Abstract

The instrumental polarization induced by a flat isotropic dielectric slab in microwave frequencies is discussed. We find that, in spite of its isotropic nature, such a dielectric can produce spurious polarization either by transmitting incoming anisotropic diffuse radiation or emitting when it is thermally inhomogeneous. We present evaluations of instrumental polarization generated by materials usually adopted in radio astronomy, by using the Mueller matrix formalism. As an application, results for different slabs in front of a 32  GHz receiver are discussed. Such results are based on measurements of their complex dielectric constants. We evaluate that a 0 .33   cm thick Teflon slab introduces negligible spurious polarization (< 2 .6×105 in transmission and <6×107 in emission), even minimizing the leakage (<108 from Q to U Stokes parameters, and vice versa) and the depolarization (1.3×103).

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2004

P. Farese, G. Dall'Oglio, J. Gundersen, B. Keating, S. Klawikowski, L. Knox, A. Levy, P. Lubin, C. O'Dell, A. Peel, L. Piccirillo, J. Ruhl, and P. Timbie, "COMPASS: an upper limit on cosmic microwave background polarization at an angular scale of 20′," Astrophys. J. 610, 625-634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Carretti, S. Cortiglioni, C. Sbarra, and R. Tascone, "Antenna instrumental polarization and its effects on E- and B-modes for CMBP observations," Astron. Astrophys. 420, 437-445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sazhin, G. Sironi, and O. Khovanskaya, "Separation of foreground and background signals in single frequency measurements of the CMB polarization," New Astron. 9, 83-101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Leitch, J. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. Carlstrom, N. Halverson, W. Holzapfel, M. Dragovan, B. Reddall, and E. Sandberg, "Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer," Nature 420, 763-771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

E. Carretti, R. Tascone, S. Cortiglioni, J. Monari, and M. Orsini, "Limits due to instrumental polarization in CMB experiments at microwave wavelengths," New Astron. 6, 173-187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. Masi, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, F. Piacentini, A. Raccanelli, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A long duration cryostat suitable for balloon borne photometry," Cryogenics 39, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. Keating, P. Timbie, A. Polnarev, and J. Steinberger, "Large angular scale polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the feasibility of its detection," Astrophys. J. 495, 580-596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1991

F. Bréhat and B. Wyncke, "Reflectivity, transmissivity, and optical constants of anisotropic absorbing crystals," J. Phys. D 24, 2055-2066 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. Baker-Jarvis, E. Vanzura, and W. Kissick, "Improved technique for determining complex permittivity with the transmission/reflection method," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1096-1103 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

L. J. November, "Determination of the Jones matrix for the Sacramento peak vacuum tower telescope," Opt. Eng. 28, 107-113 (1989).

1987

O. E. Piro, "Optical properties, reflectance, and transmittance of anisotropic absorbing crystal plates," Phys. Rev. B 36, 3427-3435 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

M. N. Afsar, "Precision dielectric measurements of nonpolar polymers in the millimeter wavelength range," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 33, 1410-1415 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

B. Read, J. Duncan, and D. Meyer, "Birefringence techniques for the assessment of orientation," Polym. Test. 4, 143-164 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. R. White, "Origins and measurement of internal stress in plastics," Polym. Test. 4, 165-191 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1976

R. G. Jones, "Precise dielectric measurements at 35 GHz using an open microwave resonator," Proc. IEE 123, 285-290 (1976). This proceeding reports the determination of the permittivity and the electric tangent loss of HDPE and Teflon at 35 GHz, by means of a test in which an open microwave resonator is adopted.

Ade, P.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Keating, P. Ade, J. Bock, E. Hivon, W. Holzapfel, A. Lange, H. Nguyen, Ki W. Yoon, "BICEP: a large angular scale CMB Polarimeter," in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S.Fineschi, ed. Proc. SPIE 4843,284-295 (2003). This proceeding reports both the design and expected performances of BICEP (which stands for background imaging of cosmic extragalactic polarization), a millimeter wave receiver (bolometer based) designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background.

Afsar, M. N.

M. N. Afsar, "Precision dielectric measurements of nonpolar polymers in the millimeter wavelength range," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 33, 1410-1415 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).

Baker-Jarvis, J.

J. Baker-Jarvis, E. Vanzura, and W. Kissick, "Improved technique for determining complex permittivity with the transmission/reflection method," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1096-1103 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Baralis, M.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Barnes, C.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).

Bennett, C.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bernardi, G.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Bock, J.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Keating, P. Ade, J. Bock, E. Hivon, W. Holzapfel, A. Lange, H. Nguyen, Ki W. Yoon, "BICEP: a large angular scale CMB Polarimeter," in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S.Fineschi, ed. Proc. SPIE 4843,284-295 (2003). This proceeding reports both the design and expected performances of BICEP (which stands for background imaging of cosmic extragalactic polarization), a millimeter wave receiver (bolometer based) designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background.

Boella, G.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bond, J.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bonometto, S.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, 1970).

Borrill, J.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boscaleri, A.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Bréhat, F.

F. Bréhat and B. Wyncke, "Reflectivity, transmissivity, and optical constants of anisotropic absorbing crystals," J. Phys. D 24, 2055-2066 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cardoni, P.

S. Masi, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, F. Piacentini, A. Raccanelli, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A long duration cryostat suitable for balloon borne photometry," Cryogenics 39, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carlstrom, J.

E. Leitch, J. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. Carlstrom, N. Halverson, W. Holzapfel, M. Dragovan, B. Reddall, and E. Sandberg, "Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer," Nature 420, 763-771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carretti, E.

