Abstract

We present a robust and computationally efficient method for retrieving aerosol optical depth (AOD) from top-of-atmosphere ATSR-2 (Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) and AATSR (Advanced ATSR) reflectance data that is formulated to allow retrieval of the AOD from the 11 year archive of (A)ATSR data on the global scale. The approach uses a physical model of light scattering that requires no a priori information on the land surface. Computational efficiency is achieved by using precalculated lookup tables (LUTs) for the numerical inversion of a radiative-transfer model of the atmosphere. Estimates of AOD retrieved by the LUT approach are tested on AATSR data for a range of global land surfaces and are shown to be highly correlated with sunphotometer measurements of the AOD at 550  nm. (Pearson's correlation coefficient r2 is 0.71.)

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, and L. D. Travis, " Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites," J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 6, 73- 89 ( 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. T. Kiehl and B. P. Briegleb, " The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing," Science 260, 311- 314 ( 1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, and D. Xiaosu, eds., Climate Change 2001:The Scientific Basis (Cambridge University, 2001).
  4. Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, " A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system," Nature (London) 419, 215- 223 ( 2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, O. Torres, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, B. Chatenet, and F. Lavenu, " Comparisons of the TOMS aerosol optical thickness:results and applications," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 6269- 6279 ( 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Torres, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. Holben, " A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398- 413 ( 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and M. A. Bull, " Regional aerosol retrieval results MISR," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 40, 1520- 1531 ( 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. J. Kaufman, A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B. C. Gao, R. R. Li, and L. Flynn, " The MODIS 2.1 μm channel--correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1286- 1298 ( 1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. V. Geogdzhayev, M. I. Mishchenko, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, and A. A. Lacis, " Global two-channel AVHRR retrievals of aerosol properties over the ocean for the period of NOAA-9 observations and preliminary retrievals using NOAA-7 and NOAA-11 data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 262- 278 ( 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Ignatov and L. Stowe, " Aerosol retrievals from individual AVHRR channels. Part I:Retrieval algorithm and transition from Dave to 6S radiative-transfer model," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 313- 334 ( 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Higurashi and T. Nakajima, " Development of a two-channel aerosol retrieval algorithm on a global scale using NOAA AVHRR," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 924- 941. ( 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, and A. A. Lacis, " Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data:sensitivity analysis and preliminary results," Appl. Opt. 38, 7325- 7341 ( 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. L. Stowe, A. M. Ignatov, and R. R. Singh, " Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at the national environment satellite, data, and information service of the national oceanic and atmospheric administration," J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102, 16923- 16934 ( 1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. R. Knapp and L. L. Stowe, " Evaluating the potential for retrieving aerosol optical depth over land from AVHRR pathfinder atmosphere data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 279- 293 ( 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, A. Ignatov, M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, O. Torres, and B. Holben, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over the ocean," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 499- 513 ( 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, " AATSR:global-change and surface-temperature measurements from Envisat," ESA Bull. 105, 11- 21 ( 2001).
  18. J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, and H. R. Gordon, " Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 36, 1212- 1227 ( 1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. R. J. North, S. A. Briggs, S. E. Plummer, and J. J. Settle, " Retrieval of land surface bidirectional reflectance and aerosol opacity from ATSR-2 multiangle imagery," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 526- 537 ( 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. J. Flowerdew and J. D. Haigh, " Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness over land using the ATSR-2 dual-look satellite radiometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 351- 354 ( 1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, and P. A. Durkee, " Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over land using two-angle view satellite radiometry during TARFOX," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3135- 3138 ( 1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. M. F. Grey, P. R. J. North, S. O. Los, and R. M. Mitchell, " Aerosol opacity and land surface reflectance from multiangle AATSR measurements:global validation and intersensor comparison," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (to be published).
  23. R. B. Myneni, S. Maggion, J. Iaquinto, J. L. Privette, N. Gobron, B. Pinty, D. S. Kimes, M. M. Verstraete, and D. L. Williams, " Optical remote-sensing of vegetation--modeling, caveats, and algorithms," Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 169- 188 ( 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. O. Los, G. J. Collatz, P. J. Sellers, C. M. Malmstrom, N. H. Pollack, R. S. De-Fries, L. Bounoua, M. T. Parris, C. J. Tucker, and D. A. Dazlich, " A global 9-y biophysical land surface data set from NOAA AVHRR data," J. Hydrometeorol. 1, 183- 199 ( 2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. J. Tucker, D. A. Slayback, J. E. Pinzon, S. O. Los, R. B. Myneni, and M. G. Taylor, " Higher northern latitude normalized difference vegetation index and growing season trends from 1982 to 1999," Int. J. Biometeorol. 45, 184- 190 ( 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, and J. -J. Morcette, " Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S:an overview," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675- 686 ( 1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. R. J. North, " Estimation of aerosol opacity and land surface bidirectional reflectance from ATSR-2 dual-angle imagery: operational method and validation," J. Geophys. Res. 107 (D12), doi: ( 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. Press, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd. ed. (Cambridge University, 1992).
  29. P. R. J. North, " Three-dimensional forest light interaction model using a Monte Carlo method," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 34, 946- 956 ( 1996).
    [CrossRef]
  30. European Space Agency, AATSR Product Handbook Issue 1.2, http://envisat.esa.int/dataproducts/ (2004).
  31. B. N. Holben, E. Vermote, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and V. Kalb, " Aerosol retrieval over land from AVHRR data--application for atmospheric correction," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 212- 222 ( 1992).
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. M. Mitchell and D. M. O'Brien, " Correction of AVHRR shortwave channels for the effects of atmospheric scattering and absorption," Remote Sens. Environ. 46, 129- 145 ( 1993).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. S. Kimes, J. L. Privette, A. A. Abuelgasim, Y. Knyazikhin, and F. Gao, " Inversion methods for physically based models," Remote Sens. Rev. 18, 381- 439 ( 2000).
    [CrossRef]
  34. H. Rahman and G. Dedieu, " SMAC:a simplified method for the atmospheric correction of satellite measurements in the solar spectrum," Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 123- 143 ( 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  35. A. Saltelli, K. Chan, and M. Scott, eds., Sensitivity Analysis (Wiley, 2000).

