Abstract

The detection of faint companions to bright stars requires the development of very-high-contrast-ratio detection techniques such as nulling interferometry. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first experimental test of a novel beam-combination method, which is based on coupling the light at the center of a dual-aperture interference pattern into a single-mode fiber. Using such a “fiber nuller” approach, a visible He–Ne laser has been stably nulled to as low as 1.3×106, thus validating the approach.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. N. Bracewell, " Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer," Nature 274, 780- 781 ( 1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Mennesson and J. M. Mariotti, " Array configurations for a space infrared nulling interferometer dedicated to the search for earthlike extrasolar planets," Icarus 128, 202- 212 ( 1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. C. Fridlund and P. Gondoin, " Darwin mission," Proc. SPIE 4852, 394- 404 ( 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. A. Beichman, N. J. Woolf, and C. A. Lindensmith, eds., " Terrestrial Planet Finder book," JPL Publ. 99-003 (JPL, 1999).
  5. A. Karlsson and B. Mennesson, " Robin Laurance nulling interferometers," Proc. SPIE 4006, 871- 880 ( 2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. J. Mieremet and J. J. M. Braat, " Nulling interferometry without achromatic phase shifters," Appl. Opt. 41, 4697- 4703 ( 2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. R. P. Angel and N. J. Woolf, " An imaging nulling interferometer to study extrasolar planets," Astrophys. J. 475, 373- 377 ( 1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, W. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, and N. J. Woolf, " Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer," Nature 395, 251- 253 ( 1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Serabyn and M. M. Colavita, " Fully symmetric nulling beam combiners," Appl. Opt. 40 , 1668- 1671 ( 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, " Nulling interferometer with geometric phase modulator," Proc. SPIE 4838, 1451- 1458 ( 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. P. Lay, M. Jeganathan, and R. Peters, " Adaptive nulling: a new enabling technology for interferometric exo-planet detection," Proc. SPIE 5170, 103- 112 ( 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. R. Martin, P. Swaykowsky, and F. Loya, " Testing exo-planet signal extraction using the Terrestrial Planet Finder planet detection testbed," Proc. SPIE 5905, 590508 ( 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. Wallner, J. M. P. Armengol, and A. L. Karlson, " Multiaxial single-mode beam combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 798- 805 ( 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. L. Karlson, O. Wallner, J. M. P. Armengol, and O. Absil, " Three telescope nuller based on multibeam injection into single-mode waveguide," Proc. SPIE 5491, 831- 841 ( 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Serabyn, " Nulling interferometry: symmetry requirements and experimental results," Proc. SPIE 4006, 328- 339 ( 2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Serabyn, J. K. Wallace, G. J. Hardy, E. G. H. Schmidtlin, and H. T. Nguyen, " Deep nulling of visible laser light," Appl. Opt. 38, 7128- 7132 ( 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. K. Wallace, G. Hardy, and E. Serabyn, " Deep and stable interferometric nulling of broadband light with implications for observing planets around nearby stars," Nature 406, 700- 702 ( 2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, " Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 842- 850 ( 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Ollivier and J. M. Mariotti, " Improvement in the rejection rate of a nulling interferometer by spatial filtering," Appl. Opt. 36, 5340- 5346 ( 1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, and C. Ruilier, " Use of single-mode waveguides to correct the optical defects of a nulling interferometer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 596- 602 ( 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. R. Martin, R. O. Gappinger, F. M. Loya, B. Mennesson, S. L. Crawford, and E. Serabyn, " A mid-infrared nuller for Terrestrial Planet Finder: design, progress and results," Proc. SPIE 5170, 144- 154 ( 2003).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. R. Martin, P. Swaykowsky, and F. Loya, " Testing exo-planet signal extraction using the Terrestrial Planet Finder planet detection testbed," Proc. SPIE 5905, 590508 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

O. Wallner, J. M. P. Armengol, and A. L. Karlson, " Multiaxial single-mode beam combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 798- 805 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Karlson, O. Wallner, J. M. P. Armengol, and O. Absil, " Three telescope nuller based on multibeam injection into single-mode waveguide," Proc. SPIE 5491, 831- 841 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, " Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 842- 850 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

