Abstract

We report a comparison of laser power measurements at the F 2-laser wavelength of 157  nm made at two facilities of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German national metrology institute. At the PTB laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II in Berlin, the scale for laser power was directly traced to a cryogenic radiometer operating at 157  nm, whereas at the PTB laser radiometry facility in Braunschweig the calibration of transfer detectors was performed with a newly developed standard for laser power at 157  nm, which is traceable in several steps to a cryogenic radiometer operating at 633  nm. The comparison was performed under vacuum conditions with laser pulse energies of 10  μJ, however with different average powers because different primary standard radiometers were used. The relative deviation for the responsivity of the transfer detector was 4.8% and thus within the combined standard uncertainty.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Kück, F. Brandt, and M. Taddeo, "A gold-coated copper cone detector as new standard detector for F2 laser radiation at 157 nm," Appl. Opt. 44, 2258-2265 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Klein, M. Krumrey, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Radiometry with synchrotron radiation at the PTB Laboratory at BESSY II," Synchr. Rad. News 15(1),23-29 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Rabus, V. Persch, and G. Ulm, "Synchrotron-radiation-operated cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer as the high-accuracy primary detector standard in the ultraviolet, vacuum-ultraviolet, and soft-x-ray spectral ranges," Appl. Opt. 36, 5421-5440 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "The two normal-incidence monochromator beam lines of PTB at BESSY II," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 467-468, 605-608 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2003).
  6. W. G. Driscoll and W. Vaughan, eds., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1978).
  7. M. Richter, U. Kroth, A. Gottwald, Ch. Gerth, K. Tiedtke, T. Saito, I. Tassy, and K. Vogler, "Metrology of pulsed radiation for 157-nm lithography," Appl. Opt. 41, 7167-7172 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. International Organization for Standardization, Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (International Organization for Standardization, 1995).
  9. See Metrodata GmbH, GUM Workbench, Version 1.2.11.56 Win32, www.metrodata.de.

2005 (1)

2002 (2)

M. Richter, U. Kroth, A. Gottwald, Ch. Gerth, K. Tiedtke, T. Saito, I. Tassy, and K. Vogler, "Metrology of pulsed radiation for 157-nm lithography," Appl. Opt. 41, 7167-7172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Klein, M. Krumrey, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Radiometry with synchrotron radiation at the PTB Laboratory at BESSY II," Synchr. Rad. News 15(1),23-29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "The two normal-incidence monochromator beam lines of PTB at BESSY II," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 467-468, 605-608 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Brandt, F.

Driscoll, W. G.

W. G. Driscoll and W. Vaughan, eds., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1978).

Gerth, Ch.

Gottwald, A.

Hollandt, J.

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "The two normal-incidence monochromator beam lines of PTB at BESSY II," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 467-468, 605-608 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klein, R.

R. Klein, M. Krumrey, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Radiometry with synchrotron radiation at the PTB Laboratory at BESSY II," Synchr. Rad. News 15(1),23-29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kroth, U.

M. Richter, U. Kroth, A. Gottwald, Ch. Gerth, K. Tiedtke, T. Saito, I. Tassy, and K. Vogler, "Metrology of pulsed radiation for 157-nm lithography," Appl. Opt. 41, 7167-7172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "The two normal-incidence monochromator beam lines of PTB at BESSY II," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 467-468, 605-608 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krumrey, M.

R. Klein, M. Krumrey, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Radiometry with synchrotron radiation at the PTB Laboratory at BESSY II," Synchr. Rad. News 15(1),23-29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kück, S.

Paustian, W.

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "The two normal-incidence monochromator beam lines of PTB at BESSY II," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 467-468, 605-608 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Persch, V.

Rabus, H.

Richter, M.

M. Richter, U. Kroth, A. Gottwald, Ch. Gerth, K. Tiedtke, T. Saito, I. Tassy, and K. Vogler, "Metrology of pulsed radiation for 157-nm lithography," Appl. Opt. 41, 7167-7172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Klein, M. Krumrey, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Radiometry with synchrotron radiation at the PTB Laboratory at BESSY II," Synchr. Rad. News 15(1),23-29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "The two normal-incidence monochromator beam lines of PTB at BESSY II," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 467-468, 605-608 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saito, T.