2005 (2)

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, and L. D. Travis, " Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites," J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 6, 73- 89 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, A. Ignatov, M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, O. Torres, and B. Holben, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over the ocean," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 499- 513 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (7)

K. R. Knapp and L. L. Stowe, " Evaluating the potential for retrieving aerosol optical depth over land from AVHRR pathfinder atmosphere data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 279- 293 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

P. R. J. North, " Estimation of aerosol opacity and land surface bidirectional reflectance from ATSR-2 dual-angle imagery: operational method and validation," J. Geophys. Res. 107 (D12), doi: ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, " A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system," Nature (London) 419, 215- 223 ( 2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. Holben, " A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398- 413 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and M. A. Bull, " Regional aerosol retrieval results MISR," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 40, 1520- 1531 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Geogdzhayev, M. I. Mishchenko, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, and A. A. Lacis, " Global two-channel AVHRR retrievals of aerosol properties over the ocean for the period of NOAA-9 observations and preliminary retrievals using NOAA-7 and NOAA-11 data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 262- 278 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ignatov and L. Stowe, " Aerosol retrievals from individual AVHRR channels. Part I:Retrieval algorithm and transition from Dave to 6S radiative-transfer model," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 313- 334 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. J. Tucker, D. A. Slayback, J. E. Pinzon, S. O. Los, R. B. Myneni, and M. G. Taylor, " Higher northern latitude normalized difference vegetation index and growing season trends from 1982 to 1999," Int. J. Biometeorol. 45, 184- 190 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, " AATSR:global-change and surface-temperature measurements from Envisat," ESA Bull. 105, 11- 21 ( 2001).

2000 (2)

S. O. Los, G. J. Collatz, P. J. Sellers, C. M. Malmstrom, N. H. Pollack, R. S. De-Fries, L. Bounoua, M. T. Parris, C. J. Tucker, and D. A. Dazlich, " A global 9-y biophysical land surface data set from NOAA AVHRR data," J. Hydrometeorol. 1, 183- 199 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kimes, J. L. Privette, A. A. Abuelgasim, Y. Knyazikhin, and F. Gao, " Inversion methods for physically based models," Remote Sens. Rev. 18, 381- 439 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, O. Torres, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, B. Chatenet, and F. Lavenu, " Comparisons of the TOMS aerosol optical thickness:results and applications," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 6269- 6279 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Higurashi and T. Nakajima, " Development of a two-channel aerosol retrieval algorithm on a global scale using NOAA AVHRR," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 924- 941. ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, and A. A. Lacis, " Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data:sensitivity analysis and preliminary results," Appl. Opt. 38, 7325- 7341 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

P. R. J. North, S. A. Briggs, S. E. Plummer, and J. J. Settle, " Retrieval of land surface bidirectional reflectance and aerosol opacity from ATSR-2 multiangle imagery," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 526- 537 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, and H. R. Gordon, " Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 36, 1212- 1227 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, and P. A. Durkee, " Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over land using two-angle view satellite radiometry during TARFOX," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3135- 3138 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, and J. -J. Morcette, " Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S:an overview," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675- 686 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Stowe, A. M. Ignatov, and R. R. Singh, " Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at the national environment satellite, data, and information service of the national oceanic and atmospheric administration," J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102, 16923- 16934 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B. C. Gao, R. R. Li, and L. Flynn, " The MODIS 2.1 μm channel--correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1286- 1298 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. J. Flowerdew and J. D. Haigh, " Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness over land using the ATSR-2 dual-look satellite radiometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 351- 354 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

P. R. J. North, " Three-dimensional forest light interaction model using a Monte Carlo method," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 34, 946- 956 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. B. Myneni, S. Maggion, J. Iaquinto, J. L. Privette, N. Gobron, B. Pinty, D. S. Kimes, M. M. Verstraete, and D. L. Williams, " Optical remote-sensing of vegetation--modeling, caveats, and algorithms," Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 169- 188 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Rahman and G. Dedieu, " SMAC:a simplified method for the atmospheric correction of satellite measurements in the solar spectrum," Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 123- 143 ( 1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. T. Kiehl and B. P. Briegleb, " The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing," Science 260, 311- 314 ( 1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Mitchell and D. M. O'Brien, " Correction of AVHRR shortwave channels for the effects of atmospheric scattering and absorption," Remote Sens. Environ. 46, 129- 145 ( 1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

B. N. Holben, E. Vermote, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and V. Kalb, " Aerosol retrieval over land from AVHRR data--application for atmospheric correction," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 212- 222 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Abuelgasim, A. A.

D. S. Kimes, J. L. Privette, A. A. Abuelgasim, Y. Knyazikhin, and F. Gao, " Inversion methods for physically based models," Remote Sens. Rev. 18, 381- 439 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, T. P.

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, and H. R. Gordon, " Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 36, 1212- 1227 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Barton, I. J.

D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, " AATSR:global-change and surface-temperature measurements from Envisat," ESA Bull. 105, 11- 21 ( 2001).

Bhartia, P. K.

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. Holben, " A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398- 413 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Birks, A. R.

