Abstract

The requirements for optical components have drastically increased for the deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions. Low optical loss, high laser damage threshold, and long lifetime fluoride optics are required for microlithographic applications. A nondestructive quasi-Brewster angle technique (qBAT) has been developed for evaluating the quality of optical surfaces including both top surface and subsurface information. By using effective medium approximation, the negative quasi-Brewster angle shift at wavelengths longer than 200  nm has been used to model the distribution of subsurface damage, whereas the positive quasi-Brewster angle shift for wavelengths shorter than 200   nm has been explained by subsurface contamination. The top surface roughness depicted by the qBAT is consistent with atomic force microscopy measurements. The depth and the microporous structure of the subsurface damage measured by the qBAT has been confirmed by magnetorheological finishing. The technique has been extended to evaluate both polished and antireflection-coated CaF2 components.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. V. Peski, and K. Orvek, "Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273-3279 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2003), Chap. 1.
  3. S. Gliech, J. Steinert, and A. Duparré, "Light-scattering measurements of optical thin-film components at 157 and 193 nm," Appl. Opt. 41, 3224-3235 (2002).
  4. H. H. Karow, Fabrication Method for Precision Optics (Wiley, 1993), Chap. 5.
  5. I. Zarudi and L. Zhang, "Subsurface damage in single-crystal silicon due to grind and polishing," J. Mater. Sci. 15, 586-587 (1996).
  6. M. G. Schinker, "Subsurface damage mechanisms at high-speed ductile machining of optical glasses," Precis. Eng. 13, 208-218 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, B. Gillman, F. Yang, and J. Ruckman, "Subsurface damage in microgrinding optical glasses," Ceram. Trans. 82, 469-474 (1998).
  8. T. Shibata, A. Ono, K. Kurihara, E. Makino, and M. Ikeda, "Cross-section transmission electron microscope observation of diamond-turned single-crystal Si surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2553-2555 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Sankaranarayanan, R. R. Sumathi, M. Udhayasankar, P. Jayavel, and J. Kumar, "A new etchant to reveal the subsurface damage on polished gallium arsenide substrates," J. Cryst. Growth 178, 229-232 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Ogita, K. Kobayashi, and H. Daio, "Photoconductivity characterization of silicon wafer mirror-polishing subsurface damage related to gate oxide integrity," J. Cryst. Growth 210, 36-39 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Lambropoulos, B. E. Gillman, Y. Zhou, S. D. Jacobs, and H. J. Stevens, "Deterministic microgrinding, lapping, and polishing," in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE 3134, 178-189 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. U. Bismayer, E. Brinksmeier, B. Güttle, H. Seibt, and C. Menz, "Measurement of subsurface damage in silicon wafers," Precis. Eng. 16, 139-144 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. A. Lucca, C. J. Wetteland, A. Misra, M. J. Klopfstein, M. Nastasi, C. J. Maggiore, and J. R. Tesmer, "Assessment of substrate damage in polished II-VI semiconductors by ion channeling," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 219-220, 611-617 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. A. Randi, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. D. Jacobs, "Subsurface damage in single crystalline optical materials," Appl. Opt. 44, 2241-2249 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Stenzel, S. Gogoll, J. Sils, M. Huisinga, H. Johansen, G. Kastner, M. Reichling, and E. Matthias, "Laser damage of alkaline-earth fluorides at 248 nm and the influence of polishing grades," Appl. Sur. Sci. 109-110, 162-167 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Thielsch, J. Heber, A. Duparre, N. Kaiser, K. R. Mann, and E. Eva, "ArF radiation resistance of optical coatings on CaF2 in relation to the surface finish of the substrate," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 97-104 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, N. N. Efremow, J. H. C. Sedlacek, and A. Greniville, "Accelerated damage to blank and antireflectance-coated CaF2 surface under 157-nm laser irradiation," in Optical Microlithography XVI, A. Yen, ed., Proc. SPIE 5040, 1631-1638 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. G. Schhmann, "Quality of optical components and systems for laser applications," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials; 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 672-680 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Dijon, E. Quesnel, C. Pellé, and R. Thielsch, "Laser damage of optical coatings from UV to deep UV at 193 nm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 45-53 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Wang, R. L. Maier, and J. H. Burning, "Surface characterization of optically polished CaF2 crystal by quasi-Brewster angle technique," in Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies, A. Duparré and B. Singh, eds. Proc. SPIE 5188, 106-114 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Wang and R. L. Maier, "Quasi-Brewster angle technique for evaluating the quality of optical surfaces," in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XVIII, R. M. Silver, ed., Proc. SPIE 5375, 1286-1294 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2001), Chap. 2.
  23. A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Choi, S. Ghosh, J. Lim, and C. M. Lee, "Removal efficiency of organic contaminations on Si wafer by dry cleaning using UV/O3 and ECR plasma," Appl. Sur. Sci. 206, 355-364 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. B. Shorey, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, and R. F. Gans, "Experiments and observations regarding the mechanisms of glass removal in magnetorheological finishing," Appl. Opt. 40, 20-33 (2001).
  27. V. Denks, T. Savikihina, and V. Nagirnyi, "Dependence of luminescence processes and transmission in vacuum-ultraviolet region on surface condition in CaF2 single crystals," Appl. Sur. Sci. 158, 301-309 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glass (Elsevier, 1984), Chap. 4.

