Abstract

Laser-induced fluorescence of acetone and 3-pentanone for a 248  nm excitation wavelength was investigated for conditions relevant for internal combustion engines regarding temperature, pressure, and gas composition. An optically accessible calibration chamber with continuous gas flow was operated by using CO2 and air as a bath gas. According to the varying pressure and temperature conditions during the compression stroke of a spark ignition engine, fluorescence experiments were performed under isothermal pressure variations from 1 to 20 bars for different temperatures between 293  and  700  K. The ketone fluorescence behavior predictions, based on a model previously developed by Thurber et al. [Appl. Opt. 37, 4963 (1998)], were found to overestimate the pressure-related fluorescence increase for high temperature and small wavelength excitation at 248   nm. The parameters influencing the model only in the large vibrational energy regime were newly adjusted, which resulted in an improved model with a better agreement with the experiment. The model's validity for excitation at larger wavelengths was not influenced. For the air bath gas an additional collision and vibrational energy sensitive quenching rate was implemented in the model for both tracers, acetone and 3-pentanone.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Beyrau, A. Braeuer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Gas-phase temperature measurement in the vaporizing spray of a gasoline direct-injection injector by use of pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Opt. Lett. 29, 247-249 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, I. Schmitz, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Locally resolved investigation of the vaporization of GDI sprays applying different laser techniques," Atomization Sprays 16, 237-348 (2006).
  3. W. Koban, J. D. Koch, V. Sick, N. Wermuth, R. K. Hanson, and C. Schulz, "Predicting LIF signal strength for toluene and 3-pentanone under engine-related temperature and pressure conditions," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1545-1553 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Lozano, B. Yip, and R. K. Hanson, "Acetone: a tracer for concentration measurements in gaseous flows by planar laser-induced fluorescence," Exp. Fluids 13, 369-376 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. C. Thurber, F. Grisch, and R. K. Hanson, "Temperature imaging with single- and dual-wavelength acetone planar laser-induced fluorescence," Opt. Lett. 22, 251-253 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Einecke, C. Schulz, and V. Sick, "Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 717-723 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. P. Kearney and F. V. Reyes, "Quantitative temperature imaging in gas-phase turbulent thermal convection by laser-induced fluorescence of acetone," Exp. Fluids 34, 87-97 (2003).
  8. J. D. Koch and R. K. Hanson, "Temperature and excitation wavelength dependencies of 3-pentanone absorption and fluorescence for PLIF applications," Appl. Phys. B 76, 319-324 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. S. Yuen, J. E. Peters, and R. P. Lucht, "Pressure dependence of laser-induced fluorescence from acetone," Appl. Opt. 36, 3271-3277 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. C. Thurber, F. Grisch, B. J. Kirby, M. Votsmeier, and R. K. Hanson, "Measurements and modeling of acetone laser-induced fluorescence with implications for temperature-imaging diagnostics," Appl. Opt. 37, 4963-4978 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. C. Thurber and R. K. Hanson, "Pressure and composition dependences of acetone laser-induced fluorescence with excitation at 248, 266, and 308 nm," Appl. Phys. B 69, 229-240 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. P. Tait and D. A. Greenhalgh, "2D laser induced fluorescence imaging of parent fuel fraction in nonpremixed combustion," Proc. Combust. Inst. 24, 1621-1628 (1992).
  13. R. Bazile and D. Stepowski, "Measurements of vaporized and liquid fuel concentration fields in a burning spray jet of acetone using planar laser-induced fluorescence," Exp. Fluids 20, 1-9 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. B. Ghandhi and P. G. Felton, "On the fluorescent behavior of ketones at high temperatures," Exp. Fluids 21, 143-144 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Grossmann, P. B. Monkhouse, M. Ridder, V. Sick, and J. Wolfrum, "Temperature and pressure dependences of the laser-induced fluorescence of gas-phase acetone and 3-pentanone," Appl. Phys. B 62, 249-253 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Schulz and V. Sick, "Tracer-LIF diagnostics: quantitative measurement of fuel concentration, temperature and fuel/air ratio in practical combustion systems," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 31, 75-121 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Sulzer and K. Wieland, "Intensitätsverteilung eines kontinuierlichen Absorptions-spektrums in Abhängigkeit von Temperatur und Wellenzahl," Helv. Phys. Acta 25, 653-676 (1952).
  18. W. M. Nau and J. C. Scaiano, "Oxygen quenching of excited aliphatic ketones and diketones," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11360-11367 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Hippler, J. Troe, and H. J. Wendelken, "Collisional deactivation of vibrationally highly excited polyatomic molecules. II. Direct observations for excited toluene," J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6709-6717 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. O. Hirschfelder, C. F. Curtis, and R. B. Bird, Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids (Wiley, 1964).
  21. R. Span and W. Wagner, "A new equation of state for carbon dioxide covering the fluid region from the triple-point temperature to 1100 K at pressures up to 800 MPa," J. Phys. Chem. 25, 1509-1596 (1996).
  22. J. D. Koch and R. K. Hanson, "A photophysics model for 3-pentanone PLIF: temperature, pressure and excitation wavelength dependences", in Proceedings of 41st AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit(Reno 2003), AIAA paper 2003-0403, pp. 1-8.
  23. W. R. Ware and S. K. Lee, "Luminescent properties of hexafluoroacetone. II. Fluorescence quenching by oxygen, nitric oxide and unsaturated hydrocarbons," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 217-220 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