D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, " AATSR:global-change and surface-temperature measurements from Envisat," ESA Bull. 105, 11- 21 ( 2001).

Boucher, O.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, " A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system," Nature (London) 419, 215- 223 ( 2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bounoua, L.

S. O. Los, G. J. Collatz, P. J. Sellers, C. M. Malmstrom, N. H. Pollack, R. S. De-Fries, L. Bounoua, M. T. Parris, C. J. Tucker, and D. A. Dazlich, " A global 9-y biophysical land surface data set from NOAA AVHRR data," J. Hydrometeorol. 1, 183- 199 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

Briegleb, B. P.

J. T. Kiehl and B. P. Briegleb, " The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing," Science 260, 311- 314 ( 1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, S. A.

P. R. J. North, S. A. Briggs, S. E. Plummer, and J. J. Settle, " Retrieval of land surface bidirectional reflectance and aerosol opacity from ATSR-2 multiangle imagery," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 526- 537 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Bull, M. A.

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and M. A. Bull, " Regional aerosol retrieval results MISR," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 40, 1520- 1531 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, and L. D. Travis, " Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites," J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 6, 73- 89 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Geogdzhayev, M. I. Mishchenko, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, and A. A. Lacis, " Global two-channel AVHRR retrievals of aerosol properties over the ocean for the period of NOAA-9 observations and preliminary retrievals using NOAA-7 and NOAA-11 data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 262- 278 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, and A. A. Lacis, " Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data:sensitivity analysis and preliminary results," Appl. Opt. 38, 7325- 7341 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K.

A. Saltelli, K. Chan, and M. Scott, eds., Sensitivity Analysis (Wiley, 2000).

Chatenet, B.

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, O. Torres, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, B. Chatenet, and F. Lavenu, " Comparisons of the TOMS aerosol optical thickness:results and applications," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 6269- 6279 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhary, J.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, and L. D. Travis, " Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites," J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 6, 73- 89 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Collatz, G. J.

S. O. Los, G. J. Collatz, P. J. Sellers, C. M. Malmstrom, N. H. Pollack, R. S. De-Fries, L. Bounoua, M. T. Parris, C. J. Tucker, and D. A. Dazlich, " A global 9-y biophysical land surface data set from NOAA AVHRR data," J. Hydrometeorol. 1, 183- 199 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

Crean, K. A.

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and M. A. Bull, " Regional aerosol retrieval results MISR," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 40, 1520- 1531 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Dazlich, D. A.

S. O. Los, G. J. Collatz, P. J. Sellers, C. M. Malmstrom, N. H. Pollack, R. S. De-Fries, L. Bounoua, M. T. Parris, C. J. Tucker, and D. A. Dazlich, " A global 9-y biophysical land surface data set from NOAA AVHRR data," J. Hydrometeorol. 1, 183- 199 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

de Leeuw, G.

J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, and P. A. Durkee, " Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over land using two-angle view satellite radiometry during TARFOX," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3135- 3138 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Dedieu, G.

H. Rahman and G. Dedieu, " SMAC:a simplified method for the atmospheric correction of satellite measurements in the solar spectrum," Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 123- 143 ( 1994).
[CrossRef]

De-Fries, R. S.

S. O. Los, G. J. Collatz, P. J. Sellers, C. M. Malmstrom, N. H. Pollack, R. S. De-Fries, L. Bounoua, M. T. Parris, C. J. Tucker, and D. A. Dazlich, " A global 9-y biophysical land surface data set from NOAA AVHRR data," J. Hydrometeorol. 1, 183- 199 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

Deuze, J. L.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, A. Ignatov, M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, O. Torres, and B. Holben, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over the ocean," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 499- 513 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, and J. -J. Morcette, " Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S:an overview," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675- 686 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Diner, D. J.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and M. A. Bull, " Regional aerosol retrieval results MISR," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 40, 1520- 1531 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, and H. R. Gordon, " Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 36, 1212- 1227 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, and D. Xiaosu, eds., Climate Change 2001:The Scientific Basis (Cambridge University, 2001).

Durkee, P. A.

J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, and P. A. Durkee, " Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over land using two-angle view satellite radiometry during TARFOX," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3135- 3138 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, O. Torres, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, B. Chatenet, and F. Lavenu, " Comparisons of the TOMS aerosol optical thickness:results and applications," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 6269- 6279 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, M. C.

D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, " AATSR:global-change and surface-temperature measurements from Envisat," ESA Bull. 105, 11- 21 ( 2001).

Flannery, B.

W. Press, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd. ed. (Cambridge University, 1992).

Flowerdew, R. J.

R. J. Flowerdew and J. D. Haigh, " Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness over land using the ATSR-2 dual-look satellite radiometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 351- 354 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

Flynn, L.

Y. J. Kaufman, A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B. C. Gao, R. R. Li, and L. Flynn, " The MODIS 2.1 μm channel--correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1286- 1298 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Gao, B. C.

Y. J. Kaufman, A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B. C. Gao, R. R. Li, and L. Flynn, " The MODIS 2.1 μm channel--correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1286- 1298 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Gao, F.

D. S. Kimes, J. L. Privette, A. A. Abuelgasim, Y. Knyazikhin, and F. Gao, " Inversion methods for physically based models," Remote Sens. Rev. 18, 381- 439 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

Geogdzhayev, I. V.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, and L. D. Travis, " Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites," J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 6, 73- 89 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, A. Ignatov, M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, O. Torres, and B. Holben, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over the ocean," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 499- 513 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Geogdzhayev, M. I. Mishchenko, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, and A. A. Lacis, " Global two-channel AVHRR retrievals of aerosol properties over the ocean for the period of NOAA-9 observations and preliminary retrievals using NOAA-7 and NOAA-11 data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 262- 278 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, and A. A. Lacis, " Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data:sensitivity analysis and preliminary results," Appl. Opt. 38, 7325- 7341 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Ginoux, P.