S. R. Martin, R. O. Gappinger, F. M. Loya, B. Mennesson, S. L. Crawford, and E. Serabyn, " A mid-infrared nuller for Terrestrial Planet Finder: design, progress and results," Proc. SPIE 5170, 144- 154 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, " Nulling interferometer with geometric phase modulator," Proc. SPIE 4838, 1451- 1458 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Lay, M. Jeganathan, and R. Peters, " Adaptive nulling: a new enabling technology for interferometric exo-planet detection," Proc. SPIE 5170, 103- 112 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Fridlund and P. Gondoin, " Darwin mission," Proc. SPIE 4852, 394- 404 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

E. Serabyn and M. M. Colavita, " Fully symmetric nulling beam combiners," Appl. Opt. 40 , 1668- 1671 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

E. Serabyn, " Nulling interferometry: symmetry requirements and experimental results," Proc. SPIE 4006, 328- 339 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Karlsson and B. Mennesson, " Robin Laurance nulling interferometers," Proc. SPIE 4006, 871- 880 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wallace, G. Hardy, and E. Serabyn, " Deep and stable interferometric nulling of broadband light with implications for observing planets around nearby stars," Nature 406, 700- 702 ( 2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

C. A. Beichman, N. J. Woolf, and C. A. Lindensmith, eds., " Terrestrial Planet Finder book," JPL Publ. 99-003 (JPL, 1999).

E. Serabyn, J. K. Wallace, G. J. Hardy, E. G. H. Schmidtlin, and H. T. Nguyen, " Deep nulling of visible laser light," Appl. Opt. 38, 7128- 7132 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, W. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, and N. J. Woolf, " Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer," Nature 395, 251- 253 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

J. R. P. Angel and N. J. Woolf, " An imaging nulling interferometer to study extrasolar planets," Astrophys. J. 475, 373- 377 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Mennesson and J. M. Mariotti, " Array configurations for a space infrared nulling interferometer dedicated to the search for earthlike extrasolar planets," Icarus 128, 202- 212 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ollivier and J. M. Mariotti, " Improvement in the rejection rate of a nulling interferometer by spatial filtering," Appl. Opt. 36, 5340- 5346 ( 1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

R. N. Bracewell, " Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer," Nature 274, 780- 781 ( 1978).
[CrossRef]

Absil, O.

A. L. Karlson, O. Wallner, J. M. P. Armengol, and O. Absil, " Three telescope nuller based on multibeam injection into single-mode waveguide," Proc. SPIE 5491, 831- 841 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Angel, J. R. P.

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, W. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, and N. J. Woolf, " Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer," Nature 395, 251- 253 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. P. Angel and N. J. Woolf, " An imaging nulling interferometer to study extrasolar planets," Astrophys. J. 475, 373- 377 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Armengol, J. M. P.

O. Wallner, J. M. P. Armengol, and A. L. Karlson, " Multiaxial single-mode beam combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 798- 805 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Karlson, O. Wallner, J. M. P. Armengol, and O. Absil, " Three telescope nuller based on multibeam injection into single-mode waveguide," Proc. SPIE 5491, 831- 841 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Baba, N.

N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, " Nulling interferometer with geometric phase modulator," Proc. SPIE 4838, 1451- 1458 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Barillot, M.

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, " Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 842- 850 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Beichman, C. A.

C. A. Beichman, N. J. Woolf, and C. A. Lindensmith, eds., " Terrestrial Planet Finder book," JPL Publ. 99-003 (JPL, 1999).

Booth, A.

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Braat, J. J. M.

Bracewell, R. N.

R. N. Bracewell, " Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer," Nature 274, 780- 781 ( 1978).
[CrossRef]

Cheselka, M.

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, W. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, and N. J. Woolf, " Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer," Nature 395, 251- 253 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Colavita, M. M.

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn and M. M. Colavita, " Fully symmetric nulling beam combiners," Appl. Opt. 40 , 1668- 1671 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, S. L.