E. Carretti, S. Cortiglioni, C. Sbarra, and R. Tascone, "Antenna instrumental polarization and its effects on E- and B-modes for CMBP observations," Astron. Astrophys. 420, 437-445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Carretti, R. Tascone, S. Cortiglioni, J. Monari, and M. Orsini, "Limits due to instrumental polarization in CMB experiments at microwave wavelengths," New Astron. 6, 173-187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Zannoni, C. Macculi, E. Carretti, S. Cortiglioni, G. Ventura, J. Monari, M. Poloni, and S. Poppi, "Thermal design and performance evaluation of the BaR-SPOrt cryosta," in Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation.J.Antebi and D.Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498,735-743 (2004). The goal of this proceeding is to discuss in detail both the thermal design of the cryostat housing the instrument and the preliminary test.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Casarini, L.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cecchini, S.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Coble, K.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Collett, E.

E. Collett, Polarized Light (Marcel Dekker, 1993).

Colombo, L.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Contaldi, C.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cortiglioni, S.

E. Carretti, S. Cortiglioni, C. Sbarra, and R. Tascone, "Antenna instrumental polarization and its effects on E- and B-modes for CMBP observations," Astron. Astrophys. 420, 437-445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Carretti, R. Tascone, S. Cortiglioni, J. Monari, and M. Orsini, "Limits due to instrumental polarization in CMB experiments at microwave wavelengths," New Astron. 6, 173-187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

M. Zannoni, C. Macculi, E. Carretti, S. Cortiglioni, G. Ventura, J. Monari, M. Poloni, and S. Poppi, "Thermal design and performance evaluation of the BaR-SPOrt cryosta," in Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation.J.Antebi and D.Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498,735-743 (2004). The goal of this proceeding is to discuss in detail both the thermal design of the cryostat housing the instrument and the preliminary test.

Crill, B.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dall'Oglio, G.

P. Farese, G. Dall'Oglio, J. Gundersen, B. Keating, S. Klawikowski, L. Knox, A. Levy, P. Lubin, C. O'Dell, A. Peel, L. Piccirillo, J. Ruhl, and P. Timbie, "COMPASS: an upper limit on cosmic microwave background polarization at an angular scale of 20′," Astrophys. J. 610, 625-634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Bernardis, P.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, F. Piacentini, A. Raccanelli, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A long duration cryostat suitable for balloon borne photometry," Cryogenics 39, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

de Oliveira-Costa, A.

A. de Oliveira-Costa, "The cosmic microwave background and its polarization," in Astronomical Polarimetry: Current Status and Future Directions, A. Adamson, C. Aspin, and C. J. Davis, eds., Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 343, 485 (2005).

Dragovan, M.

E. Leitch, J. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. Carlstrom, N. Halverson, W. Holzapfel, M. Dragovan, B. Reddall, and E. Sandberg, "Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer," Nature 420, 763-771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, J.

B. Read, J. Duncan, and D. Meyer, "Birefringence techniques for the assessment of orientation," Polym. Test. 4, 143-164 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fabbri, R.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Farese, P.

P. Farese, G. Dall'Oglio, J. Gundersen, B. Keating, S. Klawikowski, L. Knox, A. Levy, P. Lubin, C. O'Dell, A. Peel, L. Piccirillo, J. Ruhl, and P. Timbie, "COMPASS: an upper limit on cosmic microwave background polarization at an angular scale of 20′," Astrophys. J. 610, 625-634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ganga, K.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gervasi, M.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Giacometti, M.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, P. F.

P. F. Goldsmith, Quasioptical System: Gaussian Beam Quasioptical Propagation and Applications (IEEE Press, 1989).

Greason, M.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gundersen, J.

P. Farese, G. Dall'Oglio, J. Gundersen, B. Keating, S. Klawikowski, L. Knox, A. Levy, P. Lubin, C. O'Dell, A. Peel, L. Piccirillo, J. Ruhl, and P. Timbie, "COMPASS: an upper limit on cosmic microwave background polarization at an angular scale of 20′," Astrophys. J. 610, 625-634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Halpern, M.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Halverson, N.

E. Leitch, J. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. Carlstrom, N. Halverson, W. Holzapfel, M. Dragovan, B. Reddall, and E. Sandberg, "Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer," Nature 420, 763-771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, R.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hinshaw, G.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hivon, E.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Keating, P. Ade, J. Bock, E. Hivon, W. Holzapfel, A. Lange, H. Nguyen, Ki W. Yoon, "BICEP: a large angular scale CMB Polarimeter," in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S.Fineschi, ed. Proc. SPIE 4843,284-295 (2003). This proceeding reports both the design and expected performances of BICEP (which stands for background imaging of cosmic extragalactic polarization), a millimeter wave receiver (bolometer based) designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background.

Holzapfel, W.

E. Leitch, J. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. Carlstrom, N. Halverson, W. Holzapfel, M. Dragovan, B. Reddall, and E. Sandberg, "Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer," Nature 420, 763-771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Keating, P. Ade, J. Bock, E. Hivon, W. Holzapfel, A. Lange, H. Nguyen, Ki W. Yoon, "BICEP: a large angular scale CMB Polarimeter," in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S.Fineschi, ed. Proc. SPIE 4843,284-295 (2003). This proceeding reports both the design and expected performances of BICEP (which stands for background imaging of cosmic extragalactic polarization), a millimeter wave receiver (bolometer based) designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background.

Hristov, V.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
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Iacoangeli, A.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jaffe, A.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jakeman, E.

Jarosik, N.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. G.

R. G. Jones, "Precise dielectric measurements at 35 GHz using an open microwave resonator," Proc. IEE 123, 285-290 (1976). This proceeding reports the determination of the permittivity and the electric tangent loss of HDPE and Teflon at 35 GHz, by means of a test in which an open microwave resonator is adopted.

Jones, W.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, D.

Keating, B.