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. Holben, " A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398- 413 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Gobron, N.

R. B. Myneni, S. Maggion, J. Iaquinto, J. L. Privette, N. Gobron, B. Pinty, D. S. Kimes, M. M. Verstraete, and D. L. Williams, " Optical remote-sensing of vegetation--modeling, caveats, and algorithms," Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 169- 188 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Goloub, P.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, A. Ignatov, M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, O. Torres, and B. Holben, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over the ocean," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 499- 513 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, and H. R. Gordon, " Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 36, 1212- 1227 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Grey, W. M. F.

W. M. F. Grey, P. R. J. North, S. O. Los, and R. M. Mitchell, " Aerosol opacity and land surface reflectance from multiangle AATSR measurements:global validation and intersensor comparison," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (to be published).

Griggs, D. J.

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, and D. Xiaosu, eds., Climate Change 2001:The Scientific Basis (Cambridge University, 2001).

Haigh, J. D.

R. J. Flowerdew and J. D. Haigh, " Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness over land using the ATSR-2 dual-look satellite radiometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 351- 354 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

Haywood, J. M.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Herman, J. R.

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. Holben, " A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398- 413 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, O. Torres, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, B. Chatenet, and F. Lavenu, " Comparisons of the TOMS aerosol optical thickness:results and applications," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 6269- 6279 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, and J. -J. Morcette, " Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S:an overview," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675- 686 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Higurashi, A.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, A. Ignatov, M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, O. Torres, and B. Holben, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over the ocean," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 499- 513 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Higurashi and T. Nakajima, " Development of a two-channel aerosol retrieval algorithm on a global scale using NOAA AVHRR," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 924- 941. ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, A. Ignatov, M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, O. Torres, and B. Holben, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over the ocean," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 499- 513 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. Holben, " A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398- 413 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, O. Torres, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, B. Chatenet, and F. Lavenu, " Comparisons of the TOMS aerosol optical thickness:results and applications," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 6269- 6279 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, E. Vermote, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and V. Kalb, " Aerosol retrieval over land from AVHRR data--application for atmospheric correction," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 212- 222 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Holzer-Popp, T.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Houghton, J. T.

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, and D. Xiaosu, eds., Climate Change 2001:The Scientific Basis (Cambridge University, 2001).

Hsu, N. C.

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, O. Torres, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, B. Chatenet, and F. Lavenu, " Comparisons of the TOMS aerosol optical thickness:results and applications," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 6269- 6279 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Iaquinto, J.

R. B. Myneni, S. Maggion, J. Iaquinto, J. L. Privette, N. Gobron, B. Pinty, D. S. Kimes, M. M. Verstraete, and D. L. Williams, " Optical remote-sensing of vegetation--modeling, caveats, and algorithms," Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 169- 188 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Ignatov, A.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, A. Ignatov, M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, O. Torres, and B. Holben, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over the ocean," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 499- 513 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ignatov and L. Stowe, " Aerosol retrievals from individual AVHRR channels. Part I:Retrieval algorithm and transition from Dave to 6S radiative-transfer model," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 313- 334 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Ignatov, A. M.

L. L. Stowe, A. M. Ignatov, and R. R. Singh, " Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at the national environment satellite, data, and information service of the national oceanic and atmospheric administration," J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102, 16923- 16934 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnsrud, M.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, A. Ignatov, M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, O. Torres, and B. Holben, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over the ocean," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 499- 513 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, R. A.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, and H. R. Gordon, " Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 36, 1212- 1227 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Kalb, V.

B. N. Holben, E. Vermote, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and V. Kalb, " Aerosol retrieval over land from AVHRR data--application for atmospheric correction," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 212- 222 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, " A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system," Nature (London) 419, 215- 223 ( 2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Kaufman, A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B. C. Gao, R. R. Li, and L. Flynn, " The MODIS 2.1 μm channel--correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1286- 1298 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, E. Vermote, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and V. Kalb, " Aerosol retrieval over land from AVHRR data--application for atmospheric correction," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 212- 222 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Kiehl, J. T.

J. T. Kiehl and B. P. Briegleb, " The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing," Science 260, 311- 314 ( 1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimes, D. S.

D. S. Kimes, J. L. Privette, A. A. Abuelgasim, Y. Knyazikhin, and F. Gao, " Inversion methods for physically based models," Remote Sens. Rev. 18, 381- 439 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Myneni, S. Maggion, J. Iaquinto, J. L. Privette, N. Gobron, B. Pinty, D. S. Kimes, M. M. Verstraete, and D. L. Williams, " Optical remote-sensing of vegetation--modeling, caveats, and algorithms," Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 169- 188 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Knapp, K. R.

K. R. Knapp and L. L. Stowe, " Evaluating the potential for retrieving aerosol optical depth over land from AVHRR pathfinder atmosphere data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 279- 293 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Knyazikhin, Y.

D. S. Kimes, J. L. Privette, A. A. Abuelgasim, Y. Knyazikhin, and F. Gao, " Inversion methods for physically based models," Remote Sens. Rev. 18, 381- 439 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

Lacis, A. A.

I. V. Geogdzhayev, M. I. Mishchenko, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, and A. A. Lacis, " Global two-channel AVHRR retrievals of aerosol properties over the ocean for the period of NOAA-9 observations and preliminary retrievals using NOAA-7 and NOAA-11 data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 262- 278 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, and A. A. Lacis, " Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data:sensitivity analysis and preliminary results," Appl. Opt. 38, 7325- 7341 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Lavenu, F.

