Abstract

A distributed Brillouin fiber sensor has been employed to detect localized pipe-wall buckling in an energy pipe by measuring the longitudinal and hoop strain distributions along the outer surface of the pipe for the first time. The locations of the localized pipe-wall buckling are found and distinguished using their corresponding strain–load data. The formation of the buckling process for the compression and tension characters is studied in the longitudinal and hoop directions. For the pipe with internal pressure, concentric load, and bending load, a localized pipe-wall buckling takes place away from the middle of the pipe on the compressive side and a strain peak with an overall buckling occurs on the tensile side according to the longitudinal strain distributions along the pipe. Different strains on two neutral lines are also observed in the hoop strain distribution, which should be caused by the pipe weld joint.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. J. White, A. J. Barefoot, and M. D. Bolton, "Centrifuge modeling of upheaval buckling in sand," Int. J. Phys. Model. Geotech. 2, 19-28 (2001).
  2. E. Tapanes, "Fibre optic sensing solutions for real-time pipeline integrity monitoring," presented at the Australian Pipeline Industry Association National Convention, Brisbane, Australia, 27-30 October 2001, http://www.iceweb.com.au/Newtech/FFTlowbarPipelinelowbarIntegritylowbarPaper.pdf.
  3. L. Zou, G. A. Ferrier, S. Afshar V., Q. Yu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, "Distributed Brillouin scattering sensor for discrimination of wall-thinning defects in steel pipe under internal pressure," Appl. Opt. 43, 1583-1588 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Zou, X. Bao, Y. Wan, and L. Chen, "Coherent probe-pump-based Brillouin sensor for centimeter-crack detection," Opt. Lett. 30, 370-372 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Zou, X. Bao, S. Afshar V., and L. Chen, "Dependence of the Brillouin frequency shift on strain and temperature in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 1485-1487 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. W. Murray, Introduction to the Theory of Thin-Walled Structures (Oxford U. Press, 1984).
  7. P. E. Tovstik and A. L. Smirnov, Asymptotic Methods in the Buckling Theory of Elastic Shells (World Scientific, 2001).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2001 (1)

D. J. White, A. J. Barefoot, and M. D. Bolton, "Centrifuge modeling of upheaval buckling in sand," Int. J. Phys. Model. Geotech. 2, 19-28 (2001).

Afshar V., S.

Bao, X.

Barefoot, A. J.

D. J. White, A. J. Barefoot, and M. D. Bolton, "Centrifuge modeling of upheaval buckling in sand," Int. J. Phys. Model. Geotech. 2, 19-28 (2001).

Bolton, M. D.

D. J. White, A. J. Barefoot, and M. D. Bolton, "Centrifuge modeling of upheaval buckling in sand," Int. J. Phys. Model. Geotech. 2, 19-28 (2001).

Chen, L.

Ferrier, G. A.

Murray, N. W.

N. W. Murray, Introduction to the Theory of Thin-Walled Structures (Oxford U. Press, 1984).

Smirnov, A. L.

P. E. Tovstik and A. L. Smirnov, Asymptotic Methods in the Buckling Theory of Elastic Shells (World Scientific, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Tapanes, E.

E. Tapanes, "Fibre optic sensing solutions for real-time pipeline integrity monitoring," presented at the Australian Pipeline Industry Association National Convention, Brisbane, Australia, 27-30 October 2001, http://www.iceweb.com.au/Newtech/FFTlowbarPipelinelowbarIntegritylowbarPaper.pdf.

Tovstik, P. E.

P. E. Tovstik and A. L. Smirnov, Asymptotic Methods in the Buckling Theory of Elastic Shells (World Scientific, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Wan, Y.

White, D. J.

D. J. White, A. J. Barefoot, and M. D. Bolton, "Centrifuge modeling of upheaval buckling in sand," Int. J. Phys. Model. Geotech. 2, 19-28 (2001).

Yu, Q.

Zou, L.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Int. J. Phys. Model. Geotech. (1)

D. J. White, A. J. Barefoot, and M. D. Bolton, "Centrifuge modeling of upheaval buckling in sand," Int. J. Phys. Model. Geotech. 2, 19-28 (2001).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

N. W. Murray, Introduction to the Theory of Thin-Walled Structures (Oxford U. Press, 1984).

P. E. Tovstik and A. L. Smirnov, Asymptotic Methods in the Buckling Theory of Elastic Shells (World Scientific, 2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Tapanes, "Fibre optic sensing solutions for real-time pipeline integrity monitoring," presented at the Australian Pipeline Industry Association National Convention, Brisbane, Australia, 27-30 October 2001, http://www.iceweb.com.au/Newtech/FFTlowbarPipelinelowbarIntegritylowbarPaper.pdf.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of an energy pipe used for the localized pipe-wall buckling detection and the UTS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Longitudinal layout of ten sensing sections with a 1 m loose fiber separation. Longitudinal distribution of strain can be measured from each section, and hoop strain distribution around the circumference of the pipe at any location of the pipe can be obtained from these ten sensing sections.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-domain profile for a whole sensing fiber at 12,766 MHz before the bending loads are applied. Ten valleys correspond to ten sections of sensing fiber glued onto the pipe, and the fine structures in most valleys indicate 15 cm spatial resolution for our system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Strain distributions along the 12 o'clock section of the pipe on the bending loads of (a) 979 kN (220 kips) and (b) 1335 kN (300 kips). The maximum compressive strains of −4391 and −7555 με happened at 40 cm on the bending loads of 979 and 1335 kN, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Strain distributions along the 6 o'clock section of the pipe on the bending loads of (a) 979 kN (220 kips) and (b) 1335 kN (300 kips). The biggest tensile strain of 2553 and 3874 με also occurred at 40 cm on the bending loads of 979 and 1335 kN, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Localized pipe-wall buckling identified by a photograph taken from the neutral line (9 o'clock, (b) external profiles, and (c) strain profiles. The biggest deformation and compressive strain occurred around the middle of the pipe on the bending loads up to 667 kN. However, the buckling happened at 40 cm up from the middle of the pipe after the bending load of 979 kN. The inset curve in (c) is the strain distribution on the bending load of 667 kN on a different strain scale, which clearly shows that the middle of the pipe experienced more compression.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Strain–load relation at the buckling location. The elastic coefficients are the same for both compression and tension. However, the buckling behavior on the tensile side is different from that on the compressive side, and the localized pipe-wall buckling would happen on the compressive side prior to on the tensile side.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Hoop strain distribution at the buckling location (40 cm up from the middle of the pipe). The maximum compression happened at around 180° (12 o'clock position), and when the bending load increased to 1335 kN (300 kips), the maximum compression then shifted to 11 o'clock. The strain changed smoothly at neutral section 9 o'clock from 83° to 97°, but there is a jump of strain at neutral section 3 o'clock from 260° to 277°, which should be caused by the pipe weld joint at 3 o'clock (270°).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Material Specifications of the Steel Pipe

Tables Icon

Table 2 Strains around Neutral Sections

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