P. Farese, G. Dall'Oglio, J. Gundersen, B. Keating, S. Klawikowski, L. Knox, A. Levy, P. Lubin, C. O'Dell, A. Peel, L. Piccirillo, J. Ruhl, and P. Timbie, "COMPASS: an upper limit on cosmic microwave background polarization at an angular scale of 20′," Astrophys. J. 610, 625-634 (2004).
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B. Keating, P. Timbie, A. Polnarev, and J. Steinberger, "Large angular scale polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the feasibility of its detection," Astrophys. J. 495, 580-596 (1998).
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B. Keating, P. Ade, J. Bock, E. Hivon, W. Holzapfel, A. Lange, H. Nguyen, Ki W. Yoon, "BICEP: a large angular scale CMB Polarimeter," in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S.Fineschi, ed. Proc. SPIE 4843,284-295 (2003). This proceeding reports both the design and expected performances of BICEP (which stands for background imaging of cosmic extragalactic polarization), a millimeter wave receiver (bolometer based) designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background.

Khovanskaya, O.

M. Sazhin, G. Sironi, and O. Khovanskaya, "Separation of foreground and background signals in single frequency measurements of the CMB polarization," New Astron. 9, 83-101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kissick, W.

J. Baker-Jarvis, E. Vanzura, and W. Kissick, "Improved technique for determining complex permittivity with the transmission/reflection method," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1096-1103 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Klawikowski, S.

P. Farese, G. Dall'Oglio, J. Gundersen, B. Keating, S. Klawikowski, L. Knox, A. Levy, P. Lubin, C. O'Dell, A. Peel, L. Piccirillo, J. Ruhl, and P. Timbie, "COMPASS: an upper limit on cosmic microwave background polarization at an angular scale of 20′," Astrophys. J. 610, 625-634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knox, L.

P. Farese, G. Dall'Oglio, J. Gundersen, B. Keating, S. Klawikowski, L. Knox, A. Levy, P. Lubin, C. O'Dell, A. Peel, L. Piccirillo, J. Ruhl, and P. Timbie, "COMPASS: an upper limit on cosmic microwave background polarization at an angular scale of 20′," Astrophys. J. 610, 625-634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kogut, A.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, E.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kovac, J.

E. Leitch, J. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. Carlstrom, N. Halverson, W. Holzapfel, M. Dragovan, B. Reddall, and E. Sandberg, "Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer," Nature 420, 763-771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraus, J. D.

J. D. Kraus, Radio Astronomy (Cygnus Quasar Books, 1986).

Lange, A.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Keating, P. Ade, J. Bock, E. Hivon, W. Holzapfel, A. Lange, H. Nguyen, Ki W. Yoon, "BICEP: a large angular scale CMB Polarimeter," in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S.Fineschi, ed. Proc. SPIE 4843,284-295 (2003). This proceeding reports both the design and expected performances of BICEP (which stands for background imaging of cosmic extragalactic polarization), a millimeter wave receiver (bolometer based) designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background.

Leitch, E.

E. Leitch, J. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. Carlstrom, N. Halverson, W. Holzapfel, M. Dragovan, B. Reddall, and E. Sandberg, "Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer," Nature 420, 763-771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, A.

P. Farese, G. Dall'Oglio, J. Gundersen, B. Keating, S. Klawikowski, L. Knox, A. Levy, P. Lubin, C. O'Dell, A. Peel, L. Piccirillo, J. Ruhl, and P. Timbie, "COMPASS: an upper limit on cosmic microwave background polarization at an angular scale of 20′," Astrophys. J. 610, 625-634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, G.

Limon, M.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lubin, P.

P. Farese, G. Dall'Oglio, J. Gundersen, B. Keating, S. Klawikowski, L. Knox, A. Levy, P. Lubin, C. O'Dell, A. Peel, L. Piccirillo, J. Ruhl, and P. Timbie, "COMPASS: an upper limit on cosmic microwave background polarization at an angular scale of 20′," Astrophys. J. 610, 625-634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macculi, C.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Zannoni, C. Macculi, E. Carretti, S. Cortiglioni, G. Ventura, J. Monari, M. Poloni, and S. Poppi, "Thermal design and performance evaluation of the BaR-SPOrt cryosta," in Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation.J.Antebi and D.Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498,735-743 (2004). The goal of this proceeding is to discuss in detail both the thermal design of the cryostat housing the instrument and the preliminary test.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Martinis, L.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Masi, S.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, F. Piacentini, A. Raccanelli, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A long duration cryostat suitable for balloon borne photometry," Cryogenics 39, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Mason, P.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mauskopf, P.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Melchiorri, A.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, D.

B. Read, J. Duncan, and D. Meyer, "Birefringence techniques for the assessment of orientation," Polym. Test. 4, 143-164 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, S.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Monari, J.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Carretti, R. Tascone, S. Cortiglioni, J. Monari, and M. Orsini, "Limits due to instrumental polarization in CMB experiments at microwave wavelengths," New Astron. 6, 173-187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Zannoni, C. Macculi, E. Carretti, S. Cortiglioni, G. Ventura, J. Monari, M. Poloni, and S. Poppi, "Thermal design and performance evaluation of the BaR-SPOrt cryosta," in Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation.J.Antebi and D.Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498,735-743 (2004). The goal of this proceeding is to discuss in detail both the thermal design of the cryostat housing the instrument and the preliminary test.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Montroy, T.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Natale, V.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Negri, B.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nesti, R.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Netterfield, C.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ng, K-W.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

B. Keating, P. Ade, J. Bock, E. Hivon, W. Holzapfel, A. Lange, H. Nguyen, Ki W. Yoon, "BICEP: a large angular scale CMB Polarimeter," in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S.Fineschi, ed. Proc. SPIE 4843,284-295 (2003). This proceeding reports both the design and expected performances of BICEP (which stands for background imaging of cosmic extragalactic polarization), a millimeter wave receiver (bolometer based) designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background.

Nicastro, L.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Nolta, M.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
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Odegard, N.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O'Dell, C.