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, O. Torres, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, B. Chatenet, and F. Lavenu, " Comparisons of the TOMS aerosol optical thickness:results and applications," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 6269- 6279 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. R.

Y. J. Kaufman, A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B. C. Gao, R. R. Li, and L. Flynn, " The MODIS 2.1 μm channel--correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1286- 1298 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, and L. D. Travis, " Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites," J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 6, 73- 89 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Llewellyn-Jones, D.

D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, " AATSR:global-change and surface-temperature measurements from Envisat," ESA Bull. 105, 11- 21 ( 2001).

Loeb, N.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Los, S. O.

C. J. Tucker, D. A. Slayback, J. E. Pinzon, S. O. Los, R. B. Myneni, and M. G. Taylor, " Higher northern latitude normalized difference vegetation index and growing season trends from 1982 to 1999," Int. J. Biometeorol. 45, 184- 190 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Los, G. J. Collatz, P. J. Sellers, C. M. Malmstrom, N. H. Pollack, R. S. De-Fries, L. Bounoua, M. T. Parris, C. J. Tucker, and D. A. Dazlich, " A global 9-y biophysical land surface data set from NOAA AVHRR data," J. Hydrometeorol. 1, 183- 199 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

W. M. F. Grey, P. R. J. North, S. O. Los, and R. M. Mitchell, " Aerosol opacity and land surface reflectance from multiangle AATSR measurements:global validation and intersensor comparison," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (to be published).

Maggion, S.

R. B. Myneni, S. Maggion, J. Iaquinto, J. L. Privette, N. Gobron, B. Pinty, D. S. Kimes, M. M. Verstraete, and D. L. Williams, " Optical remote-sensing of vegetation--modeling, caveats, and algorithms," Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 169- 188 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Malmstrom, C. M.

S. O. Los, G. J. Collatz, P. J. Sellers, C. M. Malmstrom, N. H. Pollack, R. S. De-Fries, L. Bounoua, M. T. Parris, C. J. Tucker, and D. A. Dazlich, " A global 9-y biophysical land surface data set from NOAA AVHRR data," J. Hydrometeorol. 1, 183- 199 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

Martonchik, J. V.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and M. A. Bull, " Regional aerosol retrieval results MISR," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 40, 1520- 1531 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, and H. R. Gordon, " Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 36, 1212- 1227 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, and L. D. Travis, " Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites," J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 6, 73- 89 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, A. Ignatov, M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, O. Torres, and B. Holben, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over the ocean," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 499- 513 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Geogdzhayev, M. I. Mishchenko, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, and A. A. Lacis, " Global two-channel AVHRR retrievals of aerosol properties over the ocean for the period of NOAA-9 observations and preliminary retrievals using NOAA-7 and NOAA-11 data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 262- 278 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, and A. A. Lacis, " Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data:sensitivity analysis and preliminary results," Appl. Opt. 38, 7325- 7341 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, R. M.

R. M. Mitchell and D. M. O'Brien, " Correction of AVHRR shortwave channels for the effects of atmospheric scattering and absorption," Remote Sens. Environ. 46, 129- 145 ( 1993).
[CrossRef]

W. M. F. Grey, P. R. J. North, S. O. Los, and R. M. Mitchell, " Aerosol opacity and land surface reflectance from multiangle AATSR measurements:global validation and intersensor comparison," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (to be published).

Morcette, J. -J.

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, and J. -J. Morcette, " Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S:an overview," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675- 686 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Mutlow, C. T.

D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, " AATSR:global-change and surface-temperature measurements from Envisat," ESA Bull. 105, 11- 21 ( 2001).

Myhre, G.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, A. Ignatov, M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, O. Torres, and B. Holben, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over the ocean," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 499- 513 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Myneni, R. B.

C. J. Tucker, D. A. Slayback, J. E. Pinzon, S. O. Los, R. B. Myneni, and M. G. Taylor, " Higher northern latitude normalized difference vegetation index and growing season trends from 1982 to 1999," Int. J. Biometeorol. 45, 184- 190 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Myneni, S. Maggion, J. Iaquinto, J. L. Privette, N. Gobron, B. Pinty, D. S. Kimes, M. M. Verstraete, and D. L. Williams, " Optical remote-sensing of vegetation--modeling, caveats, and algorithms," Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 169- 188 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, A. Ignatov, M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, O. Torres, and B. Holben, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over the ocean," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 499- 513 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Higurashi and T. Nakajima, " Development of a two-channel aerosol retrieval algorithm on a global scale using NOAA AVHRR," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 924- 941. ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Nalli, N. R.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Noguer, M.

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, and D. Xiaosu, eds., Climate Change 2001:The Scientific Basis (Cambridge University, 2001).

North, P. R. J.

P. R. J. North, " Estimation of aerosol opacity and land surface bidirectional reflectance from ATSR-2 dual-angle imagery: operational method and validation," J. Geophys. Res. 107 (D12), doi: ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

P. R. J. North, S. A. Briggs, S. E. Plummer, and J. J. Settle, " Retrieval of land surface bidirectional reflectance and aerosol opacity from ATSR-2 multiangle imagery," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 526- 537 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

P. R. J. North, " Three-dimensional forest light interaction model using a Monte Carlo method," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 34, 946- 956 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. F. Grey, P. R. J. North, S. O. Los, and R. M. Mitchell, " Aerosol opacity and land surface reflectance from multiangle AATSR measurements:global validation and intersensor comparison," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (to be published).

O'Brien, D. M.

