Abstract

Imaging polarimetry has emerged over the past three decades as a powerful tool to enhance the information available in a variety of remote sensing applications. We discuss the foundations of passive imaging polarimetry, the phenomenological reasons for designing a polarimetric sensor, and the primary architectures that have been exploited for developing imaging polarimeters. Considerations on imaging polarimeters such as calibration, optimization, and error performance are also discussed. We review many important sources and examples from the scientific literature.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006

2005

J. S. Harchanko, D. B. Chenault, C. F. Farlow, and K. Spradley, "Detecting a surface swimmer using long wave infrared imaging polarimetry," in Photonics for Port and Harbor Security, M. J. DeWeert and T. T. Saito, eds., Proc. SPIE 5780 (2005).

J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," in Polarization Science and Remote Sensing II, J. A. Shaw and J. S. Tyo, eds., Proc. SPIE 5888 (2005).

2004

N. Hagan, A. Locke, D. Sabatke, E. Dereniak, and D. Sass, "Methods and applications of snapshot spectropolarimetry," in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing VII, D. H. Goldstein and D. Chenault, eds., Proc SPIE 5432, 167-174 (2004).

N. S. Prasad, "An acousto-optic tunable filter based active, long-wave IR spectrapolarimetric imager," in Chemical and Biological Standoff Detection, J. O. Jensen and J.-M. Theriault, eds., Proc. SPIE 5268, 104-112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Tan and R. M. Narayanan, "Design and performance of a multiwavelength airborne polarimetric lidar for vegetation remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 43, 2360-2368 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Mujat, E. Baleine, and A. Dogariu, "Interferometric imaging polarimeter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2244-2249 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Réfrégier, F. Goudail, and N. Roux, "Estimation of the degree of polarization in active coherent imagery by using the natural representation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2292-2300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Jones, F. J. Iannarilli, and P. L. Kebabian, "Realization of quantitative-grade fieldable snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter," Opt. Express 12, 6559-6573 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. Oka and T. Kaneko, "Compact complete imaging polarimeter using birefringent wedge prisms," Opt. Express 11, 1510-1519 (2003).

T. Sakai, T. Nagai, M. Nakazato, Y. Mano, and T. Matsumura, "Ice clouds and Asian dust studied with lidar measurements of particle extinction-to-backscatter ratio, particle depolarization, and water-vapor mixing ratio over Tsukuba," Appl. Opt. 42, 7103-7116 (2003).

J. Wolfe and R. A. Chipman, "High-speed imaging polarimeter," in Polarization Science and Remote Sensing, J. A. Shaw and J. S. Tyo, eds., Proc. SPIE 5158, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Li and J. S. Tyo, "Experimental measurement of optimal polarimeter systems," in Polarization Science and Remote Sensing, J. A. Shaw and J. S. Tyo, eds., Proc. SPIE 5158, 103-112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. M. Persons and D. B. Chenault, "Automated registration of polarimetric imagery using Fourier transform techniques," in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing V, D. L. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE 4819, 107-117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Andreau and Z. K. Kalayjian, "Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters," IEEE Sens. J. 2, 566-576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Sabatke, A. Locke, E. L. Dereniak, M. Descour, J. Garcia, T. Hamilton, and R. W. McMillan, "Snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter," Opt. Eng. 41, 1048-1053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Loe and M. J. Duggin, "Hyperspectral imaging polarimeter design and calibration," in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing IV, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, W. G. Egan, and M. J. Duggin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4481, 195-205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Intrieri, M. D. Shupe, T. Uttal, and B. J. McCarty, "An annual cycle of Arctic cloud characteristics observed by radar and lidar at SHEBA," J. Geophys. Res. 107, SHE5-1-SHE5-15 (2002).

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, and S. Choy, "Acousto-optic tunable filter based visible-to-near-infrared spectropolarimetric imager," Opt. Eng. 41, 1033-1038 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Baba, J.-R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, "Development and calibration of an automated Mueller matrix polarization imaging system," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341-349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Horvath, A. Barta, J. Gal, B. Suhai, and O. Haiman, "Ground-based full-sky imaging polarimetry of rapidly changing skies and its use for polarimetric cloud detection," Appl. Opt. 41, 543-559 (2002).