P. Farese, G. Dall'Oglio, J. Gundersen, B. Keating, S. Klawikowski, L. Knox, A. Levy, P. Lubin, C. O'Dell, A. Peel, L. Piccirillo, J. Ruhl, and P. Timbie, "COMPASS: an upper limit on cosmic microwave background polarization at an angular scale of 20′," Astrophys. J. 610, 625-634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Orfei, A.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
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Orsini, M.

E. Carretti, R. Tascone, S. Cortiglioni, J. Monari, and M. Orsini, "Limits due to instrumental polarization in CMB experiments at microwave wavelengths," New Astron. 6, 173-187 (2001).
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Orta, R.

D. Vaccaneo, R. Tascone, and R. Orta, "Adaptive cavity for complex permittivity measurement of rock materials," in Proceedings of URSI EMTS 2004 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory (2004), pp. 522-524. In this proceeding, a new setup based on an adaptive cavity for the accurate measurement of the complex permittivity of materials is described.

Page, L.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
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Pascale, E.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peel, A.

P. Farese, G. Dall'Oglio, J. Gundersen, B. Keating, S. Klawikowski, L. Knox, A. Levy, P. Lubin, C. O'Dell, A. Peel, L. Piccirillo, J. Ruhl, and P. Timbie, "COMPASS: an upper limit on cosmic microwave background polarization at an angular scale of 20′," Astrophys. J. 610, 625-634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peiris, H.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peverini, O.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Peverini, O. A.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Piacentini, F.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
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S. Masi, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, F. Piacentini, A. Raccanelli, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A long duration cryostat suitable for balloon borne photometry," Cryogenics 39, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Piccirillo, L.

P. Farese, G. Dall'Oglio, J. Gundersen, B. Keating, S. Klawikowski, L. Knox, A. Levy, P. Lubin, C. O'Dell, A. Peel, L. Piccirillo, J. Ruhl, and P. Timbie, "COMPASS: an upper limit on cosmic microwave background polarization at an angular scale of 20′," Astrophys. J. 610, 625-634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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O. E. Piro, "Optical properties, reflectance, and transmittance of anisotropic absorbing crystal plates," Phys. Rev. B 36, 3427-3435 (1987).
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C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
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Polnarev, A.

B. Keating, P. Timbie, A. Polnarev, and J. Steinberger, "Large angular scale polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the feasibility of its detection," Astrophys. J. 495, 580-596 (1998).
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Poloni, M.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Zannoni, C. Macculi, E. Carretti, S. Cortiglioni, G. Ventura, J. Monari, M. Poloni, and S. Poppi, "Thermal design and performance evaluation of the BaR-SPOrt cryosta," in Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation.J.Antebi and D.Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498,735-743 (2004). The goal of this proceeding is to discuss in detail both the thermal design of the cryostat housing the instrument and the preliminary test.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Pongetti, F.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poppi, S.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
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S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

M. Zannoni, C. Macculi, E. Carretti, S. Cortiglioni, G. Ventura, J. Monari, M. Poloni, and S. Poppi, "Thermal design and performance evaluation of the BaR-SPOrt cryosta," in Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation.J.Antebi and D.Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498,735-743 (2004). The goal of this proceeding is to discuss in detail both the thermal design of the cryostat housing the instrument and the preliminary test.

Prunet, S.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pryke, C.

E. Leitch, J. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. Carlstrom, N. Halverson, W. Holzapfel, M. Dragovan, B. Reddall, and E. Sandberg, "Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer," Nature 420, 763-771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raccanelli, A.

S. Masi, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, F. Piacentini, A. Raccanelli, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A long duration cryostat suitable for balloon borne photometry," Cryogenics 39, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, M.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Razin, V. A.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

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B. Read, J. Duncan, and D. Meyer, "Birefringence techniques for the assessment of orientation," Polym. Test. 4, 143-164 (1984).
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Reddall, B.

E. Leitch, J. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. Carlstrom, N. Halverson, W. Holzapfel, M. Dragovan, B. Reddall, and E. Sandberg, "Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer," Nature 420, 763-771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renzo, N.

N. Renzo, BaR-SPOrt 32 GHz Horn Design, Technical Report, N. BSPO1.06/03, (CNR-IRA, 2003).

N. Renzo, INAF, Florence, Italy (personal communication, 2004).

Romeo, G.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ruhl, J.

P. Farese, G. Dall'Oglio, J. Gundersen, B. Keating, S. Klawikowski, L. Knox, A. Levy, P. Lubin, C. O'Dell, A. Peel, L. Piccirillo, J. Ruhl, and P. Timbie, "COMPASS: an upper limit on cosmic microwave background polarization at an angular scale of 20′," Astrophys. J. 610, 625-634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sandberg, E.

E. Leitch, J. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. Carlstrom, N. Halverson, W. Holzapfel, M. Dragovan, B. Reddall, and E. Sandberg, "Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer," Nature 420, 763-771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sazhin, M.

M. Sazhin, G. Sironi, and O. Khovanskaya, "Separation of foreground and background signals in single frequency measurements of the CMB polarization," New Astron. 9, 83-101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sazhin, M. V.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Sbarra, C.

E. Carretti, S. Cortiglioni, C. Sbarra, and R. Tascone, "Antenna instrumental polarization and its effects on E- and B-modes for CMBP observations," Astron. Astrophys. 420, 437-445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Scaramuzzi, F.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Masi, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, F. Piacentini, A. Raccanelli, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A long duration cryostat suitable for balloon borne photometry," Cryogenics 39, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sironi, G.

M. Sazhin, G. Sironi, and O. Khovanskaya, "Separation of foreground and background signals in single frequency measurements of the CMB polarization," New Astron. 9, 83-101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Spergel, D.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steinberger, J.