R. M. Mitchell and D. M. O'Brien, " Correction of AVHRR shortwave channels for the effects of atmospheric scattering and absorption," Remote Sens. Environ. 46, 129- 145 ( 1993).
[CrossRef]

Parris, M. T.

S. O. Los, G. J. Collatz, P. J. Sellers, C. M. Malmstrom, N. H. Pollack, R. S. De-Fries, L. Bounoua, M. T. Parris, C. J. Tucker, and D. A. Dazlich, " A global 9-y biophysical land surface data set from NOAA AVHRR data," J. Hydrometeorol. 1, 183- 199 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

Pinty, B.

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, and H. R. Gordon, " Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 36, 1212- 1227 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Myneni, S. Maggion, J. Iaquinto, J. L. Privette, N. Gobron, B. Pinty, D. S. Kimes, M. M. Verstraete, and D. L. Williams, " Optical remote-sensing of vegetation--modeling, caveats, and algorithms," Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 169- 188 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Pinzon, J. E.

C. J. Tucker, D. A. Slayback, J. E. Pinzon, S. O. Los, R. B. Myneni, and M. G. Taylor, " Higher northern latitude normalized difference vegetation index and growing season trends from 1982 to 1999," Int. J. Biometeorol. 45, 184- 190 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

Plummer, S. E.

P. R. J. North, S. A. Briggs, S. E. Plummer, and J. J. Settle, " Retrieval of land surface bidirectional reflectance and aerosol opacity from ATSR-2 multiangle imagery," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 526- 537 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, N. H.

S. O. Los, G. J. Collatz, P. J. Sellers, C. M. Malmstrom, N. H. Pollack, R. S. De-Fries, L. Bounoua, M. T. Parris, C. J. Tucker, and D. A. Dazlich, " A global 9-y biophysical land surface data set from NOAA AVHRR data," J. Hydrometeorol. 1, 183- 199 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

Press, W.

W. Press, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd. ed. (Cambridge University, 1992).

Privette, J. L.

D. S. Kimes, J. L. Privette, A. A. Abuelgasim, Y. Knyazikhin, and F. Gao, " Inversion methods for physically based models," Remote Sens. Rev. 18, 381- 439 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Myneni, S. Maggion, J. Iaquinto, J. L. Privette, N. Gobron, B. Pinty, D. S. Kimes, M. M. Verstraete, and D. L. Williams, " Optical remote-sensing of vegetation--modeling, caveats, and algorithms," Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 169- 188 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, H.

H. Rahman and G. Dedieu, " SMAC:a simplified method for the atmospheric correction of satellite measurements in the solar spectrum," Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 123- 143 ( 1994).
[CrossRef]

Remer, L. A.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B. C. Gao, R. R. Li, and L. Flynn, " The MODIS 2.1 μm channel--correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1286- 1298 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Rossow, W. B.

I. V. Geogdzhayev, M. I. Mishchenko, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, and A. A. Lacis, " Global two-channel AVHRR retrievals of aerosol properties over the ocean for the period of NOAA-9 observations and preliminary retrievals using NOAA-7 and NOAA-11 data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 262- 278 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, and A. A. Lacis, " Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data:sensitivity analysis and preliminary results," Appl. Opt. 38, 7325- 7341 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Saltelli, A.

A. Saltelli, K. Chan, and M. Scott, eds., Sensitivity Analysis (Wiley, 2000).

Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Scott, M.

A. Saltelli, K. Chan, and M. Scott, eds., Sensitivity Analysis (Wiley, 2000).

Sellers, P. J.

S. O. Los, G. J. Collatz, P. J. Sellers, C. M. Malmstrom, N. H. Pollack, R. S. De-Fries, L. Bounoua, M. T. Parris, C. J. Tucker, and D. A. Dazlich, " A global 9-y biophysical land surface data set from NOAA AVHRR data," J. Hydrometeorol. 1, 183- 199 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

Settle, J. J.

P. R. J. North, S. A. Briggs, S. E. Plummer, and J. J. Settle, " Retrieval of land surface bidirectional reflectance and aerosol opacity from ATSR-2 multiangle imagery," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 526- 537 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R. R.

L. L. Stowe, A. M. Ignatov, and R. R. Singh, " Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at the national environment satellite, data, and information service of the national oceanic and atmospheric administration," J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102, 16923- 16934 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Sinyuk, A.

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. Holben, " A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398- 413 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Slayback, D. A.

C. J. Tucker, D. A. Slayback, J. E. Pinzon, S. O. Los, R. B. Myneni, and M. G. Taylor, " Higher northern latitude normalized difference vegetation index and growing season trends from 1982 to 1999," Int. J. Biometeorol. 45, 184- 190 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, O. Torres, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, B. Chatenet, and F. Lavenu, " Comparisons of the TOMS aerosol optical thickness:results and applications," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 6269- 6279 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Stordal, F.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, A. Ignatov, M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, O. Torres, and B. Holben, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over the ocean," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 499- 513 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L.

A. Ignatov and L. Stowe, " Aerosol retrievals from individual AVHRR channels. Part I:Retrieval algorithm and transition from Dave to 6S radiative-transfer model," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 313- 334 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L. L.

K. R. Knapp and L. L. Stowe, " Evaluating the potential for retrieving aerosol optical depth over land from AVHRR pathfinder atmosphere data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 279- 293 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Stowe, A. M. Ignatov, and R. R. Singh, " Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at the national environment satellite, data, and information service of the national oceanic and atmospheric administration," J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102, 16923- 16934 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Tait, H.

D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, " AATSR:global-change and surface-temperature measurements from Envisat," ESA Bull. 105, 11- 21 ( 2001).