J. S. Tyo, "Design of optimal polarimeters: maximization of signal-to-noise ratio and minimization of systematic errors," Appl. Opt. 41, 619-630 (2002).

C. K. Harnett and H. G. Craighead, "Liquid-crystal micropolarizer for polarization-difference imaging," Appl. Opt. 41, 1291-1296 (2002).

M. H. Smith, "Optimization of a dual-rotating-retarder Mueller matrix polarimeter," Appl. Opt. 41, 2488-2495 (2002).

P. Réfrégier and F. Goudail, "Invariant polarimetric contrast parameters of coherent light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1223-1233 (2002).

2001

S. Y. Brezhna, I. V. Berezhnyy, and M. Takashi, "Dynamic photometric imaging polarizer-sample analyzer polarimeter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 666-707 (2001).

J. S. Tyo and T. S. Turner, "Variable retardance, Fourier transform imaging spectropolarimeters for visible spectrum remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 40, 1450-1458 (2001).

V. A. Dlugunovich, V. N. Snopko, and A. V. Tsaruk, "Analysis of a method for measuring polarization characteristics with a Stokes polarimeter having a rotating phase plate," J. Opt. Technol. 68, 269-273 (2001).

J. H. Chumside, J. J. Wilson, and V. V. Tatarskii, "Airborne lidar for fisheries applications," Opt. Eng. 40, 406-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Farlow, D. B. Chenault, K. D. Spradley, M. G. Gulley, M. W. Jones, and C. M. Persons, "Imaging polarimeter development and application," in Polarization Analysis and Measurement IV, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, W. Egan, and M. J. Duggin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4819, 118-125 (2001).

2000

F. J. Iannarilli, J. A. Shaw, S. H. Jones, and H. E. Scott, "Snapshot LWIR hyperspectral polarimetric imager for ocean surface sensing," in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan and D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE 4133, 270-283 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sabatke, A. M. Locke, M. R. Descour, W. C. Sweatt, J. P. Garcia, E. Dereniak, S. A. Kemme, and G. S. Phipps, "Figures of merit for complete stokes polarimeters," in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, and D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE 4133, 75-81 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sabatke, M. R. Descour, E. Dereniak, W. C. Sweatt, S. A. Kemme, and G. S. Phipps, "Optimization of retardance for a complete Stokes polarimeter," Opt. Lett. 25, 802-804 (2000).

L. Le Hors, P. Hartemann, and S. Breugnot, "Multispectral polarization active imager in the visible band," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. W. Kamerman, U. N. Singh, C. Werner, V. V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE 4035, 380-389 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Breugnot and P. Clémenceau, "Modeling and performances of a polarization active imager at lambda = 806 nm," Opt. Eng. 39, 2681-2688 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Chenault and J. L. Pezzaniti, "Polarization imaging through scattering media," in Polarization Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, and D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE 4133, 124-133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Dlugunovich, V. N. Snopko, and A. V. Tsaruk, "Minimizing the measurement error of the Stokes parameters when the setting angles of a phase plate are varied," J. Opt. Technol. 67, 797-800 (2000).

J. S. Tyo, "Improvement of the point spread function in scattering media by polarization difference imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1-10 (2000).

J. S. Tyo, "Noise equalization in Stokes parameter images obtained by use of variable retardance polarimeters," Opt. Lett. 25, 1198-2000 (2000).

S. G. Demos, H. B. Radousky, and R. R. Alfano, "Deep subsurface imaging in tissues using spectral and polarization filtering," Opt. Express 7, 23-28 (2000).

1999

M. H. Smith, J. B. Woodruff, and J. D. Howe, "Beam wander considerations in imaging polarimetry," in Proc. SPIE 3754, 50-54 (1999).

K. Oka and T. Kato, "Spectroscopic polarimetry with a channeled spectrum," Opt. Lett. 24, 1475-1477 (1999).

J. A. Shaw, "Degree of linear polarization in spectral radiances from water-viewing infrared polarimeters," Appl. Opt. 38, 3157-3165 (1999).