B. Keating, P. Timbie, A. Polnarev, and J. Steinberger, "Large angular scale polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the feasibility of its detection," Astrophys. J. 495, 580-596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strukov, I. A.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tascone, R.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Carretti, S. Cortiglioni, C. Sbarra, and R. Tascone, "Antenna instrumental polarization and its effects on E- and B-modes for CMBP observations," Astron. Astrophys. 420, 437-445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Carretti, R. Tascone, S. Cortiglioni, J. Monari, and M. Orsini, "Limits due to instrumental polarization in CMB experiments at microwave wavelengths," New Astron. 6, 173-187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

D. Vaccaneo, R. Tascone, and R. Orta, "Adaptive cavity for complex permittivity measurement of rock materials," in Proceedings of URSI EMTS 2004 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory (2004), pp. 522-524. In this proceeding, a new setup based on an adaptive cavity for the accurate measurement of the complex permittivity of materials is described.

Timbie, P.

P. Farese, G. Dall'Oglio, J. Gundersen, B. Keating, S. Klawikowski, L. Knox, A. Levy, P. Lubin, C. O'Dell, A. Peel, L. Piccirillo, J. Ruhl, and P. Timbie, "COMPASS: an upper limit on cosmic microwave background polarization at an angular scale of 20′," Astrophys. J. 610, 625-634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Keating, P. Timbie, A. Polnarev, and J. Steinberger, "Large angular scale polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the feasibility of its detection," Astrophys. J. 495, 580-596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, G.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vaccaneo, D.

D. Vaccaneo, R. Tascone, and R. Orta, "Adaptive cavity for complex permittivity measurement of rock materials," in Proceedings of URSI EMTS 2004 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory (2004), pp. 522-524. In this proceeding, a new setup based on an adaptive cavity for the accurate measurement of the complex permittivity of materials is described.

Vanzura, E.

J. Baker-Jarvis, E. Vanzura, and W. Kissick, "Improved technique for determining complex permittivity with the transmission/reflection method," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1096-1103 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ventura, G.

M. Zannoni, C. Macculi, E. Carretti, S. Cortiglioni, G. Ventura, J. Monari, M. Poloni, and S. Poppi, "Thermal design and performance evaluation of the BaR-SPOrt cryosta," in Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation.J.Antebi and D.Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498,735-743 (2004). The goal of this proceeding is to discuss in detail both the thermal design of the cryostat housing the instrument and the preliminary test.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Verde, L.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vinyajkin, E. N.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Virone, G.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weiland, J.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

White, J. R.

J. R. White, "Origins and measurement of internal stress in plastics," Polym. Test. 4, 165-191 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, 1970).

Wollack, E.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wyncke, B.

F. Bréhat and B. Wyncke, "Reflectivity, transmissivity, and optical constants of anisotropic absorbing crystals," J. Phys. D 24, 2055-2066 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, Ki W.

B. Keating, P. Ade, J. Bock, E. Hivon, W. Holzapfel, A. Lange, H. Nguyen, Ki W. Yoon, "BICEP: a large angular scale CMB Polarimeter," in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S.Fineschi, ed. Proc. SPIE 4843,284-295 (2003). This proceeding reports both the design and expected performances of BICEP (which stands for background imaging of cosmic extragalactic polarization), a millimeter wave receiver (bolometer based) designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background.

Zannoni, M.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Zannoni, C. Macculi, E. Carretti, S. Cortiglioni, G. Ventura, J. Monari, M. Poloni, and S. Poppi, "Thermal design and performance evaluation of the BaR-SPOrt cryosta," in Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation.J.Antebi and D.Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498,735-743 (2004). The goal of this proceeding is to discuss in detail both the thermal design of the cryostat housing the instrument and the preliminary test.

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

E. Carretti, S. Cortiglioni, C. Sbarra, and R. Tascone, "Antenna instrumental polarization and its effects on E- and B-modes for CMBP observations," Astron. Astrophys. 420, 437-445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J.

C. Netterfield, P. Ade, J. Bock, J. Bond, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, K. Coble, C. Contaldi, B. Crill, P. de Bernardis, P. Farese, K. Ganga, M. Giacometti, E. Hivon, V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. Jaffe, W. Jones, A. Lange, L. Martinis, S. Masi, P. Mason, P. Mauskopf, A. Melchiorri, T. Montroy, E. Pascale, F. Piacentini, D. Pogosyan, F. Pongetti, S. Prunet, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background," Astrophys. J. 571, 604-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Farese, G. Dall'Oglio, J. Gundersen, B. Keating, S. Klawikowski, L. Knox, A. Levy, P. Lubin, C. O'Dell, A. Peel, L. Piccirillo, J. Ruhl, and P. Timbie, "COMPASS: an upper limit on cosmic microwave background polarization at an angular scale of 20′," Astrophys. J. 610, 625-634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Keating, P. Timbie, A. Polnarev, and J. Steinberger, "Large angular scale polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the feasibility of its detection," Astrophys. J. 495, 580-596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser.

C. Bennett, M. Halpern, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. Meyer, L. Page, D. Spergel, G. Tucker, E. Wollack, E. Wright, C. Barnes, M. Greason, R. Hill, E. Komatsu, M. Nolta, N. Odegard, H. Peiris, L. Verde, and J. Weiland, "First year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: preliminary maps and basic results," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 148, 1-27 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cryogenics

S. Masi, P. Cardoni, P. de Bernardis, F. Piacentini, A. Raccanelli, and F. Scaramuzzi, "A long duration cryostat suitable for balloon borne photometry," Cryogenics 39, 217-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

M. N. Afsar, "Precision dielectric measurements of nonpolar polymers in the millimeter wavelength range," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 33, 1410-1415 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Baker-Jarvis, E. Vanzura, and W. Kissick, "Improved technique for determining complex permittivity with the transmission/reflection method," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1096-1103 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

F. Bréhat and B. Wyncke, "Reflectivity, transmissivity, and optical constants of anisotropic absorbing crystals," J. Phys. D 24, 2055-2066 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nature

E. Leitch, J. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. Carlstrom, N. Halverson, W. Holzapfel, M. Dragovan, B. Reddall, and E. Sandberg, "Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer," Nature 420, 763-771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New Astron.