W. Koban, J. D. Koch, V. Sick, N. Wermuth, R. K. Hanson, and C. Schulz, "Predicting LIF signal strength for toluene and 3-pentanone under engine-related temperature and pressure conditions," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1545-1553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Schulz and V. Sick, "Tracer-LIF diagnostics: quantitative measurement of fuel concentration, temperature and fuel/air ratio in practical combustion systems," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 31, 75-121 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

S. P. Kearney and F. V. Reyes, "Quantitative temperature imaging in gas-phase turbulent thermal convection by laser-induced fluorescence of acetone," Exp. Fluids 34, 87-97 (2003).

J. D. Koch and R. K. Hanson, "Temperature and excitation wavelength dependencies of 3-pentanone absorption and fluorescence for PLIF applications," Appl. Phys. B 76, 319-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, and V. Sick, "Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 717-723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. C. Thurber and R. K. Hanson, "Pressure and composition dependences of acetone laser-induced fluorescence with excitation at 248, 266, and 308 nm," Appl. Phys. B 69, 229-240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

1996 (4)

J. B. Ghandhi and P. G. Felton, "On the fluorescent behavior of ketones at high temperatures," Exp. Fluids 21, 143-144 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Grossmann, P. B. Monkhouse, M. Ridder, V. Sick, and J. Wolfrum, "Temperature and pressure dependences of the laser-induced fluorescence of gas-phase acetone and 3-pentanone," Appl. Phys. B 62, 249-253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Nau and J. C. Scaiano, "Oxygen quenching of excited aliphatic ketones and diketones," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11360-11367 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Span and W. Wagner, "A new equation of state for carbon dioxide covering the fluid region from the triple-point temperature to 1100 K at pressures up to 800 MPa," J. Phys. Chem. 25, 1509-1596 (1996).

1995 (1)

R. Bazile and D. Stepowski, "Measurements of vaporized and liquid fuel concentration fields in a burning spray jet of acetone using planar laser-induced fluorescence," Exp. Fluids 20, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

N. P. Tait and D. A. Greenhalgh, "2D laser induced fluorescence imaging of parent fuel fraction in nonpremixed combustion," Proc. Combust. Inst. 24, 1621-1628 (1992).

A. Lozano, B. Yip, and R. K. Hanson, "Acetone: a tracer for concentration measurements in gaseous flows by planar laser-induced fluorescence," Exp. Fluids 13, 369-376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

H. Hippler, J. Troe, and H. J. Wendelken, "Collisional deactivation of vibrationally highly excited polyatomic molecules. II. Direct observations for excited toluene," J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6709-6717 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. R. Ware and S. K. Lee, "Luminescent properties of hexafluoroacetone. II. Fluorescence quenching by oxygen, nitric oxide and unsaturated hydrocarbons," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 217-220 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

P. Sulzer and K. Wieland, "Intensitätsverteilung eines kontinuierlichen Absorptions-spektrums in Abhängigkeit von Temperatur und Wellenzahl," Helv. Phys. Acta 25, 653-676 (1952).

Bazile, R.

R. Bazile and D. Stepowski, "Measurements of vaporized and liquid fuel concentration fields in a burning spray jet of acetone using planar laser-induced fluorescence," Exp. Fluids 20, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Beyrau, F.