Tanre, D.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, A. Ignatov, M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, O. Torres, and B. Holben, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over the ocean," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 499- 513 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, " A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system," Nature (London) 419, 215- 223 ( 2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, O. Torres, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, B. Chatenet, and F. Lavenu, " Comparisons of the TOMS aerosol optical thickness:results and applications," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 6269- 6279 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, and J. -J. Morcette, " Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S:an overview," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675- 686 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, E. Vermote, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and V. Kalb, " Aerosol retrieval over land from AVHRR data--application for atmospheric correction," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 212- 222 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, M. G.

C. J. Tucker, D. A. Slayback, J. E. Pinzon, S. O. Los, R. B. Myneni, and M. G. Taylor, " Higher northern latitude normalized difference vegetation index and growing season trends from 1982 to 1999," Int. J. Biometeorol. 45, 184- 190 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S.

W. Press, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd. ed. (Cambridge University, 1992).

Torres, O.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, A. Ignatov, M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, O. Torres, and B. Holben, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over the ocean," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 499- 513 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. Holben, " A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398- 413 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, O. Torres, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, B. Chatenet, and F. Lavenu, " Comparisons of the TOMS aerosol optical thickness:results and applications," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 6269- 6279 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, and L. D. Travis, " Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites," J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 6, 73- 89 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, C. J.

C. J. Tucker, D. A. Slayback, J. E. Pinzon, S. O. Los, R. B. Myneni, and M. G. Taylor, " Higher northern latitude normalized difference vegetation index and growing season trends from 1982 to 1999," Int. J. Biometeorol. 45, 184- 190 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Los, G. J. Collatz, P. J. Sellers, C. M. Malmstrom, N. H. Pollack, R. S. De-Fries, L. Bounoua, M. T. Parris, C. J. Tucker, and D. A. Dazlich, " A global 9-y biophysical land surface data set from NOAA AVHRR data," J. Hydrometeorol. 1, 183- 199 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

van der Linden, P. J.

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, and D. Xiaosu, eds., Climate Change 2001:The Scientific Basis (Cambridge University, 2001).

Veefkind, J. P.

J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, and P. A. Durkee, " Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over land using two-angle view satellite radiometry during TARFOX," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3135- 3138 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, E. Vermote, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and V. Kalb, " Aerosol retrieval over land from AVHRR data--application for atmospheric correction," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 212- 222 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E. F.

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, and J. -J. Morcette, " Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S:an overview," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675- 686 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Verstraete, M. E.

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, and H. R. Gordon, " Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 36, 1212- 1227 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Verstraete, M. M.

R. B. Myneni, S. Maggion, J. Iaquinto, J. L. Privette, N. Gobron, B. Pinty, D. S. Kimes, M. M. Verstraete, and D. L. Williams, " Optical remote-sensing of vegetation--modeling, caveats, and algorithms," Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 169- 188 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W.

W. Press, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd. ed. (Cambridge University, 1992).

Wald, A. E.

Y. J. Kaufman, A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B. C. Gao, R. R. Li, and L. Flynn, " The MODIS 2.1 μm channel--correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1286- 1298 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. L.

R. B. Myneni, S. Maggion, J. Iaquinto, J. L. Privette, N. Gobron, B. Pinty, D. S. Kimes, M. M. Verstraete, and D. L. Williams, " Optical remote-sensing of vegetation--modeling, caveats, and algorithms," Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 169- 188 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Xiaosu, D.

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, and D. Xiaosu, eds., Climate Change 2001:The Scientific Basis (Cambridge University, 2001).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J. M. Haywood, B. N. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. A. Kahn, Y. J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. V. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L. A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and M. Wang, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1697- 1719 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

ESA Bull. (1)

D. Llewellyn-Jones, M. C. Edwards, C. T. Mutlow, A. R. Birks, I. J. Barton, and H. Tait, " AATSR:global-change and surface-temperature measurements from Envisat," ESA Bull. 105, 11- 21 ( 2001).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

R. J. Flowerdew and J. D. Haigh, " Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness over land using the ATSR-2 dual-look satellite radiometer," Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 351- 354 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, and P. A. Durkee, " Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over land using two-angle view satellite radiometry during TARFOX," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3135- 3138 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (6)

W. M. F. Grey, P. R. J. North, S. O. Los, and R. M. Mitchell, " Aerosol opacity and land surface reflectance from multiangle AATSR measurements:global validation and intersensor comparison," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (to be published).

P. R. J. North, S. A. Briggs, S. E. Plummer, and J. J. Settle, " Retrieval of land surface bidirectional reflectance and aerosol opacity from ATSR-2 multiangle imagery," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 526- 537 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, and J. -J. Morcette, " Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S:an overview," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675- 686 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

P. R. J. North, " Three-dimensional forest light interaction model using a Monte Carlo method," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 34, 946- 956 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B. C. Gao, R. R. Li, and L. Flynn, " The MODIS 2.1 μm channel--correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1286- 1298 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, E. Vermote, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and V. Kalb, " Aerosol retrieval over land from AVHRR data--application for atmospheric correction," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 212- 222 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing (2)

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and M. A. Bull, " Regional aerosol retrieval results MISR," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 40, 1520- 1531 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, and H. R. Gordon, " Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 36, 1212- 1227 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Biometeorol. (1)

C. J. Tucker, D. A. Slayback, J. E. Pinzon, S. O. Los, R. B. Myneni, and M. G. Taylor, " Higher northern latitude normalized difference vegetation index and growing season trends from 1982 to 1999," Int. J. Biometeorol. 45, 184- 190 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

H. Rahman and G. Dedieu, " SMAC:a simplified method for the atmospheric correction of satellite measurements in the solar spectrum," Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 123- 143 ( 1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (6)