E. Carretti, R. Tascone, S. Cortiglioni, J. Monari, and M. Orsini, "Limits due to instrumental polarization in CMB experiments at microwave wavelengths," New Astron. 6, 173-187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Sazhin, G. Sironi, and O. Khovanskaya, "Separation of foreground and background signals in single frequency measurements of the CMB polarization," New Astron. 9, 83-101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, L. Casarini, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, M. Ramponi, C. Sbarra, J. Monari, A. Orfei, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, G. Boella, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, M. Gervasi, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, M. Baralis, O. A. Peverini, R. Tascone, G. Virone, R. Fabbri, V. Natale, L. Nicastro, K-W. Ng, E. N. Vinyajkin, V. A. Razin, M. V. Sazhin, I. A. Strukov, B. Negri, "The Sky Polarization Observatory," New Astron. 9, 297-327, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

L. J. November, "Determination of the Jones matrix for the Sacramento peak vacuum tower telescope," Opt. Eng. 28, 107-113 (1989).

Phys. Rev. B

O. E. Piro, "Optical properties, reflectance, and transmittance of anisotropic absorbing crystal plates," Phys. Rev. B 36, 3427-3435 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Test.

B. Read, J. Duncan, and D. Meyer, "Birefringence techniques for the assessment of orientation," Polym. Test. 4, 143-164 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. R. White, "Origins and measurement of internal stress in plastics," Polym. Test. 4, 165-191 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEE

R. G. Jones, "Precise dielectric measurements at 35 GHz using an open microwave resonator," Proc. IEE 123, 285-290 (1976). This proceeding reports the determination of the permittivity and the electric tangent loss of HDPE and Teflon at 35 GHz, by means of a test in which an open microwave resonator is adopted.

Other

D. Vaccaneo, R. Tascone, and R. Orta, "Adaptive cavity for complex permittivity measurement of rock materials," in Proceedings of URSI EMTS 2004 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory (2004), pp. 522-524. In this proceeding, a new setup based on an adaptive cavity for the accurate measurement of the complex permittivity of materials is described.

N. Renzo, BaR-SPOrt 32 GHz Horn Design, Technical Report, N. BSPO1.06/03, (CNR-IRA, 2003).

N. Renzo, INAF, Florence, Italy (personal communication, 2004).

P. F. Goldsmith, Quasioptical System: Gaussian Beam Quasioptical Propagation and Applications (IEEE Press, 1989).

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).

J. D. Kraus, Radio Astronomy (Cygnus Quasar Books, 1986).

E. Collett, Polarized Light (Marcel Dekker, 1993).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, 1970).

B. Keating, P. Ade, J. Bock, E. Hivon, W. Holzapfel, A. Lange, H. Nguyen, Ki W. Yoon, "BICEP: a large angular scale CMB Polarimeter," in Polarimetry in Astronomy, S.Fineschi, ed. Proc. SPIE 4843,284-295 (2003). This proceeding reports both the design and expected performances of BICEP (which stands for background imaging of cosmic extragalactic polarization), a millimeter wave receiver (bolometer based) designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background.

A. de Oliveira-Costa, "The cosmic microwave background and its polarization," in Astronomical Polarimetry: Current Status and Future Directions, A. Adamson, C. Aspin, and C. J. Davis, eds., Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 343, 485 (2005).

S. Cortiglioni, G. Bernardi, E. Carretti, S. Cecchini, C. Macculi, C. Sbarra, G. Ventura, M. Baralis, O. Peverini, R. Tascone, S. Bonometto, L. Colombo, G. Sironi, M. Zannoni, V. Natale, R. Nesti, R. Fabbri, J. Monari, M. Poloni, S. Poppi, L. Nicastro, A. Boscaleri, P. de Bernardis, S. Masi, M. V. Sazhin, and E. N. Vinyajkin, "BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foreground," in Proceedings of the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, B.Warmbein, ed. (ESA, 2003), Vol. sp-530, pp. 271-277. In this proceeding, the BaR-SPOrt experiment is shown with regard to the scientific and technological points of view.

M. Zannoni, C. Macculi, E. Carretti, S. Cortiglioni, G. Ventura, J. Monari, M. Poloni, and S. Poppi, "Thermal design and performance evaluation of the BaR-SPOrt cryosta," in Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation.J.Antebi and D.Lemke, eds. Proc. SPIE 5498,735-743 (2004). The goal of this proceeding is to discuss in detail both the thermal design of the cryostat housing the instrument and the preliminary test.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reference frame: x, y, and z define the laboratory or feed-horn reference frame. β is the angle between the plane of incidence and the x axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Waveguides and dielectric samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurements (+) and best fit (−) of scattering parameters of the Teflon 1-cut loaded waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dielectric cuts. E x and E y are the electric field components vibrating along the x and y directions in the antenna reference frame. a, b, and l denote the sample sizes. 1-cut and 2-cut refers only to Teflon. See text for details.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Complex dielectric constant and index of refraction of HDPE, polypropylene, nylon, and 1-cut Teflon. The measurements have been performed at T ph = 300 K with ∼1% of precision for ϵ r and n, and ∼30% for tan(δ e ) and κ (for nylon it is 1%).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Complex dielectric constant and index of refraction of 1-cut and 2-cut Teflon. The measurements have been performed at T ph = 300 K. The precision for ϵ r and n is ∼1%, and for tan(δ e ) and κ it is ∼30%.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

In-band average reflectance, transmittance, and emittance. Left, Teflon. Right, comparison among dielectrics. d is the slab thickness.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