F. Beyrau, A. Braeuer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Gas-phase temperature measurement in the vaporizing spray of a gasoline direct-injection injector by use of pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Opt. Lett. 29, 247-249 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, I. Schmitz, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Locally resolved investigation of the vaporization of GDI sprays applying different laser techniques," Atomization Sprays 16, 237-348 (2006).

Bird, R. B.

J. O. Hirschfelder, C. F. Curtis, and R. B. Bird, Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids (Wiley, 1964).

Braeuer, A.

Curtis, C. F.

J. O. Hirschfelder, C. F. Curtis, and R. B. Bird, Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids (Wiley, 1964).

Einecke, S.

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, and V. Sick, "Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 717-723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Felton, P. G.

J. B. Ghandhi and P. G. Felton, "On the fluorescent behavior of ketones at high temperatures," Exp. Fluids 21, 143-144 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ghandhi, J. B.

J. B. Ghandhi and P. G. Felton, "On the fluorescent behavior of ketones at high temperatures," Exp. Fluids 21, 143-144 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Greenhalgh, D. A.

N. P. Tait and D. A. Greenhalgh, "2D laser induced fluorescence imaging of parent fuel fraction in nonpremixed combustion," Proc. Combust. Inst. 24, 1621-1628 (1992).

Grisch, F.

Grossmann, F.

F. Grossmann, P. B. Monkhouse, M. Ridder, V. Sick, and J. Wolfrum, "Temperature and pressure dependences of the laser-induced fluorescence of gas-phase acetone and 3-pentanone," Appl. Phys. B 62, 249-253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

W. Koban, J. D. Koch, V. Sick, N. Wermuth, R. K. Hanson, and C. Schulz, "Predicting LIF signal strength for toluene and 3-pentanone under engine-related temperature and pressure conditions," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1545-1553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Koch and R. K. Hanson, "Temperature and excitation wavelength dependencies of 3-pentanone absorption and fluorescence for PLIF applications," Appl. Phys. B 76, 319-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Thurber and R. K. Hanson, "Pressure and composition dependences of acetone laser-induced fluorescence with excitation at 248, 266, and 308 nm," Appl. Phys. B 69, 229-240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Thurber, F. Grisch, B. J. Kirby, M. Votsmeier, and R. K. Hanson, "Measurements and modeling of acetone laser-induced fluorescence with implications for temperature-imaging diagnostics," Appl. Opt. 37, 4963-4978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Thurber, F. Grisch, and R. K. Hanson, "Temperature imaging with single- and dual-wavelength acetone planar laser-induced fluorescence," Opt. Lett. 22, 251-253 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lozano, B. Yip, and R. K. Hanson, "Acetone: a tracer for concentration measurements in gaseous flows by planar laser-induced fluorescence," Exp. Fluids 13, 369-376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Koch and R. K. Hanson, "A photophysics model for 3-pentanone PLIF: temperature, pressure and excitation wavelength dependences", in Proceedings of 41st AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit(Reno 2003), AIAA paper 2003-0403, pp. 1-8.

Hippler, H.

H. Hippler, J. Troe, and H. J. Wendelken, "Collisional deactivation of vibrationally highly excited polyatomic molecules. II. Direct observations for excited toluene," J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6709-6717 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hirschfelder, J. O.

J. O. Hirschfelder, C. F. Curtis, and R. B. Bird, Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids (Wiley, 1964).

Kearney, S. P.

S. P. Kearney and F. V. Reyes, "Quantitative temperature imaging in gas-phase turbulent thermal convection by laser-induced fluorescence of acetone," Exp. Fluids 34, 87-97 (2003).

Kirby, B. J.

Koban, W.

W. Koban, J. D. Koch, V. Sick, N. Wermuth, R. K. Hanson, and C. Schulz, "Predicting LIF signal strength for toluene and 3-pentanone under engine-related temperature and pressure conditions," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1545-1553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koch, J. D.

W. Koban, J. D. Koch, V. Sick, N. Wermuth, R. K. Hanson, and C. Schulz, "Predicting LIF signal strength for toluene and 3-pentanone under engine-related temperature and pressure conditions," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1545-1553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Koch and R. K. Hanson, "Temperature and excitation wavelength dependencies of 3-pentanone absorption and fluorescence for PLIF applications," Appl. Phys. B 76, 319-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Koch and R. K. Hanson, "A photophysics model for 3-pentanone PLIF: temperature, pressure and excitation wavelength dependences", in Proceedings of 41st AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit(Reno 2003), AIAA paper 2003-0403, pp. 1-8.