G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, and P. J. Roberts, "Backscattering target detection in a turbid medium by polarization discrimination," Appl. Opt. 38, 3937-3944 (1999).

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, K. I. Hopcraft, B. Ablitt, and E. Jakeman, "Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media," Opt. Commun. 159, 1-6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Bishop, H. D. McIntire, M. P. Fetrow, and L. McMackin, "Multispectral polarimeter imaging in the visible to near IR," in Targets and Backgrounds: Characterization and Representation V, W. R. Watkins, D. Clement, and W. R. Reynolds, eds., Proc. SPIE 3699, 49-57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, B. Kaminsky, and P. Metes, "AOTF polarization difference imaging," in 27th AIPR Workshop: Advances in Computer-Assisted Recognition, R. J. Mericsko, ed., Proc. SPIE 3584, 106-115 (1999).

G. P. Nordin, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, and M. Jones, "Diffractive optical element for Stokes vector measurement with a focal plane array," in Polarization Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE 3754, 169-177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. S. Tyo, "Optimum linear combination strategy for a N-channel polarization sensitive vision or imaging system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 359-366 (1998).

G. L. Jensen and J. Q. Peterson, "Hyperspectral imaging polarimeter in the infrared," in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik and B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3437, 42-51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Clémenceau, S. Breugnot, and L. Collot, "Polarization diversity active imaging," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications III, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE 3380, 284-291 (1998).

1997

M. P. Silverman and W. Strange, "Object delineation within turbid media by backscattering of phase modulated light," Opt. Commun. 144, 7-11 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Chipman, "Polarization diversity active imaging," in Image Reconstruction and Restoration II, T. J. Schulz, ed., Proc. SPIE 3170, 68-73 (1997).

J. D. Barter, P. H. Y. Lee, and H. R. Thompson, "Stokes parameter imaging of scattering surfaces," in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein and R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE 3121, 314-320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. North and M. Duggin, "Stokes vector imaging of the polarized sky-dome," Appl. Opt. 36, 723-730 (1997).

K. Voss and Y. Liu, "Polarized radiance distribution measurements of skylight 1: system description and characterization," Appl. Opt. 36, 6083-6094 (1997).

S. G. Demos and R. R. Alfano, "Optical polarization imaging," Appl. Opt. 36, 150-155 (1997).

1996

1995

D. M. Rust, "Integrated dual imaging detector," U.S. patent 5,438,414 (1 August 1995).

L. B. Wolff and A. G. Andreau, "Polarization camera sensors," Image Vis. Comput. 13, 497-510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part II," Opt. Eng. 34, 1656-1659 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part I," Opt. Eng. 34, 1651-1655 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Pezzaniti and R. A. Chipman, "Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 1558-1568 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

L. J. Cheng, J. C. Mahoney, and G. Reyes, "Target detection using an AOTF hyperspectral imager," in Optical Pattern Recognition V, D. P. Casasent and T. Chao, eds., Proc. SPIE 2237, 251-259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. S. L. Chun, D. L. Fleming, and E. J. Torok, "Polarization-sensitive, thermal imaging," in Automatic Object Recognition IV, F. A. Sadjadi, ed., Proc. SPIE 2234, 275-286 (1994).

J. P. McGuire and R. A. Chipman, "Polarization aberrations. 1. Rotationally symmetric optical systems," Appl Opt. 33, 5080-5100 (1994).

J. P. McGuire and R. A. Chipman, "Polarization aberrations. 2. Tilted and decentered optical systems," Appl Opt. 33, 5101-5107 (1994).

D. A. Glenar, J. J. Hillman, B. Saif, and J. Bergstralh, "Acousto-optic imaging spectropolarimetry for remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 33, 7412-7424 (1994).

1993

D. B. Chenault and R. A. Chipman, "Infrared birefringence spectra for cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide," Appl. Opt. 32, 4223-4227 (1993).