BaR-SPOrt case. Left, the relative transmitted signal Λ. Right, upper limit of the relative emitted signal. d is the slab thickness.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Left, BaR-SPOrt far field patterns. Right, the near field versus the radial coordinate from the circular flat slab center (ρ ≤ R = 7.5 cm, where R is the radius), by assuming a Gaussian beam approximation and using the following system parameters: distance between the feed aperture and the slab (δ = 6.5 mm), confocal distance (zc = 204.56 mm), waist (w 0 = 24.707 mm), and the distance between the waist and the slab (z = 224.716 mm) (see Refs. 29 and 30).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Absolute value of the spurious polarization coefficients related to Teflon, HDPE, and polypropylene in the 30.4–33.6 GHz band. Left, transmission regime. Right, emission regime. d is the slab thickness.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

BaR-SPOrt case. Left, upper limit of the spurious polarized transmission. Right, upper limit of the spurious polarized emission (similarly for U). d is the slab thickness.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Plots of the spurious polarization transmitted by flat dielectrics in far field regime, in the 30.4–33.6 GHz band, by increasing the beam pattern. Nylon is shown only for comparison. d is the slab thickness. See text for details.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Plots of the Q T term (left) and of the depolarization in transmission regime (right) introduced by Teflon, HDPE, and polypropylene in the 30.4–33.6 GHz band. d is the slab thickness.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Plots of the leakage effects for Teflon, HDPE, and polypropylene in the 30.4–33.6 GHz band. The bottom plots are for the BaR-SPOrt case. d is the slab thickness.

Tables (8)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Geometrical Sizes of Samples a

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Table 2 Complex Dielectric Constant and Index of Refraction with their Maximum Errors a

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Table 3 In Band (30.4–33.6 GHz) Variation, With Respect to Their Average Value, of ϵ r and tan(δ e ) for HDPE, Teflon, Polypropylene, and Nylon

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Table 4 Bibliographic Data of Complex Dielectric Constants for HDPE, Teflon, and Polypropylene a

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Table 5 In-Band Average (30.4–33.6 GHz) With Their Maximum Errors of the Complex Dielectric Constant and Index of Refraction for Both 1-cut and 2-cut Teflon a

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Table 6 Conservative Estimates of the Noise Temperature Introduced by the Flat Dielectric Slab Evaluated at T ph MAX = 300 K a

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Table 7 Upper Limits of the Spurious Polarization a

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Table 8 Upper Limits of the Spurious Polarization a

Equations (58)