Lee, S. K.

W. R. Ware and S. K. Lee, "Luminescent properties of hexafluoroacetone. II. Fluorescence quenching by oxygen, nitric oxide and unsaturated hydrocarbons," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 217-220 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Leipertz, A.

F. Beyrau, A. Braeuer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Gas-phase temperature measurement in the vaporizing spray of a gasoline direct-injection injector by use of pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Opt. Lett. 29, 247-249 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, I. Schmitz, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Locally resolved investigation of the vaporization of GDI sprays applying different laser techniques," Atomization Sprays 16, 237-348 (2006).

Lozano, A.

A. Lozano, B. Yip, and R. K. Hanson, "Acetone: a tracer for concentration measurements in gaseous flows by planar laser-induced fluorescence," Exp. Fluids 13, 369-376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lucht, R. P.

Monkhouse, P. B.

F. Grossmann, P. B. Monkhouse, M. Ridder, V. Sick, and J. Wolfrum, "Temperature and pressure dependences of the laser-induced fluorescence of gas-phase acetone and 3-pentanone," Appl. Phys. B 62, 249-253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nau, W. M.

W. M. Nau and J. C. Scaiano, "Oxygen quenching of excited aliphatic ketones and diketones," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11360-11367 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peters, J. E.

Reyes, F. V.

S. P. Kearney and F. V. Reyes, "Quantitative temperature imaging in gas-phase turbulent thermal convection by laser-induced fluorescence of acetone," Exp. Fluids 34, 87-97 (2003).

Ridder, M.

F. Grossmann, P. B. Monkhouse, M. Ridder, V. Sick, and J. Wolfrum, "Temperature and pressure dependences of the laser-induced fluorescence of gas-phase acetone and 3-pentanone," Appl. Phys. B 62, 249-253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scaiano, J. C.

W. M. Nau and J. C. Scaiano, "Oxygen quenching of excited aliphatic ketones and diketones," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11360-11367 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, I.

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, I. Schmitz, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Locally resolved investigation of the vaporization of GDI sprays applying different laser techniques," Atomization Sprays 16, 237-348 (2006).

Schulz, C.

W. Koban, J. D. Koch, V. Sick, N. Wermuth, R. K. Hanson, and C. Schulz, "Predicting LIF signal strength for toluene and 3-pentanone under engine-related temperature and pressure conditions," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1545-1553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Schulz and V. Sick, "Tracer-LIF diagnostics: quantitative measurement of fuel concentration, temperature and fuel/air ratio in practical combustion systems," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 31, 75-121 (2005)
[CrossRef]

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, and V. Sick, "Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 717-723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seeger, T.

F. Beyrau, A. Braeuer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Gas-phase temperature measurement in the vaporizing spray of a gasoline direct-injection injector by use of pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Opt. Lett. 29, 247-249 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, I. Schmitz, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Locally resolved investigation of the vaporization of GDI sprays applying different laser techniques," Atomization Sprays 16, 237-348 (2006).

Sick, V.

W. Koban, J. D. Koch, V. Sick, N. Wermuth, R. K. Hanson, and C. Schulz, "Predicting LIF signal strength for toluene and 3-pentanone under engine-related temperature and pressure conditions," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1545-1553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Schulz and V. Sick, "Tracer-LIF diagnostics: quantitative measurement of fuel concentration, temperature and fuel/air ratio in practical combustion systems," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 31, 75-121 (2005)
[CrossRef]

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, and V. Sick, "Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 717-723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Grossmann, P. B. Monkhouse, M. Ridder, V. Sick, and J. Wolfrum, "Temperature and pressure dependences of the laser-induced fluorescence of gas-phase acetone and 3-pentanone," Appl. Phys. B 62, 249-253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Span, R.

R. Span and W. Wagner, "A new equation of state for carbon dioxide covering the fluid region from the triple-point temperature to 1100 K at pressures up to 800 MPa," J. Phys. Chem. 25, 1509-1596 (1996).

Stepowski, D.

R. Bazile and D. Stepowski, "Measurements of vaporized and liquid fuel concentration fields in a burning spray jet of acetone using planar laser-induced fluorescence," Exp. Fluids 20, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sulzer, P.