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

D. A. Lucca, C. J. Wetteland, A. Misra, M. J. Klopfstein, M. Nastasi, C. J. Maggiore, and J. R. Tesmer, "Assessment of substrate damage in polished II-VI semiconductors by ion channeling," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 219-220, 611-617 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and R. L. Maier, "Quasi-Brewster angle technique for evaluating the quality of optical surfaces," in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XVIII, R. M. Silver, ed., Proc. SPIE 5375, 1286-1294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

K. Choi, S. Ghosh, J. Lim, and C. M. Lee, "Removal efficiency of organic contaminations on Si wafer by dry cleaning using UV/O3 and ECR plasma," Appl. Sur. Sci. 206, 355-364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, N. N. Efremow, J. H. C. Sedlacek, and A. Greniville, "Accelerated damage to blank and antireflectance-coated CaF2 surface under 157-nm laser irradiation," in Optical Microlithography XVI, A. Yen, ed., Proc. SPIE 5040, 1631-1638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, R. L. Maier, and J. H. Burning, "Surface characterization of optically polished CaF2 crystal by quasi-Brewster angle technique," in Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies, A. Duparré and B. Singh, eds. Proc. SPIE 5188, 106-114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

A. B. Shorey, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, and R. F. Gans, "Experiments and observations regarding the mechanisms of glass removal in magnetorheological finishing," Appl. Opt. 40, 20-33 (2001).

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

Y. Ogita, K. Kobayashi, and H. Daio, "Photoconductivity characterization of silicon wafer mirror-polishing subsurface damage related to gate oxide integrity," J. Cryst. Growth 210, 36-39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Denks, T. Savikihina, and V. Nagirnyi, "Dependence of luminescence processes and transmission in vacuum-ultraviolet region on surface condition in CaF2 single crystals," Appl. Sur. Sci. 158, 301-309 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. V. Peski, and K. Orvek, "Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273-3279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Schhmann, "Quality of optical components and systems for laser applications," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials; 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 672-680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dijon, E. Quesnel, C. Pellé, and R. Thielsch, "Laser damage of optical coatings from UV to deep UV at 193 nm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 45-53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, A. Duparre, N. Kaiser, K. R. Mann, and E. Eva, "ArF radiation resistance of optical coatings on CaF2 in relation to the surface finish of the substrate," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 97-104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. Lambropoulos, B. E. Gillman, Y. Zhou, S. D. Jacobs, and H. J. Stevens, "Deterministic microgrinding, lapping, and polishing," in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE 3134, 178-189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, B. Gillman, F. Yang, and J. Ruckman, "Subsurface damage in microgrinding optical glasses," Ceram. Trans. 82, 469-474 (1998).

1997 (2)

E. Stenzel, S. Gogoll, J. Sils, M. Huisinga, H. Johansen, G. Kastner, M. Reichling, and E. Matthias, "Laser damage of alkaline-earth fluorides at 248 nm and the influence of polishing grades," Appl. Sur. Sci. 109-110, 162-167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Sankaranarayanan, R. R. Sumathi, M. Udhayasankar, P. Jayavel, and J. Kumar, "A new etchant to reveal the subsurface damage on polished gallium arsenide substrates," J. Cryst. Growth 178, 229-232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

I. Zarudi and L. Zhang, "Subsurface damage in single-crystal silicon due to grind and polishing," J. Mater. Sci. 15, 586-587 (1996).