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Martin, R. O. Gappinger, F. M. Loya, B. Mennesson, S. L. Crawford, and E. Serabyn, " A mid-infrared nuller for Terrestrial Planet Finder: design, progress and results," Proc. SPIE 5170, 144- 154 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Creech-Eakman, M.

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Fridlund, M. C.

M. C. Fridlund and P. Gondoin, " Darwin mission," Proc. SPIE 4852, 394- 404 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Gappinger, R. O.

S. R. Martin, R. O. Gappinger, F. M. Loya, B. Mennesson, S. L. Crawford, and E. Serabyn, " A mid-infrared nuller for Terrestrial Planet Finder: design, progress and results," Proc. SPIE 5170, 144- 154 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, J.

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Gondoin, P.

M. C. Fridlund and P. Gondoin, " Darwin mission," Proc. SPIE 4852, 394- 404 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Haguenauer, P.

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, " Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 842- 850 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, G.

J. K. Wallace, G. Hardy, and E. Serabyn, " Deep and stable interferometric nulling of broadband light with implications for observing planets around nearby stars," Nature 406, 700- 702 ( 2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardy, G. J.

Hinz, P. M.

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, W. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, and N. J. Woolf, " Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer," Nature 395, 251- 253 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, W. F.

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, W. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, and N. J. Woolf, " Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer," Nature 395, 251- 253 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Hora, J. L.

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, W. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, and N. J. Woolf, " Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer," Nature 395, 251- 253 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Hoviand, E.

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishigaki, T.

N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, " Nulling interferometer with geometric phase modulator," Proc. SPIE 4838, 1451- 1458 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeganathan, M.

O. P. Lay, M. Jeganathan, and R. Peters, " Adaptive nulling: a new enabling technology for interferometric exo-planet detection," Proc. SPIE 5170, 103- 112 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R.

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Karlson, A. L.

O. Wallner, J. M. P. Armengol, and A. L. Karlson, " Multiaxial single-mode beam combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 798- 805 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Karlson, O. Wallner, J. M. P. Armengol, and O. Absil, " Three telescope nuller based on multibeam injection into single-mode waveguide," Proc. SPIE 5491, 831- 841 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, A.

A. Karlsson and B. Mennesson, " Robin Laurance nulling interferometers," Proc. SPIE 4006, 871- 880 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

Kern, P.

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, " Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 842- 850 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Koresko, C.

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Labeye, P.

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, " Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 842- 850 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Lay, O. P.

O. P. Lay, M. Jeganathan, and R. Peters, " Adaptive nulling: a new enabling technology for interferometric exo-planet detection," Proc. SPIE 5170, 103- 112 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Ligon, R.

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Lindensmith, C. A.

C. A. Beichman, N. J. Woolf, and C. A. Lindensmith, eds., " Terrestrial Planet Finder book," JPL Publ. 99-003 (JPL, 1999).

Loya, F.

S. R. Martin, P. Swaykowsky, and F. Loya, " Testing exo-planet signal extraction using the Terrestrial Planet Finder planet detection testbed," Proc. SPIE 5905, 590508 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Loya, F. M.

S. R. Martin, R. O. Gappinger, F. M. Loya, B. Mennesson, S. L. Crawford, and E. Serabyn, " A mid-infrared nuller for Terrestrial Planet Finder: design, progress and results," Proc. SPIE 5170, 144- 154 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Mariotti, J. M.

M. Ollivier and J. M. Mariotti, " Improvement in the rejection rate of a nulling interferometer by spatial filtering," Appl. Opt. 36, 5340- 5346 ( 1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Mennesson and J. M. Mariotti, " Array configurations for a space infrared nulling interferometer dedicated to the search for earthlike extrasolar planets," Icarus 128, 202- 212 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S. R.

S. R. Martin, P. Swaykowsky, and F. Loya, " Testing exo-planet signal extraction using the Terrestrial Planet Finder planet detection testbed," Proc. SPIE 5905, 590508 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Martin, R. O. Gappinger, F. M. Loya, B. Mennesson, S. L. Crawford, and E. Serabyn, " A mid-infrared nuller for Terrestrial Planet Finder: design, progress and results," Proc. SPIE 5170, 144- 154 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, D. W.

