Abstract

A continuous-wave, diode-pumped, room-temperature Tm:YAlO3 laser was built, characterized, and compared with a theoretical model. Spectroscopic parameters of the laser crystal, such as the pump band (3H4 manifold) lifetime, the upper laser level (3F4 manifold) lifetime, and the absorption coefficient were measured. The experimental data were used to calculate the quantum efficiency of Tm self-quenching of the 3H4 manifold.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. J. Weber, M. Bass, T. E. Varitimos, and D. P. Bua, "Laser action from Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+ in YAlO3," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 1079-1086 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. M. Tkachuk, V. A. Fedorov, and P. P. Feofilov, "Spectral characteristics of the thulium ion and cascade generation of stimulated radiation in a YAlO3:Tu3+:Cr3+ crystal," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 117-118 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. C. Stoneman, and L. Esterowitz, "Efficient 1.94 μm Tm:YAIO laser," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 1, 78-81 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. C. Stoneman, L. Esterowitz, and B. Feldman, "Diode pumped 1.94 um Tm:YAlO laser," in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 8th Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 1995), Vols. 1 and 2, pp. 453-454.
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. A. Pomeranz, P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, C. A. Miller, J. R. Mosto, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, "Power scaling performance of Tm:YLF and Tm:YALO lasers," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.M.Fejer, H.Injeyan, and U.Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 458-462.
  6. S. W. Henderson, J. H. Marquardt, T. J. Carrig, P. Gatt, D. D. Smith, and C. P. Hale, "Tunable single-frequency near IR lasers for DIAL applications," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, U.N.Singh, T.Itabe, and N.Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4153, 443-454 (2001).
  7. P. Cerny, G. J. Valentine, and D. Burns, "Actively stabilized diode pumped Tm:YAlO laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 1061-1063 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. A. Caird, L. G. DeShazer, and J. Nella, "Characteristics of room temperature 2.3 μm laser emission from Tm3+ in YAG and YAlO3," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 874-881 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. J. Kintz, R. Allen, and L. Esterowitz, "Two for one photon conversion observed in alexandrite pumped Tm3+, Ho3+:YAG at room temperature," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 14 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1987), paper ThU4.
  10. N. P. Barnes, "Lanthanide series lasers—near infrared," in Handbook of Laser Technology and Applications, C.E.Webb and J.D. C.Jones, eds. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2004), Vol. 2, pp. 383-410.
  11. N. P. Barnes, M. E. Storm, P. L. Cross, and M. W. Skolaut, Jr., "Efficiency of Nd laser materials with laser diode pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 558-569 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Rapaport, S. Zhao, G. Xiao, A. Howard, and M. Bass, "Temperature dependence of the 1.06 μm stimulated emission cross section of neodymium in YAG and in GSGG," Appl. Opt. 41, 7052-7057 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

P. Cerny, G. J. Valentine, and D. Burns, "Actively stabilized diode pumped Tm:YAlO laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 1061-1063 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1995 (1)

R. C. Stoneman, and L. Esterowitz, "Efficient 1.94 μm Tm:YAIO laser," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 1, 78-81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

N. P. Barnes, M. E. Storm, P. L. Cross, and M. W. Skolaut, Jr., "Efficiency of Nd laser materials with laser diode pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 558-569 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

J. A. Caird, L. G. DeShazer, and J. Nella, "Characteristics of room temperature 2.3 μm laser emission from Tm3+ in YAG and YAlO3," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 874-881 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. M. Tkachuk, V. A. Fedorov, and P. P. Feofilov, "Spectral characteristics of the thulium ion and cascade generation of stimulated radiation in a YAlO3:Tu3+:Cr3+ crystal," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 117-118 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

M. J. Weber, M. Bass, T. E. Varitimos, and D. P. Bua, "Laser action from Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+ in YAlO3," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 1079-1086 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Allen, R.

G. J. Kintz, R. Allen, and L. Esterowitz, "Two for one photon conversion observed in alexandrite pumped Tm3+, Ho3+:YAG at room temperature," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 14 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1987), paper ThU4.