1994 (2)

T. Shibata, A. Ono, K. Kurihara, E. Makino, and M. Ikeda, "Cross-section transmission electron microscope observation of diamond-turned single-crystal Si surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2553-2555 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Bismayer, E. Brinksmeier, B. Güttle, H. Seibt, and C. Menz, "Measurement of subsurface damage in silicon wafers," Precis. Eng. 16, 139-144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. G. Schinker, "Subsurface damage mechanisms at high-speed ductile machining of optical glasses," Precis. Eng. 13, 208-218 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bates, A. K.

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. V. Peski, and K. Orvek, "Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273-3279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bismayer, U.

U. Bismayer, E. Brinksmeier, B. Güttle, H. Seibt, and C. Menz, "Measurement of subsurface damage in silicon wafers," Precis. Eng. 16, 139-144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bloomstein, T. M.

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. V. Peski, and K. Orvek, "Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273-3279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brinksmeier, E.

U. Bismayer, E. Brinksmeier, B. Güttle, H. Seibt, and C. Menz, "Measurement of subsurface damage in silicon wafers," Precis. Eng. 16, 139-144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bungay, C. L.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burning, J. H.

J. Wang, R. L. Maier, and J. H. Burning, "Surface characterization of optically polished CaF2 crystal by quasi-Brewster angle technique," in Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies, A. Duparré and B. Singh, eds. Proc. SPIE 5188, 106-114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K.

K. Choi, S. Ghosh, J. Lim, and C. M. Lee, "Removal efficiency of organic contaminations on Si wafer by dry cleaning using UV/O3 and ECR plasma," Appl. Sur. Sci. 206, 355-364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Daio, H.

Y. Ogita, K. Kobayashi, and H. Daio, "Photoconductivity characterization of silicon wafer mirror-polishing subsurface damage related to gate oxide integrity," J. Cryst. Growth 210, 36-39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Denks, V.

V. Denks, T. Savikihina, and V. Nagirnyi, "Dependence of luminescence processes and transmission in vacuum-ultraviolet region on surface condition in CaF2 single crystals," Appl. Sur. Sci. 158, 301-309 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dijon, J.

J. Dijon, E. Quesnel, C. Pellé, and R. Thielsch, "Laser damage of optical coatings from UV to deep UV at 193 nm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 45-53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duparre, A.

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, A. Duparre, N. Kaiser, K. R. Mann, and E. Eva, "ArF radiation resistance of optical coatings on CaF2 in relation to the surface finish of the substrate," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 97-104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duparré, A.

S. Gliech, J. Steinert, and A. Duparré, "Light-scattering measurements of optical thin-film components at 157 and 193 nm," Appl. Opt. 41, 3224-3235 (2002).

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Efremow, N. N.

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, N. N. Efremow, J. H. C. Sedlacek, and A. Greniville, "Accelerated damage to blank and antireflectance-coated CaF2 surface under 157-nm laser irradiation," in Optical Microlithography XVI, A. Yen, ed., Proc. SPIE 5040, 1631-1638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eva, E.

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, A. Duparre, N. Kaiser, K. R. Mann, and E. Eva, "ArF radiation resistance of optical coatings on CaF2 in relation to the surface finish of the substrate," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 97-104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gans, R. F.

Ghosh, S.

K. Choi, S. Ghosh, J. Lim, and C. M. Lee, "Removal efficiency of organic contaminations on Si wafer by dry cleaning using UV/O3 and ECR plasma," Appl. Sur. Sci. 206, 355-364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gillman, B.

J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, B. Gillman, F. Yang, and J. Ruckman, "Subsurface damage in microgrinding optical glasses," Ceram. Trans. 82, 469-474 (1998).

Gillman, B. E.

J. Lambropoulos, B. E. Gillman, Y. Zhou, S. D. Jacobs, and H. J. Stevens, "Deterministic microgrinding, lapping, and polishing," in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE 3134, 178-189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gliech, S.

Gogoll, S.

E. Stenzel, S. Gogoll, J. Sils, M. Huisinga, H. Johansen, G. Kastner, M. Reichling, and E. Matthias, "Laser damage of alkaline-earth fluorides at 248 nm and the influence of polishing grades," Appl. Sur. Sci. 109-110, 162-167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Greniville, A.

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, N. N. Efremow, J. H. C. Sedlacek, and A. Greniville, "Accelerated damage to blank and antireflectance-coated CaF2 surface under 157-nm laser irradiation," in Optical Microlithography XVI, A. Yen, ed., Proc. SPIE 5040, 1631-1638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Güttle, B.