D. Lemke, F. Garzon, H. Gemuend, U. Groezinger, I. Heinrichsen, U. Klaas, W. Kraetschmer, E. Kreysa, P. Luetzow-Wentzky, J. Schubert, M. Wells, and J. Wolf, "ISOPHOT: far-infrared imaging, polarimetry, and spectrophotometry on Infrared Space Observatory," in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing, M. S. Scholl, ed., Proc. SPIE 2019, 28-33 (1993).

J. E. Kalshoven, Jr. and P. W. Dabney, "Remote sensing of the Earth's surface with an airborne polarized laser," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 438-446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

D. B. Chenault, J. L. Pezzaniti, and R. A. Chipman, "Mueller matrix polarimeter algorithms," In Polarization Analysis and Measurement,Proc. SPIE 1746, 231-246 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. M. Smith and K. M. Smith, "A polarimetric spectral imager using acousto-optic tunable filters," Exp. Astron. A 1, 329-343 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, "The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848-1866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Swartz and J. D. Cummings, "Laser range-gated underwater imaging including polarization discrimination," in Underwater Imaging, Photography, and Visibility, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE 1537, 42-56 (1991).

W. G. Egan, W. R. Johnson, and V. S. Whitehead, "Terrestrial polarization imagery obtained from the space shuttle: characterization and interpretation," Appl. Opt. 30, 435-442 (1991).

1990

J. L. Pezzaniti and R. A. Chipman, "Imaging polarimeters for optical metrology," in Polarimetry: Radar, Infrared, Visible, Ultraviolet, and X-Ray, R. A. Chipman and J. W. Morris, eds., Proc. SPIE 1317, 280-294 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Goldstein and R. A. Chipman, "Error analysis of a Mueller matrix polarimeter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 693-700 (1990).

D. H. Goldstein and R. A. Chipman, "An error analysis of a Mueller matrix polarimeter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 693-700 (1990).

1989

R. A. Chipman, "Polarization analysis of optical systems," Opt. Eng. 28, 90-99 (1989).

J. A. Reagan, M. P. McCormick, and J. D. Spinhime, "Lidar sensing of aerosols and clouds in the troposphere and stratosphere," Proc. IEEE 77, 433-448 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

1986

K. L. Coulson, V. S. Whitehead, and C. Campbell, "Polarized views of the Earth from orbital altitude," in Ocean Optics VIII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE 637, 35-41 (1986).

1985

1983

1981

J. E. Solomon, "Polarization imaging," Appl. Opt. 20, 1537-1544 (1981).

R. Walraven, "Polarization imagery," Opt. Eng. 20, 14-18 (1981).

1979

1978

R. M. A. Azzam, "Photopolarimetric measurement of the Mueller matrix by Fourier analysis of a single detected signal," Opt. Lett. 2, 148-150 (1978).

P. S. Hauge, "Mueller matrix ellipsometry with imperfect compensators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 68, 1519-1528 (1978).

R. M. A. Azzam, "A simple Fourier photopolarimeter with rotating polarizer and analyzer for measuring Jones and Mueller matrices," Opt. Commun. 25, 137-140 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

R. Walraven, "Polarization imagery," in Optical Polarimetry: Instrumentation and Applications, R. M. A. Azzam and D. L. Coffeen, eds., Proc. SPIE 112, 164-167 (1977).

1976

G. F. J. Garlick, G. A. Steigmann, and W. E. Lamb, "Differential optical polarization detectors," U.S. patent 3,992,571 (16 November 1976).

1975

P. S. Hauge and F. H. Dill, "A rotating-compensator Fourier ellipsometer," Opt. Commun. 14, 431-437 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, "Photometric ellipsometer for measuring partially polarized light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 65, 1274-1278 (1975).

1966

G. D. Gilbert and J. C. Pernicka, "Improvement of underwater visibility by reduction of backscatter with a circular polarization technique," in Underwater Photo-Optics I, A. B. Dember, ed., Proc. SPIE 7, A-III-1-A-III-10 (1966).

1965

1941

1895

R. A. Millikan, "A study of the polarization of the light emitted by incandescent solid and liquid surfaces. I," Phys. Rev. 3, 81-99 (1895).