Scholze, F.

R. Klein, M. Krumrey, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Radiometry with synchrotron radiation at the PTB Laboratory at BESSY II," Synchr. Rad. News 15(1),23-29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taddeo, M.

Tassy, I.

Thornagel, R.

R. Klein, M. Krumrey, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Radiometry with synchrotron radiation at the PTB Laboratory at BESSY II," Synchr. Rad. News 15(1),23-29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "The two normal-incidence monochromator beam lines of PTB at BESSY II," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 467-468, 605-608 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tiedtke, K.

Ulm, G.

R. Klein, M. Krumrey, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Radiometry with synchrotron radiation at the PTB Laboratory at BESSY II," Synchr. Rad. News 15(1),23-29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "The two normal-incidence monochromator beam lines of PTB at BESSY II," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 467-468, 605-608 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Rabus, V. Persch, and G. Ulm, "Synchrotron-radiation-operated cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer as the high-accuracy primary detector standard in the ultraviolet, vacuum-ultraviolet, and soft-x-ray spectral ranges," Appl. Opt. 36, 5421-5440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaughan, W.

W. G. Driscoll and W. Vaughan, eds., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1978).

Vogler, K.

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2003).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (1)

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "The two normal-incidence monochromator beam lines of PTB at BESSY II," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 467-468, 605-608 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Synchr. Rad. News (1)

R. Klein, M. Krumrey, M. Richter, F. Scholze, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Radiometry with synchrotron radiation at the PTB Laboratory at BESSY II," Synchr. Rad. News 15(1),23-29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

International Organization for Standardization, Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (International Organization for Standardization, 1995).

See Metrodata GmbH, GUM Workbench, Version 1.2.11.56 Win32, www.metrodata.de.

M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2003).

W. G. Driscoll and W. Vaughan, eds., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1978).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the PTB laser radiometry facility. Solid lines, optical beams; dashed lines, electrical connections. DVMs, digital voltmeters; DUT, device under test.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Schematic of the setup at the PTB laboratory at BESSY II.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Results of the calibration run for the PE-10 detector in vacuum at the PTB laser radiometry facility: Responsivity (not corrected for the switching factor) as a function of the average applied power (top) and of the applied pulse energy (bottom). Small diamonds, single measurements; large circle, mean value.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Results of the PE-10 powermeter calibration with the SYRES II primary standard at the PTB laboratory at BESSY II. The responsivity (without correction for the plasma contribution) is shown for several pulse energies (diamonds); large circle, mean value.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic calibration chains: CR-I, SYRES II cryogenic radiometer at the PTB Laboratory at BESSY II; CR-II, cryogenic radiometer at the PTB laser radiometry facility; LM4, LM7, LM8, standard detectors at the PTB laser radiometry facility; Trap, Si-trap detector at the PTB laser radiometry facility.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Uncertainty Budget for Determination of Absolute Responsivity sLM8 of the PE-10 Transfer Detector at 157 nm a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Uncertainty Budget for Determination of Absolute Responsivity s SYRES of the PE-10 Transfer Detector at 157 nm a

Equations (6)

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s = s 0 ( Φ 0 , T 0 ) ( 1 + β Φ Φ ) [ 1 + β T ( T 22   ° C ) ] ,
s LM 8 = s LM 8 , meas × F s 0 × f R ,
s LM 8 = ( 66,700 ± 1090 )   V / J , ( standard uncertainty,   k = 1 ) ,
s LM 8 = ( 66,700 ± 2300 )  V / J   ( expanded uncertainty for a coverage factor of 95 % , k = 2.1 ) .
s SYRES , meas = ( 62,400 ± 3000 ) V / J ( standard   uncertainty , k = 1 ) .
s SYRES = ( 69,890 ± 5510 ) V / J ( standard   uncertainty , k = 1 ) .

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