U. Bismayer, E. Brinksmeier, B. Güttle, H. Seibt, and C. Menz, "Measurement of subsurface damage in silicon wafers," Precis. Eng. 16, 139-144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heber, J.

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, A. Duparre, N. Kaiser, K. R. Mann, and E. Eva, "ArF radiation resistance of optical coatings on CaF2 in relation to the surface finish of the substrate," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 97-104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herzinger, C. M.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hilfiker, J. N.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huisinga, M.

E. Stenzel, S. Gogoll, J. Sils, M. Huisinga, H. Johansen, G. Kastner, M. Reichling, and E. Matthias, "Laser damage of alkaline-earth fluorides at 248 nm and the influence of polishing grades," Appl. Sur. Sci. 109-110, 162-167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

T. Shibata, A. Ono, K. Kurihara, E. Makino, and M. Ikeda, "Cross-section transmission electron microscope observation of diamond-turned single-crystal Si surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2553-2555 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, S. D.

J. A. Randi, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. D. Jacobs, "Subsurface damage in single crystalline optical materials," Appl. Opt. 44, 2241-2249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Shorey, S. D. Jacobs, W. I. Kordonski, and R. F. Gans, "Experiments and observations regarding the mechanisms of glass removal in magnetorheological finishing," Appl. Opt. 40, 20-33 (2001).

J. Lambropoulos, B. E. Gillman, Y. Zhou, S. D. Jacobs, and H. J. Stevens, "Deterministic microgrinding, lapping, and polishing," in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE 3134, 178-189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, B. Gillman, F. Yang, and J. Ruckman, "Subsurface damage in microgrinding optical glasses," Ceram. Trans. 82, 469-474 (1998).

Jayavel, P.

K. Sankaranarayanan, R. R. Sumathi, M. Udhayasankar, P. Jayavel, and J. Kumar, "A new etchant to reveal the subsurface damage on polished gallium arsenide substrates," J. Cryst. Growth 178, 229-232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johansen, H.

E. Stenzel, S. Gogoll, J. Sils, M. Huisinga, H. Johansen, G. Kastner, M. Reichling, and E. Matthias, "Laser damage of alkaline-earth fluorides at 248 nm and the influence of polishing grades," Appl. Sur. Sci. 109-110, 162-167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

John, B.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, A. Duparre, N. Kaiser, K. R. Mann, and E. Eva, "ArF radiation resistance of optical coatings on CaF2 in relation to the surface finish of the substrate," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 97-104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karow, H. H.

H. H. Karow, Fabrication Method for Precision Optics (Wiley, 1993), Chap. 5.

Kastner, G.

E. Stenzel, S. Gogoll, J. Sils, M. Huisinga, H. Johansen, G. Kastner, M. Reichling, and E. Matthias, "Laser damage of alkaline-earth fluorides at 248 nm and the influence of polishing grades," Appl. Sur. Sci. 109-110, 162-167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klopfstein, M. J.

D. A. Lucca, C. J. Wetteland, A. Misra, M. J. Klopfstein, M. Nastasi, C. J. Maggiore, and J. R. Tesmer, "Assessment of substrate damage in polished II-VI semiconductors by ion channeling," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 219-220, 611-617 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

Y. Ogita, K. Kobayashi, and H. Daio, "Photoconductivity characterization of silicon wafer mirror-polishing subsurface damage related to gate oxide integrity," J. Cryst. Growth 210, 36-39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kordonski, W. I.

Krasilnikova, A. V.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

K. Sankaranarayanan, R. R. Sumathi, M. Udhayasankar, P. Jayavel, and J. Kumar, "A new etchant to reveal the subsurface damage on polished gallium arsenide substrates," J. Cryst. Growth 178, 229-232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kurihara, K.

T. Shibata, A. Ono, K. Kurihara, E. Makino, and M. Ikeda, "Cross-section transmission electron microscope observation of diamond-turned single-crystal Si surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2553-2555 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lambropoulos, J.

J. Lambropoulos, B. E. Gillman, Y. Zhou, S. D. Jacobs, and H. J. Stevens, "Deterministic microgrinding, lapping, and polishing," in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE 3134, 178-189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lambropoulos, J. C.

J. A. Randi, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. D. Jacobs, "Subsurface damage in single crystalline optical materials," Appl. Opt. 44, 2241-2249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, B. Gillman, F. Yang, and J. Ruckman, "Subsurface damage in microgrinding optical glasses," Ceram. Trans. 82, 469-474 (1998).