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes, M. E. Storm, P. L. Cross, and M. W. Skolaut, Jr., "Efficiency of Nd laser materials with laser diode pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 558-569 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes, "Lanthanide series lasers—near infrared," in Handbook of Laser Technology and Applications, C.E.Webb and J.D. C.Jones, eds. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2004), Vol. 2, pp. 383-410.

Bass, M.

A. Rapaport, S. Zhao, G. Xiao, A. Howard, and M. Bass, "Temperature dependence of the 1.06 μm stimulated emission cross section of neodymium in YAG and in GSGG," Appl. Opt. 41, 7052-7057 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Weber, M. Bass, T. E. Varitimos, and D. P. Bua, "Laser action from Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+ in YAlO3," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 1079-1086 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bua, D. P.

M. J. Weber, M. Bass, T. E. Varitimos, and D. P. Bua, "Laser action from Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+ in YAlO3," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 1079-1086 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Budni, P. A.

L. A. Pomeranz, P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, C. A. Miller, J. R. Mosto, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, "Power scaling performance of Tm:YLF and Tm:YALO lasers," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.M.Fejer, H.Injeyan, and U.Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 458-462.

Burns, D.

P. Cerny, G. J. Valentine, and D. Burns, "Actively stabilized diode pumped Tm:YAlO laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 1061-1063 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caird, J. A.

J. A. Caird, L. G. DeShazer, and J. Nella, "Characteristics of room temperature 2.3 μm laser emission from Tm3+ in YAG and YAlO3," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 874-881 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Carrig, T. J.

S. W. Henderson, J. H. Marquardt, T. J. Carrig, P. Gatt, D. D. Smith, and C. P. Hale, "Tunable single-frequency near IR lasers for DIAL applications," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, U.N.Singh, T.Itabe, and N.Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4153, 443-454 (2001).

Cerny, P.

P. Cerny, G. J. Valentine, and D. Burns, "Actively stabilized diode pumped Tm:YAlO laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 1061-1063 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chicklis, E. P.

L. A. Pomeranz, P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, C. A. Miller, J. R. Mosto, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, "Power scaling performance of Tm:YLF and Tm:YALO lasers," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.M.Fejer, H.Injeyan, and U.Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 458-462.

Cross, P. L.

N. P. Barnes, M. E. Storm, P. L. Cross, and M. W. Skolaut, Jr., "Efficiency of Nd laser materials with laser diode pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 558-569 (1990).
[CrossRef]

DeShazer, L. G.

J. A. Caird, L. G. DeShazer, and J. Nella, "Characteristics of room temperature 2.3 μm laser emission from Tm3+ in YAG and YAlO3," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 874-881 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Esterowitz, L.

R. C. Stoneman, and L. Esterowitz, "Efficient 1.94 μm Tm:YAIO laser," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 1, 78-81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Stoneman, L. Esterowitz, and B. Feldman, "Diode pumped 1.94 um Tm:YAlO laser," in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 8th Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 1995), Vols. 1 and 2, pp. 453-454.
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kintz, R. Allen, and L. Esterowitz, "Two for one photon conversion observed in alexandrite pumped Tm3+, Ho3+:YAG at room temperature," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 14 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1987), paper ThU4.

Fedorov, V. A.

A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. M. Tkachuk, V. A. Fedorov, and P. P. Feofilov, "Spectral characteristics of the thulium ion and cascade generation of stimulated radiation in a YAlO3:Tu3+:Cr3+ crystal," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 117-118 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, B.

R. C. Stoneman, L. Esterowitz, and B. Feldman, "Diode pumped 1.94 um Tm:YAlO laser," in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 8th Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 1995), Vols. 1 and 2, pp. 453-454.
[CrossRef]

Feofilov, P. P.

A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. M. Tkachuk, V. A. Fedorov, and P. P. Feofilov, "Spectral characteristics of the thulium ion and cascade generation of stimulated radiation in a YAlO3:Tu3+:Cr3+ crystal," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 117-118 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gatt, P.

S. W. Henderson, J. H. Marquardt, T. J. Carrig, P. Gatt, D. D. Smith, and C. P. Hale, "Tunable single-frequency near IR lasers for DIAL applications," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, U.N.Singh, T.Itabe, and N.Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4153, 443-454 (2001).