P. Sulzer and K. Wieland, "Intensitätsverteilung eines kontinuierlichen Absorptions-spektrums in Abhängigkeit von Temperatur und Wellenzahl," Helv. Phys. Acta 25, 653-676 (1952).

Tait, N. P.

N. P. Tait and D. A. Greenhalgh, "2D laser induced fluorescence imaging of parent fuel fraction in nonpremixed combustion," Proc. Combust. Inst. 24, 1621-1628 (1992).

Thurber, M. C.

Troe, J.

H. Hippler, J. Troe, and H. J. Wendelken, "Collisional deactivation of vibrationally highly excited polyatomic molecules. II. Direct observations for excited toluene," J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6709-6717 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Votsmeier, M.

Wagner, W.

R. Span and W. Wagner, "A new equation of state for carbon dioxide covering the fluid region from the triple-point temperature to 1100 K at pressures up to 800 MPa," J. Phys. Chem. 25, 1509-1596 (1996).

Ware, W. R.

W. R. Ware and S. K. Lee, "Luminescent properties of hexafluoroacetone. II. Fluorescence quenching by oxygen, nitric oxide and unsaturated hydrocarbons," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 217-220 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Weikl, M. C.

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, I. Schmitz, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Locally resolved investigation of the vaporization of GDI sprays applying different laser techniques," Atomization Sprays 16, 237-348 (2006).

Wendelken, H. J.

H. Hippler, J. Troe, and H. J. Wendelken, "Collisional deactivation of vibrationally highly excited polyatomic molecules. II. Direct observations for excited toluene," J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6709-6717 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wermuth, N.

W. Koban, J. D. Koch, V. Sick, N. Wermuth, R. K. Hanson, and C. Schulz, "Predicting LIF signal strength for toluene and 3-pentanone under engine-related temperature and pressure conditions," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1545-1553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wieland, K.

P. Sulzer and K. Wieland, "Intensitätsverteilung eines kontinuierlichen Absorptions-spektrums in Abhängigkeit von Temperatur und Wellenzahl," Helv. Phys. Acta 25, 653-676 (1952).

Wolfrum, J.

F. Grossmann, P. B. Monkhouse, M. Ridder, V. Sick, and J. Wolfrum, "Temperature and pressure dependences of the laser-induced fluorescence of gas-phase acetone and 3-pentanone," Appl. Phys. B 62, 249-253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yip, B.

A. Lozano, B. Yip, and R. K. Hanson, "Acetone: a tracer for concentration measurements in gaseous flows by planar laser-induced fluorescence," Exp. Fluids 13, 369-376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, L. S.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

M. C. Thurber and R. K. Hanson, "Pressure and composition dependences of acetone laser-induced fluorescence with excitation at 248, 266, and 308 nm," Appl. Phys. B 69, 229-240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Grossmann, P. B. Monkhouse, M. Ridder, V. Sick, and J. Wolfrum, "Temperature and pressure dependences of the laser-induced fluorescence of gas-phase acetone and 3-pentanone," Appl. Phys. B 62, 249-253 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, and V. Sick, "Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 717-723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Koch and R. K. Hanson, "Temperature and excitation wavelength dependencies of 3-pentanone absorption and fluorescence for PLIF applications," Appl. Phys. B 76, 319-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (4)

S. P. Kearney and F. V. Reyes, "Quantitative temperature imaging in gas-phase turbulent thermal convection by laser-induced fluorescence of acetone," Exp. Fluids 34, 87-97 (2003).

A. Lozano, B. Yip, and R. K. Hanson, "Acetone: a tracer for concentration measurements in gaseous flows by planar laser-induced fluorescence," Exp. Fluids 13, 369-376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Bazile and D. Stepowski, "Measurements of vaporized and liquid fuel concentration fields in a burning spray jet of acetone using planar laser-induced fluorescence," Exp. Fluids 20, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Ghandhi and P. G. Felton, "On the fluorescent behavior of ketones at high temperatures," Exp. Fluids 21, 143-144 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Helv. Phys. Acta (1)

P. Sulzer and K. Wieland, "Intensitätsverteilung eines kontinuierlichen Absorptions-spektrums in Abhängigkeit von Temperatur und Wellenzahl," Helv. Phys. Acta 25, 653-676 (1952).