Lee, C. M.

K. Choi, S. Ghosh, J. Lim, and C. M. Lee, "Removal efficiency of organic contaminations on Si wafer by dry cleaning using UV/O3 and ECR plasma," Appl. Sur. Sci. 206, 355-364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liberman, V.

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, N. N. Efremow, J. H. C. Sedlacek, and A. Greniville, "Accelerated damage to blank and antireflectance-coated CaF2 surface under 157-nm laser irradiation," in Optical Microlithography XVI, A. Yen, ed., Proc. SPIE 5040, 1631-1638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. V. Peski, and K. Orvek, "Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273-3279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J.

K. Choi, S. Ghosh, J. Lim, and C. M. Lee, "Removal efficiency of organic contaminations on Si wafer by dry cleaning using UV/O3 and ECR plasma," Appl. Sur. Sci. 206, 355-364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lucca, D. A.

D. A. Lucca, C. J. Wetteland, A. Misra, M. J. Klopfstein, M. Nastasi, C. J. Maggiore, and J. R. Tesmer, "Assessment of substrate damage in polished II-VI semiconductors by ion channeling," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 219-220, 611-617 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, A.

A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2001), Chap. 2.

Maggiore, C. J.

D. A. Lucca, C. J. Wetteland, A. Misra, M. J. Klopfstein, M. Nastasi, C. J. Maggiore, and J. R. Tesmer, "Assessment of substrate damage in polished II-VI semiconductors by ion channeling," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 219-220, 611-617 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maier, R. L.

J. Wang and R. L. Maier, "Quasi-Brewster angle technique for evaluating the quality of optical surfaces," in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XVIII, R. M. Silver, ed., Proc. SPIE 5375, 1286-1294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, R. L. Maier, and J. H. Burning, "Surface characterization of optically polished CaF2 crystal by quasi-Brewster angle technique," in Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies, A. Duparré and B. Singh, eds. Proc. SPIE 5188, 106-114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Makino, E.

T. Shibata, A. Ono, K. Kurihara, E. Makino, and M. Ikeda, "Cross-section transmission electron microscope observation of diamond-turned single-crystal Si surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2553-2555 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mann, K. R.

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, A. Duparre, N. Kaiser, K. R. Mann, and E. Eva, "ArF radiation resistance of optical coatings on CaF2 in relation to the surface finish of the substrate," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 97-104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Masetti, E.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, E.

E. Stenzel, S. Gogoll, J. Sils, M. Huisinga, H. Johansen, G. Kastner, M. Reichling, and E. Matthias, "Laser damage of alkaline-earth fluorides at 248 nm and the influence of polishing grades," Appl. Sur. Sci. 109-110, 162-167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Menz, C.

U. Bismayer, E. Brinksmeier, B. Güttle, H. Seibt, and C. Menz, "Measurement of subsurface damage in silicon wafers," Precis. Eng. 16, 139-144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Misra, A.

D. A. Lucca, C. J. Wetteland, A. Misra, M. J. Klopfstein, M. Nastasi, C. J. Maggiore, and J. R. Tesmer, "Assessment of substrate damage in polished II-VI semiconductors by ion channeling," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 219-220, 611-617 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nagirnyi, V.

V. Denks, T. Savikihina, and V. Nagirnyi, "Dependence of luminescence processes and transmission in vacuum-ultraviolet region on surface condition in CaF2 single crystals," Appl. Sur. Sci. 158, 301-309 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nastasi, M.

D. A. Lucca, C. J. Wetteland, A. Misra, M. J. Klopfstein, M. Nastasi, C. J. Maggiore, and J. R. Tesmer, "Assessment of substrate damage in polished II-VI semiconductors by ion channeling," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 219-220, 611-617 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ogita, Y.

Y. Ogita, K. Kobayashi, and H. Daio, "Photoconductivity characterization of silicon wafer mirror-polishing subsurface damage related to gate oxide integrity," J. Cryst. Growth 210, 36-39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ono, A.

T. Shibata, A. Ono, K. Kurihara, E. Makino, and M. Ikeda, "Cross-section transmission electron microscope observation of diamond-turned single-crystal Si surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2553-2555 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Orvek, K.

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. V. Peski, and K. Orvek, "Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273-3279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Palmacci, S. T.

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, N. N. Efremow, J. H. C. Sedlacek, and A. Greniville, "Accelerated damage to blank and antireflectance-coated CaF2 surface under 157-nm laser irradiation," in Optical Microlithography XVI, A. Yen, ed., Proc. SPIE 5040, 1631-1638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pellé, C.