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, W. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, and N. J. Woolf, " Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer," Nature 395, 251- 253 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

McGuire, P. C.

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, W. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, and N. J. Woolf, " Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer," Nature 395, 251- 253 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Mennesson, B.

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Martin, R. O. Gappinger, F. M. Loya, B. Mennesson, S. L. Crawford, and E. Serabyn, " A mid-infrared nuller for Terrestrial Planet Finder: design, progress and results," Proc. SPIE 5170, 144- 154 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, and C. Ruilier, " Use of single-mode waveguides to correct the optical defects of a nulling interferometer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 596- 602 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Karlsson and B. Mennesson, " Robin Laurance nulling interferometers," Proc. SPIE 4006, 871- 880 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Mennesson and J. M. Mariotti, " Array configurations for a space infrared nulling interferometer dedicated to the search for earthlike extrasolar planets," Icarus 128, 202- 212 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Mieremet, A. J.

Moore,

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, N.

N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, " Nulling interferometer with geometric phase modulator," Proc. SPIE 4838, 1451- 1458 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. T.

Ollivier, M.

Paine, C.

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Palmer,

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Peters, R.

O. P. Lay, M. Jeganathan, and R. Peters, " Adaptive nulling: a new enabling technology for interferometric exo-planet detection," Proc. SPIE 5170, 103- 112 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Pujol, L.

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, " Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 842- 850 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Ruilier, C.

Schanen-Duport, I.

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, " Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 842- 850 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtlin, E. G. H.

Serabyn, E.

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Martin, R. O. Gappinger, F. M. Loya, B. Mennesson, S. L. Crawford, and E. Serabyn, " A mid-infrared nuller for Terrestrial Planet Finder: design, progress and results," Proc. SPIE 5170, 144- 154 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn and M. M. Colavita, " Fully symmetric nulling beam combiners," Appl. Opt. 40 , 1668- 1671 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, " Nulling interferometry: symmetry requirements and experimental results," Proc. SPIE 4006, 328- 339 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wallace, G. Hardy, and E. Serabyn, " Deep and stable interferometric nulling of broadband light with implications for observing planets around nearby stars," Nature 406, 700- 702 ( 2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Serabyn, J. K. Wallace, G. J. Hardy, E. G. H. Schmidtlin, and H. T. Nguyen, " Deep nulling of visible laser light," Appl. Opt. 38, 7128- 7132 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Shao, M.

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Smythe, R.

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Sodnik, Z.

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, " Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 842- 850 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Swain, M.

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Swaykowsky, P.

S. R. Martin, P. Swaykowsky, and F. Loya, " Testing exo-planet signal extraction using the Terrestrial Planet Finder planet detection testbed," Proc. SPIE 5905, 590508 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, J. K.

J. K. Wallace, G. Hardy, and E. Serabyn, " Deep and stable interferometric nulling of broadband light with implications for observing planets around nearby stars," Nature 406, 700- 702 ( 2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Serabyn, J. K. Wallace, G. J. Hardy, E. G. H. Schmidtlin, and H. T. Nguyen, " Deep nulling of visible laser light," Appl. Opt. 38, 7128- 7132 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Wallner, O.

O. Wallner, J. M. P. Armengol, and A. L. Karlson, " Multiaxial single-mode beam combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 798- 805 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Karlson, O. Wallner, J. M. P. Armengol, and O. Absil, " Three telescope nuller based on multibeam injection into single-mode waveguide," Proc. SPIE 5491, 831- 841 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Weber, V.

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, " Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 842- 850 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Woolf, N. J.

C. A. Beichman, N. J. Woolf, and C. A. Lindensmith, eds., " Terrestrial Planet Finder book," JPL Publ. 99-003 (JPL, 1999).