R. A. Millikan, "A study of the polarization of the light emitted by incandescent solid and liquid surfaces. II," Phys. Rev. 3, 177-192 (1895).

1852

G. G. Stokes, "On the composition and resolution of streams of polarized light from different sources," Trans. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 9, 399-416 (1852).

1824

D. F. J. Arago, Ann.Chim. Phys. 1, 89 (1824).

Ablitt, B.

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, K. I. Hopcraft, B. Ablitt, and E. Jakeman, "Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media," Opt. Commun. 159, 1-6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Ambirajan, A.

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part I," Opt. Eng. 34, 1651-1655 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part II," Opt. Eng. 34, 1656-1659 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Andreau, A. G.

A. G. Andreau and Z. K. Kalayjian, "Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters," IEEE Sens. J. 2, 566-576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Wolff and A. G. Andreau, "Polarization camera sensors," Image Vis. Comput. 13, 497-510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arago, D. F. J.

D. F. J. Arago, Ann.Chim. Phys. 1, 89 (1824).

D. F. J. Arago and A. J. Fresnel, "On the action of rays of polarized light upon each other," Ann. Chim. Phys. 3, 288 (1819); reprinted in The Wave Theory of Light, Memories by Huygens, Young, and Fresnel, Henry Crew, ed. (American Book, 1900).

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, "Photometric ellipsometer for measuring partially polarized light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 65, 1274-1278 (1975).

Azzam, R. M. A.

Baba, J. S.

J. S. Baba, J.-R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, "Development and calibration of an automated Mueller matrix polarization imaging system," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341-349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baleine, E.

Barta, A.

Barter, J. D.

J. D. Barter, P. H. Y. Lee, and H. R. Thompson, "Stokes parameter imaging of scattering surfaces," in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein and R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE 3121, 314-320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berezhnyy, I. V.

Bergstralh, J.

Bishop, K. P.

K. P. Bishop, H. D. McIntire, M. P. Fetrow, and L. McMackin, "Multispectral polarimeter imaging in the visible to near IR," in Targets and Backgrounds: Characterization and Representation V, W. R. Watkins, D. Clement, and W. R. Reynolds, eds., Proc. SPIE 3699, 49-57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Black, W.

J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," in Polarization Science and Remote Sensing II, J. A. Shaw and J. S. Tyo, eds., Proc. SPIE 5888 (2005).

Boger, J. K.

J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," in Polarization Science and Remote Sensing II, J. A. Shaw and J. S. Tyo, eds., Proc. SPIE 5888 (2005).

Breugnot, S.

L. Le Hors, P. Hartemann, and S. Breugnot, "Multispectral polarization active imager in the visible band," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. W. Kamerman, U. N. Singh, C. Werner, V. V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE 4035, 380-389 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Breugnot and P. Clémenceau, "Modeling and performances of a polarization active imager at lambda = 806 nm," Opt. Eng. 39, 2681-2688 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Clémenceau, S. Breugnot, and L. Collot, "Polarization diversity active imaging," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications III, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE 3380, 284-291 (1998).

Brezhna, S. Y.

Cameron, B. D.

J. S. Baba, J.-R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, "Development and calibration of an automated Mueller matrix polarization imaging system," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341-349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, C.

K. L. Coulson, V. S. Whitehead, and C. Campbell, "Polarized views of the Earth from orbital altitude," in Ocean Optics VIII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE 637, 35-41 (1986).

Chang, P. C. Y.

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, K. I. Hopcraft, B. Ablitt, and E. Jakeman, "Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media," Opt. Commun. 159, 1-6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. Y.

Chenault, D. B.

J. S. Harchanko, D. B. Chenault, C. F. Farlow, and K. Spradley, "Detecting a surface swimmer using long wave infrared imaging polarimetry," in Photonics for Port and Harbor Security, M. J. DeWeert and T. T. Saito, eds., Proc. SPIE 5780 (2005).