J. Dijon, E. Quesnel, C. Pellé, and R. Thielsch, "Laser damage of optical coatings from UV to deep UV at 193 nm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 45-53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peski, C. V.

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. V. Peski, and K. Orvek, "Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273-3279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pribil, G. K.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H. K.

H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glass (Elsevier, 1984), Chap. 4.

Quesnel, E.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Dijon, E. Quesnel, C. Pellé, and R. Thielsch, "Laser damage of optical coatings from UV to deep UV at 193 nm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 45-53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Randi, J. A.

Reichling, M.

E. Stenzel, S. Gogoll, J. Sils, M. Huisinga, H. Johansen, G. Kastner, M. Reichling, and E. Matthias, "Laser damage of alkaline-earth fluorides at 248 nm and the influence of polishing grades," Appl. Sur. Sci. 109-110, 162-167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rothschild, M.

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, N. N. Efremow, J. H. C. Sedlacek, and A. Greniville, "Accelerated damage to blank and antireflectance-coated CaF2 surface under 157-nm laser irradiation," in Optical Microlithography XVI, A. Yen, ed., Proc. SPIE 5040, 1631-1638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. V. Peski, and K. Orvek, "Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273-3279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruckman, J.

J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, B. Gillman, F. Yang, and J. Ruckman, "Subsurface damage in microgrinding optical glasses," Ceram. Trans. 82, 469-474 (1998).

Sankaranarayanan, K.

K. Sankaranarayanan, R. R. Sumathi, M. Udhayasankar, P. Jayavel, and J. Kumar, "A new etchant to reveal the subsurface damage on polished gallium arsenide substrates," J. Cryst. Growth 178, 229-232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Savikihina, T.

V. Denks, T. Savikihina, and V. Nagirnyi, "Dependence of luminescence processes and transmission in vacuum-ultraviolet region on surface condition in CaF2 single crystals," Appl. Sur. Sci. 158, 301-309 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schhmann, R. G.

R. G. Schhmann, "Quality of optical components and systems for laser applications," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials; 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 672-680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schinker, M. G.

M. G. Schinker, "Subsurface damage mechanisms at high-speed ductile machining of optical glasses," Precis. Eng. 13, 208-218 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sedlacek, J. H. C.

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, N. N. Efremow, J. H. C. Sedlacek, and A. Greniville, "Accelerated damage to blank and antireflectance-coated CaF2 surface under 157-nm laser irradiation," in Optical Microlithography XVI, A. Yen, ed., Proc. SPIE 5040, 1631-1638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. V. Peski, and K. Orvek, "Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273-3279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seibt, H.

U. Bismayer, E. Brinksmeier, B. Güttle, H. Seibt, and C. Menz, "Measurement of subsurface damage in silicon wafers," Precis. Eng. 16, 139-144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

T. Shibata, A. Ono, K. Kurihara, E. Makino, and M. Ikeda, "Cross-section transmission electron microscope observation of diamond-turned single-crystal Si surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2553-2555 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shorey, A. B.

Sils, J.

E. Stenzel, S. Gogoll, J. Sils, M. Huisinga, H. Johansen, G. Kastner, M. Reichling, and E. Matthias, "Laser damage of alkaline-earth fluorides at 248 nm and the influence of polishing grades," Appl. Sur. Sci. 109-110, 162-167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Steinert, J.

Stenzel, E.

E. Stenzel, S. Gogoll, J. Sils, M. Huisinga, H. Johansen, G. Kastner, M. Reichling, and E. Matthias, "Laser damage of alkaline-earth fluorides at 248 nm and the influence of polishing grades," Appl. Sur. Sci. 109-110, 162-167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, H. J.

J. Lambropoulos, B. E. Gillman, Y. Zhou, S. D. Jacobs, and H. J. Stevens, "Deterministic microgrinding, lapping, and polishing," in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE 3134, 178-189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sumathi, R. R.

K. Sankaranarayanan, R. R. Sumathi, M. Udhayasankar, P. Jayavel, and J. Kumar, "A new etchant to reveal the subsurface damage on polished gallium arsenide substrates," J. Cryst. Growth 178, 229-232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Synowicki, R. A.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tesmer, J. R.

D. A. Lucca, C. J. Wetteland, A. Misra, M. J. Klopfstein, M. Nastasi, C. J. Maggiore, and J. R. Tesmer, "Assessment of substrate damage in polished II-VI semiconductors by ion channeling," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 219-220, 611-617 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thielsch, R.