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, W. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, and N. J. Woolf, " Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer," Nature 395, 251- 253 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. P. Angel and N. J. Woolf, " An imaging nulling interferometer to study extrasolar planets," Astrophys. J. 475, 373- 377 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Opt. 40 (1)

E. Serabyn and M. M. Colavita, " Fully symmetric nulling beam combiners," Appl. Opt. 40 , 1668- 1671 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (1)

J. R. P. Angel and N. J. Woolf, " An imaging nulling interferometer to study extrasolar planets," Astrophys. J. 475, 373- 377 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (1)

B. Mennesson and J. M. Mariotti, " Array configurations for a space infrared nulling interferometer dedicated to the search for earthlike extrasolar planets," Icarus 128, 202- 212 ( 1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

JPL Publ. (1)

C. A. Beichman, N. J. Woolf, and C. A. Lindensmith, eds., " Terrestrial Planet Finder book," JPL Publ. 99-003 (JPL, 1999).

Nature (3)

P. M. Hinz, J. R. P. Angel, W. F. Hoffmann, D. W. McCarthy, P. C. McGuire, M. Cheselka, J. L. Hora, and N. J. Woolf, " Imaging circumstellar environments with a nulling interferometer," Nature 395, 251- 253 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wallace, G. Hardy, and E. Serabyn, " Deep and stable interferometric nulling of broadband light with implications for observing planets around nearby stars," Nature 406, 700- 702 ( 2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Bracewell, " Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer," Nature 274, 780- 781 ( 1978).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (8)

S. R. Martin, R. O. Gappinger, F. M. Loya, B. Mennesson, S. L. Crawford, and E. Serabyn, " A mid-infrared nuller for Terrestrial Planet Finder: design, progress and results," Proc. SPIE 5170, 144- 154 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, " Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 842- 850 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

A. Karlsson and B. Mennesson, " Robin Laurance nulling interferometers," Proc. SPIE 4006, 871- 880 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (8)

M. C. Fridlund and P. Gondoin, " Darwin mission," Proc. SPIE 4852, 394- 404 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Baba, N. Murakami, and T. Ishigaki, " Nulling interferometer with geometric phase modulator," Proc. SPIE 4838, 1451- 1458 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Lay, M. Jeganathan, and R. Peters, " Adaptive nulling: a new enabling technology for interferometric exo-planet detection," Proc. SPIE 5170, 103- 112 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, A. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. Johnson, E. Hoviand, C. Koresko, R. Ligon, S. R. Martin, B. Mennesson, Moore, Palmer, C. Paine, M. Shao, M. Swain, R. Smythe, and Vasisht, " The Keck interferometer nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance," Proc. SPIE 5491, 806- 815 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Martin, P. Swaykowsky, and F. Loya, " Testing exo-planet signal extraction using the Terrestrial Planet Finder planet detection testbed," Proc. SPIE 5905, 590508 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

O. Wallner, J. M. P. Armengol, and A. L. Karlson, " Multiaxial single-mode beam combiner," Proc. SPIE 5491, 798- 805 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Karlson, O. Wallner, J. M. P. Armengol, and O. Absil, " Three telescope nuller based on multibeam injection into single-mode waveguide," Proc. SPIE 5491, 831- 841 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (8)

E. Serabyn, " Nulling interferometry: symmetry requirements and experimental results," Proc. SPIE 4006, 328- 339 ( 2000).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of single-mode-fiber beam combination. The two beams are combined by the same focusing element on the core of a single-mode fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic view of the fiber nuller experiment. The light from a single-mode fiber is collimated, split into two beams, phase shifted, and refocused into a second fiber (the letters refer to the same elements as in Fig. 3).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fiber nuller laboratory testbed. A single-mode fiber (A) at the focus of the input lens (B) simulates a star. A split mirror (C) is used to rephase the two round subapertures selected by an aperture mask (D) and to correct for tip-tilt errors. An output lens (E) focuses the light onto the output fiber (F). A polarization control element (G) can be used to linearly polarize the input light in any arbitrary direction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured null depth versus time in our fiber nuller on 24 March 2005. No active OPD control was used to stabilize the null. The phase shift was set manually to π radians, retweaked a few times to overcome drifts, and then reset to 0 radians at the end of the record to measure the constructive flux.

Metrics