C. M. Persons and D. B. Chenault, "Automated registration of polarimetric imagery using Fourier transform techniques," in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing V, D. L. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE 4819, 107-117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Farlow, D. B. Chenault, K. D. Spradley, M. G. Gulley, M. W. Jones, and C. M. Persons, "Imaging polarimeter development and application," in Polarization Analysis and Measurement IV, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, W. Egan, and M. J. Duggin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4819, 118-125 (2001).

D. B. Chenault and J. L. Pezzaniti, "Polarization imaging through scattering media," in Polarization Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, and D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE 4133, 124-133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Chenault and R. A. Chipman, "Infrared birefringence spectra for cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide," Appl. Opt. 32, 4223-4227 (1993).

D. B. Chenault, J. L. Pezzaniti, and R. A. Chipman, "Mueller matrix polarimeter algorithms," In Polarization Analysis and Measurement,Proc. SPIE 1746, 231-246 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Pezzaniti and D. B. Chenault, "A division of aperture MWIR imaging polarimeter," in Polarization Science and Remote Sensing II, J. A. Shaw and J. S. Tyo, eds., Proc. SPIE 5888 (2005).

Cheng, L. J.

L. J. Cheng, J. C. Mahoney, and G. Reyes, "Target detection using an AOTF hyperspectral imager," in Optical Pattern Recognition V, D. P. Casasent and T. Chao, eds., Proc. SPIE 2237, 251-259 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chin-Bing, S. A.

S. A. Chin-Bing, Infrared Polarization Signature Analysis, Rep. ADC008418 (Defense Technical Information Center, 1976).

Chipman, R. A.

J. Wolfe and R. A. Chipman, "High-speed imaging polarimeter," in Polarization Science and Remote Sensing, J. A. Shaw and J. S. Tyo, eds., Proc. SPIE 5158, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Chipman, "Polarization diversity active imaging," in Image Reconstruction and Restoration II, T. J. Schulz, ed., Proc. SPIE 3170, 68-73 (1997).

S.-Y. Lu and R. A. Chipman, "Interpretation of Mueller matrices based on the polar decomposition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1106-1113 (1996).

J. L. Pezzaniti and R. A. Chipman, "Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 1558-1568 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. P. McGuire and R. A. Chipman, "Polarization aberrations. 2. Tilted and decentered optical systems," Appl Opt. 33, 5101-5107 (1994).

J. P. McGuire and R. A. Chipman, "Polarization aberrations. 1. Rotationally symmetric optical systems," Appl Opt. 33, 5080-5100 (1994).

D. B. Chenault and R. A. Chipman, "Infrared birefringence spectra for cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide," Appl. Opt. 32, 4223-4227 (1993).

D. B. Chenault, J. L. Pezzaniti, and R. A. Chipman, "Mueller matrix polarimeter algorithms," In Polarization Analysis and Measurement,Proc. SPIE 1746, 231-246 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Goldstein and R. A. Chipman, "Error analysis of a Mueller matrix polarimeter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 693-700 (1990).

J. L. Pezzaniti and R. A. Chipman, "Imaging polarimeters for optical metrology," in Polarimetry: Radar, Infrared, Visible, Ultraviolet, and X-Ray, R. A. Chipman and J. W. Morris, eds., Proc. SPIE 1317, 280-294 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Goldstein and R. A. Chipman, "An error analysis of a Mueller matrix polarimeter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 693-700 (1990).

R. A. Chipman, "Polarization analysis of optical systems," Opt. Eng. 28, 90-99 (1989).

R. A. Chipman, College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (personal communication, 2006).

R. A. Chipman, "Polarimetry," in Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 2, Chap. 22.

Choy, S.

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, and S. Choy, "Acousto-optic tunable filter based visible-to-near-infrared spectropolarimetric imager," Opt. Eng. 41, 1033-1038 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chumside, J. H.

J. H. Chumside, J. J. Wilson, and V. V. Tatarskii, "Airborne lidar for fisheries applications," Opt. Eng. 40, 406-414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chun, C. S. L.

C. S. L. Chun, D. L. Fleming, and E. J. Torok, "Polarization-sensitive, thermal imaging," in Automatic Object Recognition IV, F. A. Sadjadi, ed., Proc. SPIE 2234, 275-286 (1994).

