with the burst mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Current evolution of the stacks necessary to reach the nominal output power of 1000 W. HT, high temperature; HC, high current.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Threshold current evolution of the stacks. HT, high temperature; HC, high current.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Near-field picture of a stack after 5500 h of endurance tests in nominal mode.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Evolution of the fraction of active emitters (FAE) on the 12 bars of a stack running in burst mode.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Evolution of the electro-optic parameters (wavelength, FWHM, and threshold current) of the stack before, through, and after the radiation tests. The stack was not blased during radiation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Lognormal distribution of the EOL of the bars grouped by endurance conditions. The dotted line marks off the three-year lifetime objective of the mission.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Evolution of the FAE per bar for the two stacks running in nominal mode (stack 8931 top, stack 7530 bottom).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 High-Power Laser Diode Array Specifications

Equations (58)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

3 × 10 9
0.36 × 10 9
43   Hz
5 × 10 9
115   μm × 1   μm
140   μm
82%
600   μm
500   W
1000   W
1 × 10 9
25 ° C
0.1   ° C
19   ° C
50%
600   mm
300   mm
10 8   mbars
20   ° C
140%
50%
10 9
18%
7%
0 .5   nm
2 × 10 9
20 %
( 1000   W )
3 × 10 9
10 %
1.3 × 10 9
0.5   nm
1 .6   nm
10%
10   μg
2 × 10 7
0.15   nm
11 .5 × 10 6 eV / bar
6 × 10 3   nm
2 .4%
13%
56%
3 .25%
1 .2%
5%
1 .45%
60   MeV
2 .1 × 10 10 p / cm 2
400   km
6 × 10 5
5 × 10 5   h
2 × 10 11
8.5 × 10 10
15,000   h
80%
3 × 10 9
9 × 10 9
5 × 10 9

Metrics