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

H. Hippler, J. Troe, and H. J. Wendelken, "Collisional deactivation of vibrationally highly excited polyatomic molecules. II. Direct observations for excited toluene," J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6709-6717 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Ware and S. K. Lee, "Luminescent properties of hexafluoroacetone. II. Fluorescence quenching by oxygen, nitric oxide and unsaturated hydrocarbons," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 217-220 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

R. Span and W. Wagner, "A new equation of state for carbon dioxide covering the fluid region from the triple-point temperature to 1100 K at pressures up to 800 MPa," J. Phys. Chem. 25, 1509-1596 (1996).

W. M. Nau and J. C. Scaiano, "Oxygen quenching of excited aliphatic ketones and diketones," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11360-11367 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Combust. Inst. (2)

W. Koban, J. D. Koch, V. Sick, N. Wermuth, R. K. Hanson, and C. Schulz, "Predicting LIF signal strength for toluene and 3-pentanone under engine-related temperature and pressure conditions," Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1545-1553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Tait and D. A. Greenhalgh, "2D laser induced fluorescence imaging of parent fuel fraction in nonpremixed combustion," Proc. Combust. Inst. 24, 1621-1628 (1992).

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

C. Schulz and V. Sick, "Tracer-LIF diagnostics: quantitative measurement of fuel concentration, temperature and fuel/air ratio in practical combustion systems," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 31, 75-121 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, I. Schmitz, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Locally resolved investigation of the vaporization of GDI sprays applying different laser techniques," Atomization Sprays 16, 237-348 (2006).

J. O. Hirschfelder, C. F. Curtis, and R. B. Bird, Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids (Wiley, 1964).

J. D. Koch and R. K. Hanson, "A photophysics model for 3-pentanone PLIF: temperature, pressure and excitation wavelength dependences", in Proceedings of 41st AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit(Reno 2003), AIAA paper 2003-0403, pp. 1-8.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of the experimental setup used. ED, energy detector; NDF, neutral-density filter; PD, photodiode; PMT, photomultiplier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Normalized acetone fluorescence behavior per molecule in a CO2 bath gas at 248 nm excitation wavelength for three different temperatures (293, 473, and 693 K). Experiment, E; model conventional, MC (dashed curve); model of this work with improved knr (solid curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Normalized acetone fluorescence behavior per molecule in an air bath gas at 248 nm excitation wavelength for three different temperatures (293, 474, and 690 K). Experiment, E; improved model with k quench (solid curves).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Normalized acetone fluorescence at 20 bars in air and a CO2 bath gas for different temperatures. Values are taken in part from Figs. 2 and 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Normalized acetone fluorescence behavior for constant mole fraction in N2 and an air bath gas at 248 nm excitation wavelength. Experiment, E; model of this work (solid curve). MTW, model of this work.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Normalized 3-pentanone fluorescence behavior per molecule in an air bath gas at 248 nm excitation wavelength for three different temperatures (423, 562, and 692 K). Experiment, E; model conventional, MC (dashed curves); model of this work (solid curves).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Normalized 3-pentanone fluorescence behavior for constant mole fraction in N2 and an air bath gas at 248 nm excitation wavelength. Experiment, E; model conventional, MC (dashed curve); model of this work (solid curve).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 knr and α Values in a CO2 Bath Gas for Best Fit

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Table 2 Comparison of the Rate for Intersystem Crossing knr Adjusted by Koch and Hanson a and Newly Proposed to Fit the Experimental Data for 3-Pentanone in an Air Bath Gas

Equations (9)

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S F = E h c / λ [ V e p k T χ tracer ] σ ( λ , T ) ϕ ( λ , T , p , i χ i ) ,
S F * σ ( λ , T ) ϕ ( λ , T , p , i χ i ) ,
S F     + 1 T σ ( λ , T ) ϕ ( λ , T , p , i χ i ) .
ϕ = k F k F + k coll + k n r + k quench ,
E = Δ E th + E laser E 0 .
Δ E coll = α ( E Δ E th ) ,
ϕ = k F k F + k coll + k n r , 1 + k quench + i = 2 N 1 [ k F k F + k coll + k n r , i + k quench × j = 1 i 1 ( k coll k F + k coll + k nr , j + k quench ) ] + k F k F + k n r , N + k quench i = 1 N 1 ( k coll k F + k nr , j + k quench ) .
k quench = k coll ( T O 2 ) 4.5 × 10 6 exp ( E / 1030 ) .
k quench = k coll ( T O 2 ) 1.2 × 10 3 exp ( E / 3363 ) .

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