Chung, J.-R.

J. S. Baba, J.-R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, "Development and calibration of an automated Mueller matrix polarization imaging system," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341-349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clémenceau, P.

S. Breugnot and P. Clémenceau, "Modeling and performances of a polarization active imager at lambda = 806 nm," Opt. Eng. 39, 2681-2688 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Clémenceau, S. Breugnot, and L. Collot, "Polarization diversity active imaging," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications III, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE 3380, 284-291 (1998).

Coffeen, D. L.

Collot, L.

P. Clémenceau, S. Breugnot, and L. Collot, "Polarization diversity active imaging," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications III, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE 3380, 284-291 (1998).

Cote, G. L.

J. S. Baba, J.-R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, "Development and calibration of an automated Mueller matrix polarization imaging system," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341-349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Visible picture of two pickup trucks in the shade (top), long-wave IR intensity image (bottom left), and long-wave IR polarization image (bottom right). Strong contrast in the polarization image shows advantages for enhanced target detection using imaging polarimetry. (Courtesy of Huey Long, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the active polarimetric imaging system of Breugnot and Clémenceau in Ref. 45.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Polarimetric sensor using rotating polarization elements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Division of amplitude polarimeter. The fourth camera is out of the plane of the page positioned above the PBS block after the quarter-wave retarder.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Division of aperture polarimeter and a raw focal plane image showing the four polarization channels. The four channels are reduced to polarization products such as DoLP. For this specific case, the four images are linearly polarized at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Division of focal plane polarimeter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Optimal locations for measuring the polarization states are when the diattenuation vectors inscribe a regular tetrahedron inside the Poincaré sphere.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Polarization Phenomenology and Effects from the Visible to the LWIR

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Imaging Polarimetry Architectures

Equations (26)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ψ = 1 2 arctan s 2 s 1 .
DOCP = s 3 / s 0 .
DOLP = s 1     2 + s 2     2 / s 0 .
DOP = s 1     2 + s 2     2 + s 3     2 s 0 .
S = [ s 0 s 1 s 2 s 3 ] = [ | E x | 2 + | E y | 2 | E x | 2 | E y | 2 2   Re E x E y * 2   Im E x E y * ] [ I 0 + I 90 I 0 I 90 I 45 I 135 I L I R ] .
M D = T u [ 1 D T P 1 D 2 I 3 + ( 1 1 D 2 ) a D a D T ] .
D = | T q T r | T q + T r ,
S D = [ 1 D T ] T .
S out = M D · S in .
S 0,out = S D T · S in = m D ,00 s 0,in + m D ,01 s 1,in + m D ,02 s 2,in + m D ,03 s 3,in .
X = [ s 0 , out 1 s 0 , out 2 s 0 , out N ] = [ ( S D 1 ) T ( S D 2 ) T ( S D N ) T ] · S in = A · S in .
S ^ in = A 1 · X ,
X = [ s 0 , out 1 s 0 , out 2 s 0 , out N ] = [ ( S D 1 ) T ( S D 2 ) T ( S D N ) T ] · S in = A · S in .
x n = b 0 2 + k = 1 ( b k   cos   k θ n + c k   sin   k θ n ) ,
b 0 = 1 N n = 0 N 1 x n ,
b k = 2 N n = 0 N 1 i n   cos ( 2 n k π N ) = n = 0 N 1 i n   cos ( k θ n ) ,
c k = 2 N n = 0 N 1 i n   sin ( 2 n k π N ) = n = 0 N 1 i n   sin ( k θ n ) ,
δ = 2 π ( Δ n ) L λ .
X = A · S ,
A = X · S 1 .
M sys = P 2 R 2 M R 1 P 1 ,
X = A · S in + n ,
ε = S ^ in S in = A 1 · n .
A 2 = A 1 2 = sup n A 1 · n 2 n 2 = sup ε 2 N σ 2 ,
X = ( A + Δ ) · S in ,
ε = A 1 Δ · S in ,

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