Hale, C. P.

S. W. Henderson, J. H. Marquardt, T. J. Carrig, P. Gatt, D. D. Smith, and C. P. Hale, "Tunable single-frequency near IR lasers for DIAL applications," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, U.N.Singh, T.Itabe, and N.Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4153, 443-454 (2001).

Henderson, S. W.

S. W. Henderson, J. H. Marquardt, T. J. Carrig, P. Gatt, D. D. Smith, and C. P. Hale, "Tunable single-frequency near IR lasers for DIAL applications," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, U.N.Singh, T.Itabe, and N.Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4153, 443-454 (2001).

Howard, A.

Ivanov, A. O.

A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. M. Tkachuk, V. A. Fedorov, and P. P. Feofilov, "Spectral characteristics of the thulium ion and cascade generation of stimulated radiation in a YAlO3:Tu3+:Cr3+ crystal," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 117-118 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kintz, G. J.

G. J. Kintz, R. Allen, and L. Esterowitz, "Two for one photon conversion observed in alexandrite pumped Tm3+, Ho3+:YAG at room temperature," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 14 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1987), paper ThU4.

Lemons, M. L.

L. A. Pomeranz, P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, C. A. Miller, J. R. Mosto, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, "Power scaling performance of Tm:YLF and Tm:YALO lasers," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.M.Fejer, H.Injeyan, and U.Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 458-462.

Marquardt, J. H.

S. W. Henderson, J. H. Marquardt, T. J. Carrig, P. Gatt, D. D. Smith, and C. P. Hale, "Tunable single-frequency near IR lasers for DIAL applications," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, U.N.Singh, T.Itabe, and N.Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4153, 443-454 (2001).

Miller, C. A.

L. A. Pomeranz, P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, C. A. Miller, J. R. Mosto, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, "Power scaling performance of Tm:YLF and Tm:YALO lasers," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.M.Fejer, H.Injeyan, and U.Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 458-462.

Mochalov, I. V.

A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. M. Tkachuk, V. A. Fedorov, and P. P. Feofilov, "Spectral characteristics of the thulium ion and cascade generation of stimulated radiation in a YAlO3:Tu3+:Cr3+ crystal," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 117-118 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mosto, J. R.

L. A. Pomeranz, P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, C. A. Miller, J. R. Mosto, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, "Power scaling performance of Tm:YLF and Tm:YALO lasers," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.M.Fejer, H.Injeyan, and U.Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 458-462.

Nella, J.

J. A. Caird, L. G. DeShazer, and J. Nella, "Characteristics of room temperature 2.3 μm laser emission from Tm3+ in YAG and YAlO3," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 874-881 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pollak, T. M.

L. A. Pomeranz, P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, C. A. Miller, J. R. Mosto, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, "Power scaling performance of Tm:YLF and Tm:YALO lasers," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.M.Fejer, H.Injeyan, and U.Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 458-462.

Pomeranz, L. A.

L. A. Pomeranz, P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, C. A. Miller, J. R. Mosto, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, "Power scaling performance of Tm:YLF and Tm:YALO lasers," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.M.Fejer, H.Injeyan, and U.Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 458-462.

Rapaport, A.

Skolaut, M. W.

N. P. Barnes, M. E. Storm, P. L. Cross, and M. W. Skolaut, Jr., "Efficiency of Nd laser materials with laser diode pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 558-569 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. D.

S. W. Henderson, J. H. Marquardt, T. J. Carrig, P. Gatt, D. D. Smith, and C. P. Hale, "Tunable single-frequency near IR lasers for DIAL applications," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, U.N.Singh, T.Itabe, and N.Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4153, 443-454 (2001).

Stoneman, R. C.

R. C. Stoneman, and L. Esterowitz, "Efficient 1.94 μm Tm:YAIO laser," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 1, 78-81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Stoneman, L. Esterowitz, and B. Feldman, "Diode pumped 1.94 um Tm:YAlO laser," in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 8th Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 1995), Vols. 1 and 2, pp. 453-454.
[CrossRef]

Storm, M. E.