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, A. Duparre, N. Kaiser, K. R. Mann, and E. Eva, "ArF radiation resistance of optical coatings on CaF2 in relation to the surface finish of the substrate," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 97-104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dijon, E. Quesnel, C. Pellé, and R. Thielsch, "Laser damage of optical coatings from UV to deep UV at 193 nm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 45-53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonravov, A. V.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tiwald, T. E.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trubetskov, M. K.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Udhayasankar, M.

K. Sankaranarayanan, R. R. Sumathi, M. Udhayasankar, P. Jayavel, and J. Kumar, "A new etchant to reveal the subsurface damage on polished gallium arsenide substrates," J. Cryst. Growth 178, 229-232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Uttaro, R. S.

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. V. Peski, and K. Orvek, "Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273-3279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang and R. L. Maier, "Quasi-Brewster angle technique for evaluating the quality of optical surfaces," in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XVIII, R. M. Silver, ed., Proc. SPIE 5375, 1286-1294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, R. L. Maier, and J. H. Burning, "Surface characterization of optically polished CaF2 crystal by quasi-Brewster angle technique," in Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies, A. Duparré and B. Singh, eds. Proc. SPIE 5188, 106-114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2003), Chap. 1.

Wetteland, C. J.

D. A. Lucca, C. J. Wetteland, A. Misra, M. J. Klopfstein, M. Nastasi, C. J. Maggiore, and J. R. Tesmer, "Assessment of substrate damage in polished II-VI semiconductors by ion channeling," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 219-220, 611-617 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Woollam, J. A.

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, B. Gillman, F. Yang, and J. Ruckman, "Subsurface damage in microgrinding optical glasses," Ceram. Trans. 82, 469-474 (1998).

Zarudi, I.

I. Zarudi and L. Zhang, "Subsurface damage in single-crystal silicon due to grind and polishing," J. Mater. Sci. 15, 586-587 (1996).

Zhang, L.

I. Zarudi and L. Zhang, "Subsurface damage in single-crystal silicon due to grind and polishing," J. Mater. Sci. 15, 586-587 (1996).

Zhou, Y.

J. Lambropoulos, B. E. Gillman, Y. Zhou, S. D. Jacobs, and H. J. Stevens, "Deterministic microgrinding, lapping, and polishing," in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE 3134, 178-189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Shibata, A. Ono, K. Kurihara, E. Makino, and M. Ikeda, "Cross-section transmission electron microscope observation of diamond-turned single-crystal Si surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2553-2555 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Sur. Sci. (3)

E. Stenzel, S. Gogoll, J. Sils, M. Huisinga, H. Johansen, G. Kastner, M. Reichling, and E. Matthias, "Laser damage of alkaline-earth fluorides at 248 nm and the influence of polishing grades," Appl. Sur. Sci. 109-110, 162-167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Denks, T. Savikihina, and V. Nagirnyi, "Dependence of luminescence processes and transmission in vacuum-ultraviolet region on surface condition in CaF2 single crystals," Appl. Sur. Sci. 158, 301-309 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Choi, S. Ghosh, J. Lim, and C. M. Lee, "Removal efficiency of organic contaminations on Si wafer by dry cleaning using UV/O3 and ECR plasma," Appl. Sur. Sci. 206, 355-364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ceram. Trans. (1)

J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, B. Gillman, F. Yang, and J. Ruckman, "Subsurface damage in microgrinding optical glasses," Ceram. Trans. 82, 469-474 (1998).

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

K. Sankaranarayanan, R. R. Sumathi, M. Udhayasankar, P. Jayavel, and J. Kumar, "A new etchant to reveal the subsurface damage on polished gallium arsenide substrates," J. Cryst. Growth 178, 229-232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ogita, K. Kobayashi, and H. Daio, "Photoconductivity characterization of silicon wafer mirror-polishing subsurface damage related to gate oxide integrity," J. Cryst. Growth 210, 36-39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

I. Zarudi and L. Zhang, "Subsurface damage in single-crystal silicon due to grind and polishing," J. Mater. Sci. 15, 586-587 (1996).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

J. N. Hilfiker, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, T. E. Tiwald, C. M. Herzinger, B. John, G. K. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam, "Progress in spectroscopic ellipsometry: Applications from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1103-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. V. Peski, and K. Orvek, "Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273-3279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