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I x | E p x | 2 + | E t x | 2 ,
Q x | E p x | 2 | E t x | 2 ,
U x 2 { E p x E t x * } ,
V x 2 { E p x E t x * } ,
E j T = T j E j ,
S T = M T S 0 ,
M T = [ ( | T p | 2 + | T t | 2 ) ( | T p | 2 | T t | 2 ) 0 0 ( | T p | 2 | T t | 2 ) ( | T p | 2 + | T t | 2 ) 0 0 0 0 { T p T t * } { T p T t * } 0 0 { T p T t * } { T p T t * } ]
S T = [ ( | T p | 2 + | T t | 2 ) I un 0 ( | T p | 2 | T t | 2 ) I un 0 0 0 ] .
| E j ε | 2 ε j T ph ,
ε j ( ν , θ i ) A j ( ν , θ i ) = 1 | R j ( ν , θ i ) | 2 | T j ( ν , θ i ) | 2 ,
S ε = [ ( ε p + ε t ) T ph ( ε p ε t ) T ph 0 0 ] ,
Q SP R = SP R I un 0 ,
Q SP T = SP T I un 0 ,
Q SP ε = SP ε T ph ,
SP R = ( | R p | 2 | R t | 2 ) ,
SP T = ( | T p | 2 | T t | 2 ) ,
SP ε = ( ε p ε t ) .
SP R + SP T + SP ε = 0
SP x ( θ i = 0 ) = 0 ;
S ARF T ( 2 β ) = R ( 2 β ) M T R ( 2 β ) S ARF 0 = H T ( 2 β ) S ARF 0 ,
[ T SP T cos ( 2 β ) SP T sin ( 2 β ) 0 SP T cos ( 2 β ) T cos 2 ( 2 β ) + M 33 T sin 2 ( 2 β ) ( T M 33         T ) sin ( 2 β ) cos ( 2 β ) L T sin ( 2 β ) SP T sin ( 2 β ) ( T M 33 T ) sin ( 2 β ) cos ( 2 β ) T sin 2 ( 2 β ) + M 33 T cos 2 ( 2 β ) L T cos ( 2 β ) 0 L T sin ( 2 β ) L T cos ( 2 β ) M 33 T ] ,
T = ( | T p | 2 + | T t | 2 ) ,
L T = { T p T t * } ,
M 33 T = { T p T t * } ,
S ARF ε ( 2 β ) = [ ε T ph SP ε cos ( 2 β ) T ph SP ε sin ( 2 β ) T ph 0 ] ,
Q SP T ( d ) = 1 Ω A FF Δν × Δν [ 0 π / 2 d θ SP T ( d , ν , θ ) P n FF ( θ ) sin ( θ ) × 0 2 π d β T b ( ν , θ , β ) cos ( 2 β ) ] d ν ,
U SP T ( d ) = 1 Ω A FF Δν × Δν [ 0 π / 2 d θ SP T ( d , ν , θ ) P n FF ( θ ) sin ( θ ) × 0 2 π d β T b ( ν , θ , β ) sin ( 2 β ) ] d ν ,
T b ( ν , θ , β ) = T b , 0 ( ν ) + Δ T b ( ν , θ , β )
Q SP T ( d ) = 1 Ω A FF Δ ν Δ ν d ν × 0 π / 2 d θ SP T ( θ ) P n FF ( θ ) sin ( θ ) × 0 2 π d β Δ T b ( ν , θ , β ) cos ( 2 β ) ,
U SP T ( d ) = 1 Ω A FF Δ ν Δ ν d ν × 0 π / 2 d θ SP T ( θ ) P n FF ( θ ) sin ( θ ) × 0 2 π d β Δ T b ( ν , θ , β ) sin ( 2 β ) .
Q SP ε ( d ) = 1 Ω A NF Δ ν Δ ν d ν × 0 π / 2 d θ SP ε ( d , ν , θ ) P n NF ( θ ) sin ( θ ) × 0 2 π d β Δ T ph ( θ , β ) cos ( 2 β ) ,
U SP ε ( d ) = 1 Ω A NF Δ ν Δ ν d ν × 0 π / 2 d θ SP ε ( d , ν , θ ) P n NF ( θ ) sin ( θ ) × 0 2 π d β Δ T ph ( θ , β ) sin ( 2 β ) ,
Q SP = Q SP T + Q SP ε ,
U SP = U SP T + U SP ε .
D Q T = Q 0 Q T Q 0 = ( 1 T ) cos 2 ( 2 β ) + ( 1 M 33 T ) sin 2 ( 2 β ) ,
D U T = U 0 U T U 0 = ( 1 T ) sin 2 ( 2 β ) + ( 1 M 33 T ) cos 2 ( 2 β ) .
η Q T ( d ) = ( 1 / Ω A FF Δν ) Δ ν d ν 0 π / 2 d θ P n FF ( θ ) sin ( θ ) 0 2 π d β D Q T ( d , ν , θ , β ) Q 0 ( ν , θ , β ) ( 1 / Ω A FF Δν ) Δ ν d ν 0 π / 2 d θ P n FF ( θ ) sin ( θ ) 0 2 π d β Q 0 ( ν , θ , β )
η Q T ( d ) = 2 π Ω A FF 0 π / 2 D ˜ Q T ( d , θ ) P n FF ( θ ) × sin ( θ ) d θ ,
D ˜ Q T ( d , θ ) = 1 2 π 0 2 π D Q T ( d , ν , θ , β ) ν d β = [ 1 T ( d , ν , θ ) ν + 1 M 33 T ( d , ν , θ ) ν ] ,
Q U 0 T ( d ) = 1 Ω A FF Δ ν Δ ν d ν 0 π / 2 d θ [ T ( d , ν , θ ) M 33 T ( d , ν , θ ) ] P n FF ( θ ) sin ( θ ) × 0 2 π d β sin ( 2 β ) cos ( 2 β ) Δ U 0 ( ν , θ , β )
Q V 0 T ( d ) = 1 Ω A FF Δ ν Δν × 0 π / 2 d θ L T ( d , ν , θ ) P n FF ( θ ) sin ( θ ) × 0 2 π d β sin ( 2 β ) Δ V 0 ( ν , θ , β ) ,
U V 0 T ( d ) = 1 Ω A FF Δ ν Δ ν d ν × 0 π / 2 d θ L T ( d , ν , θ ) P n FF ( θ ) sin ( θ ) × 0 2 π d β  cos ( 2 β ) Δ V 0 ( ν , θ , β ) .
T A T ( d ) = 1 Ω A FF Δ ν 0 π / 2 d θ 0 2 π d β × Δ ν d ν T ( d , ν , θ ) T b ( ν , θ , β ) P n FF ( θ ) × sin ( θ ) ,
Λ ( d ) = 2 π Ω A FF 0 π / 2 T ( d , ν , θ ) ν P n FF ( θ ) sin ( θ ) d θ .
T A ε ( d ) = 1 Ω A NF Δ ν 0 π / 2 d θ 0 2 π d β × Δν d ν ε ( d , ν , θ ) T ph ( θ , β ) P n NF ( θ ) sin ( θ ) ,
T A ε ( d ) ε ( d , ν , θ ) ν | MAX ( θ ) × T ph ( θ , β ) | MAX ( θ , β ) ,
n = ϵ r 2 [ 1 + tan 2 ( δ e ) + 1 ] 1 / 2 | tan ( δ e ) 1 ϵ r ,
κ = ϵ r 2 [ 1 + tan 2 ( δ e ) 1 ] 1 / 2 | tan ( δ e ) 1 1 2 ε r tan ( δ e ) .
Δ n ν = n ν 1 - cut n ν 2 - cut = 0.01 ± 0.01 ,
Δ κ ν = κ ν 1 - cut κ ν 2 - cut = ( 4.2 ± 5.8 ) × 10 5 ,
Q SP x | MAX = U SP x | MAX = | SP x ( d , ν , θ ) ν | MAX ( θ ) × | Δ T ( ν , θ , β ) | MAX ( ν , θ , β ) ,
Q SP T ( d ) = 1 Ω A FF Δ ν Δ ν d ν 0 π / 2 d θ SP T ( d , ν , θ ) × P n FF ( θ ) sin ( θ ) 0 2 π d β Δ T b ( ν , θ , β ) × cos ( 2 β )
< | Δ T b ( ν , θ , β ) | MAX 2 π Ω A FF × 0 π / 2 | SP T ( d , ν , θ ) ν | P n FF ( θ ) × sin ( θ ) d θ ,
Q SP ε ( d , z ) < Δ T ph ( ν , ρ , β ) | MAX 2 π Ω A NF × 0 R | SP ε ( d , ν , ρ ) ν | × P n NF ( ρ , z ) ρ d ρ ,
Q U 0 T ( d ) < | Δ U 0 ( ν , θ , β ) | MAX ( ν , θ , β ) × f T , M 33 T ( d ) ,
f T , M 33 T ( d ) = 2 π Ω A FF 0 π / 2 [ T ( d , ν , θ ) ν −  M 33       T ( d , ν , θ ) ν ] P n FF ( θ ) sin ( θ ) d θ .
Q V 0 T ( d ) < | Δ V 0 ( ν , θ , β ) | MAX ( ν , θ , β ) × f L T ( d ) ,
f L T ( d ) = 2 π Ω A FF 0 π / 2 | L T ( d , ν , θ ) | ν P n FF ( θ ) sin ( θ ) d θ ,

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