N. P. Barnes, M. E. Storm, P. L. Cross, and M. W. Skolaut, Jr., "Efficiency of Nd laser materials with laser diode pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 558-569 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tkachuk, A. M.

A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. M. Tkachuk, V. A. Fedorov, and P. P. Feofilov, "Spectral characteristics of the thulium ion and cascade generation of stimulated radiation in a YAlO3:Tu3+:Cr3+ crystal," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 117-118 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, G. J.

P. Cerny, G. J. Valentine, and D. Burns, "Actively stabilized diode pumped Tm:YAlO laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 1061-1063 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Varitimos, T. E.

M. J. Weber, M. Bass, T. E. Varitimos, and D. P. Bua, "Laser action from Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+ in YAlO3," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 1079-1086 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, M. Bass, T. E. Varitimos, and D. P. Bua, "Laser action from Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+ in YAlO3," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 1079-1086 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, G.

Zhao, S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Cerny, G. J. Valentine, and D. Burns, "Actively stabilized diode pumped Tm:YAlO laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 1061-1063 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

J. A. Caird, L. G. DeShazer, and J. Nella, "Characteristics of room temperature 2.3 μm laser emission from Tm3+ in YAG and YAlO3," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 874-881 (1975).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes, M. E. Storm, P. L. Cross, and M. W. Skolaut, Jr., "Efficiency of Nd laser materials with laser diode pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 558-569 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, M. Bass, T. E. Varitimos, and D. P. Bua, "Laser action from Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+ in YAlO3," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 1079-1086 (1973).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron (1)

R. C. Stoneman, and L. Esterowitz, "Efficient 1.94 μm Tm:YAIO laser," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 1, 78-81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. M. Tkachuk, V. A. Fedorov, and P. P. Feofilov, "Spectral characteristics of the thulium ion and cascade generation of stimulated radiation in a YAlO3:Tu3+:Cr3+ crystal," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 117-118 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

R. C. Stoneman, L. Esterowitz, and B. Feldman, "Diode pumped 1.94 um Tm:YAlO laser," in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 8th Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 1995), Vols. 1 and 2, pp. 453-454.
[CrossRef]

L. A. Pomeranz, P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, C. A. Miller, J. R. Mosto, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, "Power scaling performance of Tm:YLF and Tm:YALO lasers," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.M.Fejer, H.Injeyan, and U.Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 458-462.

S. W. Henderson, J. H. Marquardt, T. J. Carrig, P. Gatt, D. D. Smith, and C. P. Hale, "Tunable single-frequency near IR lasers for DIAL applications," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring, U.N.Singh, T.Itabe, and N.Sugimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4153, 443-454 (2001).

G. J. Kintz, R. Allen, and L. Esterowitz, "Two for one photon conversion observed in alexandrite pumped Tm3+, Ho3+:YAG at room temperature," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 14 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1987), paper ThU4.

N. P. Barnes, "Lanthanide series lasers—near infrared," in Handbook of Laser Technology and Applications, C.E.Webb and J.D. C.Jones, eds. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2004), Vol. 2, pp. 383-410.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Lifetime of the 3 H 4 manifold.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lifetime of the 3 F 4 manifold.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral transmission characteristics of Tm:YAlO3 (5 mm path length).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the Tm:YAlO3 laser cavity: R, reflective; ROC, radius of curvature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Tm:YAlO3 output power versus pump laser diode power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Energy-level diagram for a Tm:YALO3 laser.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Laser threshold power versus laser crystal temperature.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R m R L exp [ 2 σ e ( 1 + Z 1 Z 2 ) N 2 th l 2 σ e Z 1 Z 2 N s l ] = 1 ,
N 2 th = ln ( R m R L ) Z 2 2 σ e l ( Z 1 + Z 2 ) + Z 1 N s Z 1 + Z 2 .
N 2 th = η Q τ 2 λ p η a h c l π w p     2 P P th ,
( Z 1 + Z 2 ) Z 2 η Q τ 2 λ p η a h c l π w p     2 P P th = Z 1 Z 2 N s ln ( R m R L ) 2 σ e l .

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