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, A. Sinyuk, P. Ginoux, and B. Holben, " A long-term record of aerosol optical depth from TOMS observations and comparison to AERONET measurements," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 398- 413 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Geogdzhayev, M. I. Mishchenko, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, and A. A. Lacis, " Global two-channel AVHRR retrievals of aerosol properties over the ocean for the period of NOAA-9 observations and preliminary retrievals using NOAA-7 and NOAA-11 data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 262- 278 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ignatov and L. Stowe, " Aerosol retrievals from individual AVHRR channels. Part I:Retrieval algorithm and transition from Dave to 6S radiative-transfer model," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 313- 334 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Higurashi and T. Nakajima, " Development of a two-channel aerosol retrieval algorithm on a global scale using NOAA AVHRR," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 924- 941. ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Myhre, F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, A. Ignatov, M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, O. Torres, and B. Holben, " Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over the ocean," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 499- 513 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Knapp and L. L. Stowe, " Evaluating the potential for retrieving aerosol optical depth over land from AVHRR pathfinder atmosphere data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 279- 293 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

P. R. J. North, " Estimation of aerosol opacity and land surface bidirectional reflectance from ATSR-2 dual-angle imagery: operational method and validation," J. Geophys. Res. 107 (D12), doi: ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, O. Torres, B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, B. Chatenet, and F. Lavenu, " Comparisons of the TOMS aerosol optical thickness:results and applications," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 6269- 6279 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. (1)

L. L. Stowe, A. M. Ignatov, and R. R. Singh, " Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at the national environment satellite, data, and information service of the national oceanic and atmospheric administration," J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102, 16923- 16934 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Hydrometeorol. (1)

S. O. Los, G. J. Collatz, P. J. Sellers, C. M. Malmstrom, N. H. Pollack, R. S. De-Fries, L. Bounoua, M. T. Parris, C. J. Tucker, and D. A. Dazlich, " A global 9-y biophysical land surface data set from NOAA AVHRR data," J. Hydrometeorol. 1, 183- 199 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, and L. D. Travis, " Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites," J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 6, 73- 89 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, " A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system," Nature (London) 419, 215- 223 ( 2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Remote Sens. Environ. (2)

R. M. Mitchell and D. M. O'Brien, " Correction of AVHRR shortwave channels for the effects of atmospheric scattering and absorption," Remote Sens. Environ. 46, 129- 145 ( 1993).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Myneni, S. Maggion, J. Iaquinto, J. L. Privette, N. Gobron, B. Pinty, D. S. Kimes, M. M. Verstraete, and D. L. Williams, " Optical remote-sensing of vegetation--modeling, caveats, and algorithms," Remote Sens. Environ. 51, 169- 188 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Rev. (1)

D. S. Kimes, J. L. Privette, A. A. Abuelgasim, Y. Knyazikhin, and F. Gao, " Inversion methods for physically based models," Remote Sens. Rev. 18, 381- 439 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. T. Kiehl and B. P. Briegleb, " The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing," Science 260, 311- 314 ( 1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, and D. Xiaosu, eds., Climate Change 2001:The Scientific Basis (Cambridge University, 2001).

A. Saltelli, K. Chan, and M. Scott, eds., Sensitivity Analysis (Wiley, 2000).

W. Press, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd. ed. (Cambridge University, 1992).

European Space Agency, AATSR Product Handbook Issue 1.2, http://envisat.esa.int/dataproducts/ (2004).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison between the AATSR-derived estimates of AOD at 550 nm calculated with full model inversions and inversions with the largest LUT (212000 grid samples) for all sites combined. The 1:1 line is shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison between the LUT-derived estimates of the AOD at 550 nm with sunphotometer measurements for all sites combined. The error bars correspond to the reported uncertainty in AERONET measurements of AOD, which is given as 0.02. The 1:1 line is shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Map (color online) of AATSR-retrieved AOD at 550 nm of Northern Africa and Europe during the first week in October 2004. The composite is made up of eight 500 km wide AATSR strip lines that are approximately 8000 km in length.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Perturbed Values of Atmospheric Ozone and Water Vapor Concentrations and Surface Elevation Used in the Sensitivity Study

Tables Icon

Table 2 Conditional σ of the Retrieved Estimates of AOD by Using the Full Inversions for Perturbed Values of Atmospheric Ozone and Water Vapor Concentrations and Surface Elevation

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summary of Statistics of Intercomparison between the AATSR Derived Estimates of AOD at 550 nm Calculated by Using the Full Model Inversions and the LUT Inversions for All Sites Combined at Different Sampling Densities

Tables Icon

Table 4 Summary of Statistics of Intercomparisons between AATSR Estimates of AOD Derived using the Largest LUT, Sunphotometer Observations, and Estimates of AOD Retrieved from the Full Inversions at Individual Sites

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R toa ( λ , θ s , θ v , Δ ϕ ) = T G ( λ , θ s , θ v ) { R a ( λ , θ s , θ v , Δ ϕ ) + T ( λ , θ s ) T ( λ , θ v ) R surf ( λ , θ s , θ v , Δ ϕ ) / [ 1 R surf ( λ , θ s , θ v , Δ ϕ ) S ] } ,
T ( θ v ) = exp [ τ / cos ( θ v ) ] ,
T ( θ s ) = exp [ τ / cos ( θ s ) ] ,
R mod ( λ , Ω ) = [ 1 D ( λ ) ] P ( Ω ) w ( λ ) + γw ( λ ) 1 g ×  { D ( λ ) + g [ 1 D ( λ ) ] } ,
E mod = Ω = 1 2 Λ = 1 4 [ R surf ( λ , Ω ) R mod ( λ , Ω ) ] 2 ,

Metrics