D. A. Lucca, C. J. Wetteland, A. Misra, M. J. Klopfstein, M. Nastasi, C. J. Maggiore, and J. R. Tesmer, "Assessment of substrate damage in polished II-VI semiconductors by ion channeling," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 219-220, 611-617 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Precis. Eng. (2)

M. G. Schinker, "Subsurface damage mechanisms at high-speed ductile machining of optical glasses," Precis. Eng. 13, 208-218 (1991).
[CrossRef]

U. Bismayer, E. Brinksmeier, B. Güttle, H. Seibt, and C. Menz, "Measurement of subsurface damage in silicon wafers," Precis. Eng. 16, 139-144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (7)

J. Lambropoulos, B. E. Gillman, Y. Zhou, S. D. Jacobs, and H. J. Stevens, "Deterministic microgrinding, lapping, and polishing," in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE 3134, 178-189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Thielsch, J. Heber, A. Duparre, N. Kaiser, K. R. Mann, and E. Eva, "ArF radiation resistance of optical coatings on CaF2 in relation to the surface finish of the substrate," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 97-104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Liberman, M. Rothschild, S. T. Palmacci, N. N. Efremow, J. H. C. Sedlacek, and A. Greniville, "Accelerated damage to blank and antireflectance-coated CaF2 surface under 157-nm laser irradiation," in Optical Microlithography XVI, A. Yen, ed., Proc. SPIE 5040, 1631-1638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Schhmann, "Quality of optical components and systems for laser applications," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials; 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 672-680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dijon, E. Quesnel, C. Pellé, and R. Thielsch, "Laser damage of optical coatings from UV to deep UV at 193 nm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3578, 45-53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, R. L. Maier, and J. H. Burning, "Surface characterization of optically polished CaF2 crystal by quasi-Brewster angle technique," in Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies, A. Duparré and B. Singh, eds. Proc. SPIE 5188, 106-114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and R. L. Maier, "Quasi-Brewster angle technique for evaluating the quality of optical surfaces," in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XVIII, R. M. Silver, ed., Proc. SPIE 5375, 1286-1294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Krasilnikova, E. Masetti, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, "Investigation of the surface micro-roughness of fluoride films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 397, 229-237 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glass (Elsevier, 1984), Chap. 4.

A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2001), Chap. 2.

M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2003), Chap. 1.

H. H. Karow, Fabrication Method for Precision Optics (Wiley, 1993), Chap. 5.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Phase change of p polarization as a function of angle of incidence near the Brewster angle at wavelengths of 157 and 1000 nm for CaF2 with TSR = 0 nm and TSR = 0.2 nm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of TSR determined by qBAT and rms and Ra measured by AFM on various CaF2 surfaces.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured qBAS as a function of wavelength on optically polished and cleaved CaF2 (111) surfaces.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evaluating results of an optically polished CaF2 (111) surface by the qBAT.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Evolution of surface roughness rms measured by AFM with scan areas of 5 μm × 5 μm after MRF reveals the subsurface character of an optically polished CaF2 (111).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

qBAS as a function of the quarter wavelength optical thickness (QWOT) of the absorbing subsurface layer on transparent CaF2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured qBAS as a function of UVO cleaning time on CaF2 at 157, 193, and 248 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured ellipsometric data of components #D and #U as a function of wavelength at the angle of incidence of 45°.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

AFM images of components #D (left), #U (middle), and an uncoated CaF2 (111) (right) with a surface rms of 0.86, 0.89, and 0.25 nm, respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured quasi-Brewster angle for components #D and #U at 700 nm, along with the predicted quasi-Brewster angle of a component without SSD.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured quasi-Brewster angle for components #D and #U at 157 nm, along with the predicted quasi-Brewster angle of a component without SSD.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 qBAT Evaluation of an Optically Polished CaF2 (111) Surface Before and After Ultrasonic Cleaning

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

tan θ b = n b n o ,
δ θ qb = θ qb θ b .
( n o cos θ qb n b cos θ b ) 2 cos 2 β s + ( n o n b cos θ s n s cos θ qb cos θ b n s cos θ s ) 2 sin 2 β s = 0 ,
f n o 2 n s 2 n o 2 + 2 n s 2 + ( 1 f ) n b 2 n s 2 n b 2 + 2 n s 2 = 0 ,
n s s = n b + 3 2 δ θ qb .
n s s = n b 1 ( 5 / 6 ) δ θ qb .

Metrics